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1.

PIPING CODES & STANDARDS


The following codes and standards shall be used together with this standard specification for
materials, design and dimensional requirements.
American National Standard Institute (ANSI)
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
ASME B 31.1
Power piping
ASME B 31.3
Process Piping for Petroleum refineries, Chemical,
Pharmaceutical, Textile, Paper, Semiconductor & Cryogenic plant
ASME B 31.4
Piping generally used for transporting & distributing liquid
Hydrocarbons & other liquids
ASME B 31.5
Refrigeration piping
ASME B 31.8
Piping generally used for transporting & distributing Gases.
ASME B 31.9
Building services
ASME B 31.11
Slurry transportation piping system
ASME B 16.5
Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings NPS Trough NPS 24
ASME B 16.9
Factory-Made Wrought Steel Buttwelding Fittings
ASME B 16.10
Face-to-Face and End-to-End Dimensions of Valves
ASME B 16.11
Forged Fittings, Socket- Welding and Threaded
ANSI B 16.14
Ferrous Pipe Plugs, Bushing and Locknuts with Pipe Threads
ASME B 16.20
Metallic Gaskets for Pipe Flanges- Ring-Joint, Spiral-Wound, and
Jacketed
ASME B 16.21
Nonmetallic Flat Gaskets for Pipe Flanges
ASME B 16.25
Buttwelding Ends
ASME B 16.28
Wrought Steel Buttwelding Short Radius Elbows
ASME B 16.34
Valves - Flanged, Threaded, and Welding End
ASME B 16.36
Orifice Flanges
ASME B 16.47a
Large Diameter Steel Flanges NPS 26 Through NPS 60
ANSI B 18.2.1
Square and Hex Bolts and Screws (Inch Series)
ANSI B 18.2.2
Square and Hex nuts (Inch Series)
ASME B 36.10M
Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe
ASME B 36.19M
Stainless Steel Pipe
American Petroleum Institute (API)
API SPEC 5L
Specification for Line Pipe
API STD 594
Check Valves: Wafer, Wafer-Lug, and Double Flanged Type
API STD 598
Valve Inspection and Testing
API STD 600
Steel Gate Valves- Flanged and Butt-welding Ends,
Bolted and Pressure Seal Bonnets
API STD 602
Compact Steel Gate Valves- Flanged, Threaded, Welding, and
Extended- Body Ends
API STD 609
Butterfly Valves: Double Flanged, Lug-and wafer Type
Manufacturers standardizations society-standard practice
MSS SP-6

Standard Finishes for Contact Faces of Pipe Flanges and


Connecting-End Flanges of Valves and Fittings
MSS SP-25
Standard Marking Systems for Valves, Fittings, Flanges & Union
MSS SP-45
Bypass and Drain Connections
MSS SP-61
Pressure Testing of Steel Valves
MSS SP-67
Butterfly Valves
MSS SP-75
Specification for High Test Wrought Butt Welding Fittings
MSS SP-82
Valve Pressure Testing Methods
MSS SP-95
Swadged Nipples and Bull Plugs
MSS SP-97
Integrally Reinforced Forged Branch Outlet FittingsSocket welding, Threaded and Buttwelding Ends
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
ASTM Section II A Volume 1 & 2
Training Coordinator: D.H.Saraiya

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ASTM Section V
ASTM Section VIII Division 1 & 2
British Standards (BS)
BS 5351
Steel ball valves for petroleum, petrochemical & allied industries
BS 5352
Specifications for steel wedge gate, globe & check valves 50 mm
& smaller for petroleum, petrochemical & allied industries
BS 5353
Steel plug valves
BS 1873
Steel globe & globe stop & check valves (Flanged & butt-welded
ends) for petroleum, petrochemical & allied industries
BS 6755 (Part 1&2) Testing of Valves

2. INTRODUCTION TO PIPING COMPONENTS


2.1. PIPES
Piping in a particular plant can be compared with arteries & veins in our body. There are mainly two
types of pipes from manufacturing point of view. The first is Seamless pipes & second is Welded
pipes.
Various attributes of pipe are described below.
A) End Preparation:
There are three types of end preparation of pipes.
(a) Plain End (PE)
(b) Butt weld or Beveled End (BW/BE)
(c) Threaded End
B) Design & Dimension Standard:
This will provide the following information.
Nominal Bore (NB), Thickness, Outside Diameter (OD), Tolerance & Weight.
The Dimension Standard for pipe is as follows.
ANSI/ASME B 36.10
For Carbon Steel (CS), Low Temperature Carbon Steel
(LTCS), Low Alloy Steel (LAS) Pipes
ANSI/ASME B 36.19
For Stainless Steel (SS) Pipes
C) Material
I.
CS: It is used for temperature range from () 290C to 4270C.
Most commonly used CS materials are as follows:
ASTM A 106 Gr. B
(Seamless pipes)
API 5L Gr. B
(Seamless & Welded)
ASTM A 53 Gr. B
(Seamless & Welded)
IS 1239
(Upto 6 & ERW)
IS 3589
(Above 6)
II.
LTCS: It is used for low temperature i.e. from () 460C to 3430C.
The most commonly used LTCS materials are as follows:
ASTM A 333 Gr. 6
(Seamless pipes)
ASME A 671
(Welded pipes)
III.
LAS: It is used for high temperature i.e. (-) 290C to 538C
The most commonly used LAS materials are as follows:
ASTM A 335 Gr. P11, P12, P9 (Seamless pipes)
ASTM A 691 Gr.C60, C65, C70 (Welded pipes)
IV.
SS:
It is used for cryogenic temperature range i.e. from (-) 1960C to 5380C.
Most commonly used SS materials are as follows:
ASTM A 312 TP 304 / ASTM A 312 TP 304L
ASTM A 312 TP 316 / ASTM A 312 TP 316L
ASTM A 312 TP 321
(Various shortforms:
IS
Indian Standard
ERW
Electric Resistance Welding
LS
Linde Standard)
2.2 FLANGES
Flanges are used to make a joint that is required to be dismantled.
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Various attributes of Flanges are described below:


A) Type: There are five types of Flanges.
I.
Weld Neck Flange
It has Butt Weld End Connection.
Radiography Test (RT) is possible.
II.
Socket Weld Flange
Here Fillet welding is done from outside only.
Die Penetration Test (DP) is possible.
III.
Slip On Flange
Here Fillet welding is done from inside as well as from outside.
DP Test is possible.
IV.
Threaded Flange
It is mainly used in Galvanized pipes.
V.
Blind Flange
It is used for ending a line.
B) Facing: There are four types of facing.
I.
Raised Face
It is specified up to 600 (psi) rating pipe class.
II.
Ring Joint
It is specified from 900 rating (psi) & above pipe class.
III.
Flat Face
It is only used for 150 (psi) rating pipe class.
It is specified for utility fluids like Cooling Water and Low Pressure Nitrogen.
IV.
Tongue & Groove
Its use is mainly dependent upon the nature of fluid to be handled.
It is specified to handle extremely hazardous fluids like Liquid Ammonia.
C) Design and Dimension Standard: The dimensional standards generally used are
I.
II.

ANSI/ASME B16.5 for size upto 24


ANSI/ASME B16.47 series A & B for size above 24. Series B specifies compact
design & is used when space and cost are the main constraints.
D) Material: Flanges are manufactured from following forged materials.
I.

Carbon Steel ASTM A 105 (used most of the times)


ASTM A 181 (it is obsolete now)
II.
Low Temperature Carbon SteelASTM A 350 Gr. LF 2
III.
Low Alloy Steel ASTM A 182 Gr. F 11 (generally used)
ASTM A 182 Gr. F 1/F22/F9
IV.
Stainless Steel ASTM A 182 Gr. F 304
ASTM A 182 Gr. F 304 L
ASTM A 182 Gr. F 316
ASTM A 182 Gr. F 316 L
ASTM A 182 Gr. F 321
ASTM Sec. II A defines ferrous material. It gives detail properties of Ferrous Material
- Chemical Analysis
- Physical Properties (tensile strength,
Yield strength, hardness, etc.)
E) Pressure Class (Rating)
Rating is maximum allowable non-shock working gauge pressure. There are 150, 300, 600,
900, 1500, 2500 ratings. To select a pressure class the following two steps are followed.
I.
Decide the group of material from Table 1A of ASME 16.5
II.
Refer Table 2 of ASME 16.5 for design condition.
Spectacle Blind or Figure 8 Blind
It is not exactly a flange but it is kept between two flanges and is used for the temporary
isolation of a line.
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Design & Dimension Standard----LS 423-06


Material----Same as Flange
Facing----Same as Flange
Generally it is used up to 10 & above 10 it is used in two separate pieces. One is known as
Slip Plate (Blind Part) & second is known as Slip Ring (Hollow Part).
2.3. PIPE FITTINGS
Pipe fittings are of different types.
2.3.1 Elbows: Used for change in direction of pipe routing.
(a) They are of 2 types
45 Elbow which can be
Short Radius Elbow, R = 1D
Long Radius Elbow, R = 1.5D
90 Elbow which can be
Short Radius Elbow, R = 1D
Long Radius Elbow, R = 1.5D
(b) According to End connection elbows can be classified as
Socket Weld : for size upto 1
Butt Weld
: for size greater than 1 ( > 2 in Linde)
Threaded
: for size upto 1 in G.I. Pipes
(c) Dimensional Standard
For Socket Weld & Threaded Elbows: ANSI/ASME B16.11
For Bevelled end Elbows : ANSI/ASME B 16.9
Thickness for Beveled end fittings = Thickness of pipe
Thickness for 3000# Socket weld elbows = Schedule 80 of respective pipe size.
Thickness for 6000# Socket weld elbows = Schedule 160 of respective pipe size.
Thickness for 9000# Socket weld elbows = Schedule XXS of respective pipe size.
(d) Pressure class for Socket Weld & Threaded Pipe Fitting
It is as follows:
2000 psi or 2000 rating - used only for threaded pipe fittings
3000 psi
- used only for Socket Weld Pipe fitting & threaded pipe fittings
6000psi
- used only for Socket Weld Pipe fitting & threaded pipe fittings
9000psi
- used only for Socket Weld Pipe fitting & threaded pipe fittings
(e) Material
Socket Weld and Threaded pipefitting are manufactured from following forged materials
(1) Carbon Steel ASTM A 105
(2) Low Temperature Carbon Steel- ASTM A 350 Gr. LF2
(3) Low Alloy Steel ASTM A 182 Gr. F11(generally used), F1, F6, F9
(4) Stainless Steel ASTM A 182 Gr. F 304, F304L, F316, F316L, F321
Butt Weld pipe fittings are manufactured from pipes
(1) Carbon Steel ASTM A 234 Gr. WPB
(2) Low Temperature Carbon Steel ASTM A 420 Gr. WPL6
(3) Low Alloy Steel ASTM A 234 Gr. WP11/WP22/WP9
(4) Stainless Steel ASTM A 403 WP/304, 304L, 316, 316L, 321
2.3.2 Tee: Used for taking a branch.
(a) Tee can be
Equal/Straight tee All 3 sizes are equal
Unequal/Reduced tee Branch size is always smaller
Points (b), (c), (d) and (e) are same as elbows
2.3.3 Half Coupling: Used to take a branch upto 1 size.
End connections are Socket Weld & Threaded
Used in Pipe class upto 300 rating
Points (c), (d), (e) same as elbow
2.3.4 Reducer/Expander: Used when change in pipe size is there.
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Type

Concentric Reducer Butt Weld


Eccentric Reducer Butt Weld
In case of Eccentric Reducer one side is tapered while the other side is straight. Here the
difference in elevation of the axis exists leading to eccentricity. Its construction is like a
trapezoid.
In case of Concentric Reducer both sides are tapered and the axis is also the same. Its
construction is like a cone.

Eccentricity
Eccentric Reducer

Concentric Reducer

Thumb Rule for Reduction:


Higher Size

Next Lower Size

For E.g. if the Header Side is 6 then 6/2 = 3 and hence the next lower size possible is 2.
Hence it can be seen that reduction from 6 to 2 is possible. Further reduction beyond 2
is not possible. Reducers can be manufactured in small size.
Dimension Standard: ANSI/ASME B16.9
Thickness is same as the pipe thickness.
Material: Same as BW Elbows
2.3.5 Full Coupling: Used for Pipe to Pipe joint of small bore (upto1)
End connections are Socket Weld & Threaded
Dimensional Standard, Material and Pressure class same as Half coupling
2.3.6 Weldolet:
Used to take Butt Weld branch for which Reducing tee is not possible
Used in high pressure, high temperature pipe class from 900 rating
Dimension Standard:
MSS SP 97
Header and Branch size with thickness is to be specified
Material:
Forged same as elbow / half coupling
2.3.7 Sockolets:
Same as Weldolet except there is a Socket weld end at Branch side.
2.3.8 Caps: Used at the end of the line for the termination of the line.
End Connection: The end connections are
Socket weld }
Up to 1
Threaded end }
Butt weld
Above 2
Dimension Standard:
ANSI/ASME B 16.11
For SW & Threaded End
ANSI/ASME B 16.9
For BW/BE
Thickness for BW caps
same as thickness of pipe.
Material:
Same as Elbow
2.4. VALVES
Valves are used for main three purposes listed below.
For Isolation of flow.
For Regulation of flow.
For avoiding the reversal of the flow.
The valves used for isolation cannot be used for regulation but other way round is possible.
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Various types of valves.


(1) Gate valve
(2) Ball valve
(3) Plug valve
(4) Butterfly valve
(5) Globe valve
(6) Needle valve
(7) Check valve
(8) Control valve (Handled by Instrumentation Department)
(9) Pressure relief valve or Safety valve (Handled by Instrumentation Department)
First five valves are used for isolating the flow, 5th & 6th valves are used for regulating the flow and
7th valve is used for avoiding the reversal of the flow.
2.4.1 GATE VALVE
It is the most commonly & very widely used valve in industrial piping for isolation of the flow. It is
manually operated and it is not recommended for regulation of the flow. Installation of this valve is
possible from both the ends. Hence it is bi-directional valve.
A) End Preparation:
(a) Cast Steel valves have Flanged or Butt weld end preparation.
(b) Forged Steel valves have Socket weld or Threaded end preparation.
B) Design & Dimension Standard:
The dimension Standard for gate valve is as follows.
API 600
For Cast Steel valves (Flanged/BW valves)
API 602
Forged Steel valves (SW/Threaded valves)
ANSI B 16.34
For Pressure & Temperature limitation & Rating
ANSI B 16.10
For face to face dimension of Flanged & BW end
API 598
For Testing of valve
C) Main parts: Gate valve has following main parts.
Body
Bonnet
Internals/Trim/Wetted parts: Parts that come in direct contact with the fluid. Gate valve has
following Internals/Trim/Wetted parts.
Wedge / Seat Ring / Stem / Gland Bush
D) Pressure Class:
There are 150,300,600,900,1500,2500 ratings for Flanged & BW valve.
There is 800 rating for SW or Threaded valve.
Cast Steel
E) Material:
Forged Steel
CS
LTCS
LAS

ASTM A 105
ASTM A 216 Gr WCB
ASTM A 350 Gr LF2
ASTM A 352 Gr LCB
ASTM A 182 Gr F11
ASTM A 217 Gr WC6
ASTM A 182 Gr F22
ASTM A 217 Gr WC9
ASTM A 182 Gr F9
SS
ASTM A 182 Gr F304
ASTM A 351 Gr CF8
ASTM A 182 Gr F304L
ASTM A 351 Gr CF8M
ASTM A 182 Gr F316
ASTM A 351 Gr CF3M
ASTM A 182 Gr F316L
ASTM A 351 Gr CF3C
ASTM A 182 Gr F321
2.4.2 GLOBE VALVE
The fluid while passing through this valve changes its flow direction and hence this valve causes
increased resistance to flow which result into considerable pressure drop. So this valve is not suitable
where pressure drop is critical. This valve is mainly used for regulation of the flow.
Inlet and outlet of this valve are fixed. Hence installation of this valve is unidirectional. Flow
direction is marked on the valve body.
A) End Preparation:
Same as Gate valve.
B) Design & Dimension Standard:
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BS 5352
For SW/Threaded valves
BS 1873
For Flanged/BW valves
ANSI/ASTM B 16.34
For Pressure & Temperature limitation and Rating
ANSI/ASTM B 16.10
For face to face dimension of Flanged/BW end valves
API 598
For Testing of valve
C) Main parts:
Globe valve has following main parts.
Body
Bonnet
Internals/Trim/Wetted parts: Globe valve has following Wetted parts.
Disc
Seat Ring
Stem
Gland Bush
D) Pressure Class:
Same as Gate valve.
E) Material:
Same as Gate valve.
2.4.3 CHECK VALVE
It is sometimes referred to as Non Return Valve.
It is self-operated valve and allows the flow to pass in one direction and will not allow reverse flow.
Installation of this valve is unidirectional.
Flow direction is marked on the body.
A) Type and End Connection:
1) Lift Check Valve (up to 1 ) : Socket Weld / Threaded / Butt Weld
2) Swing Check Valve ( >= 2) : Flanged / Butt Weld
3) Wafer type Check Valve: Wafer type / Wafer lug type. It is to be kept between two
flanges.
B) Design & Dimension Standard:
BS 5352
For Lift Check Valve
BS 1868
For Swing Check Valve
API 594
For Wafer Check Valve
ANSI/ASTM B 16.34
For Pressure & Temperature limitation and Rating
ANSI/ASME B 16.10
For Face to Face dimension
API 598
For Testing of valve
C) Main Parts:
Swing Check Valve:
Wafer Check Valve:
Lift Check Valve:
Body
Body
Body
Cover
Cover
Plates
Spring
Disc
Spring
Internals
Disc
Seat
Hinge
pin
Internals
Internals
Seat
Hinge Pin
Disc Carrier
D) Pressure Class:
Same as Gate Valve
E) Material:
Lift Check Valve (up to 1.5 & SW / Threaded / BW): Same as forged Gate Valve
Swing Check Valve (>= 2& Flanged / BW): Same as cast steel Gate Valve
Wafer type Check Valve (Wafer type / Wafer lug type): Same as cast steel Gate Valve.
2.4.4 BALL VALVE
This valve is used for isolation & for quick on / off. It is mainly used in utility line i.e. cooling water,
instrument air etc. and in hazardous and combustible fluid. Rotating the lever by 900 opens or closes
this valves fully. Hence this valve is called quarter turn valve. Fire safe design as per API 607 is
available for this valve. Installation of this valve is possible from both the ends. Hence it is bidirectional valve.
3-way and 4-way construction is possible in ball valve by providing T or L port in the ball.
A) End Connection:
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Socket Weld & Threaded End up to 1.5, 3-piece design


Flanged / Butt Weld- 2 piece design
B) Design & Dimension Standard:
BS 5351
For Ball Valves
ANSI/ASME B 16.10
For Face to Face dimension
ANSI/ASTM B 16.34
For Pressure & Temperature limitation and Rating
API 598
For Testing of Valves
C) Main Parts:
Ball valve has following main parts.
Body
Ball valve has following internals.
Ball
Seat
Stem
D) Pressure Class: Same as Gate Valve
E) Material:
Same as Gate Valve
Here Seat material is PTFE (Poly Tetra Fluoro Ethylene)
Fire safe valves are available as per API 607 & has following seats
Primary Soft Seat of PTFE
Secondary Metal to Metal Seat
2.4.5 BUTTERFLY VALVE
It is mostly used for isolation and in specific case used for regulation.
Regulation is not as precise as Globe Valve
A) End Connection:
Same as Wafer check valve
Wafer type / Wafer lug type / Flange end/Butt end
B) Design & Dimension Standard:
API 609
For Butterfly valve
ANSI/ASME B 16.10
For Face to Face dimension
ANSI/ASTM B 16.34
For Pressure & Temperature limitation and Rating
API 598
For Testing of valve
C) Main parts:
Butterfly valve has following main parts.
Body
Butterfly valve has following internals.
Disc / Shaft / Seat
D) Pressure Class:
Same as Gate Valve of cast steel type
E) Material:
Same as cast steel Gate Valve
Seat Material: EPDM, Nitrile - These are one kind of Rubber, soft material
EPDM- Ethylene Propylene Di Monomer
2.4.6 PLUG VALVE
This valve is used for regulation, isolation and quick on / off in combustible or Hazardous fluid. 3way and 4-way construction is possible in plug valve by providing T or L port in the plug.
A) End Connection:
Socket Weld/Threaded
Flanged/Butt Weld
B) Design & Dimension Standard:
BS 5353
For Plug valve
ANSI/ASME B 16.10
For Face to Face dimension
ANSI/ASTM B 16.34
For Pressure & Temperature limitation and Rating
API 598
For Testing of valves
C) Main Parts:
Plug valve has following main parts.
Body
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Cover
Plug valve has following internals.
Stem
Plug
Sealant
D) Pressure Class: Same as Gate Valve
E) Material:
Same as Gate Valve
2.4.7 CONTROL VALVE ( handled by Instrumentation Department )
These valves are self operated type. They have actuators. Actuators operate on the signal received
from an instrument. They are used for very fine throttling and to have desired process parameters
(pressure, temperature, flow) of fluid.
Control Valves can be of the following types based on parameters to be controlled:
Pressure control valve-Receives signal from Pressure Indicator / Pressure Transmitter.
Temperature control valve-Receives signal from Temperature Indicator/Temperature Transmitter
Flow control valve-Receives signal from Flow Indicator/Flow Transmitter
There are two types of signal:
Pneumatic Valve has pneumatic actuator.(tubing is used)
Electric Valve has electrical (solenoid) actuator. (cables are used)
Based on construction, control valve has following types:
Butterfly Valve
Globe Valve
Ball Valve
A) End Connection:
Flanged End or BW. Flange end is always preferred
because of regular servicing & maintenance.
B) Material :
Same as other cast steel valves.
C) Design & Dimension Standard:
Same as other valves.
D) Pressure Class:
Same as other valves.
2.4.8 SAFETY VALVE
This valve is also known as Pressure relief valve. It is used for safe operation of plant. This valve
releases excess pressure when it exceeds set pressure. Pressure is set by spring.
Inlet of this valve is one size lower or equal to the inlet pipe size. Outlet is at least one or more size
higher to outlet pipe size.
A) Material & Pressure Class:
Same as Gate Valve
Outlet Pressure class <= Inlet Pressure class
B) Main Parts:
Pressure safety valve has following main parts.
Body / Bonnet
Safety valve internals: Spring / Disc / Stem
C) Design & Dimension Standard: API 526: For Pressure & Temperature limitation and Rating and
for Center to Face Dimension.
2.5
FASTENERS
It consists of Bolts, Full threaded Stud Bolts and Nuts.
Bolts have Hexagonal or Round head while Studs are without heads.
One stud with two nuts forms a set of fastener.
Fasteners are used for flange joints in piping to retain flanges and gaskets.
Threading is done on the studs and bolts by two methods.
1. Cut threads using cutting tool on Lathe.
2. Thread Rolling using rollers on thread rolling machine.
A) Design & Dimension Standard:
ANSI/ASME B 16.5
For Studs (Length & Diameter)
ANSI/ASME B 18.2.1
For thread types with details of Studs & Bolts
ANSI/ASME B 18.2.2
For Nuts
B) Material:
(1) CS
ASTM A 193 Gr B7
For Stud
ASTM A 194 Gr 24
For Nut
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(2) LTCS
(3) LAS
(4) SS
2.6

ASTM A 320 Gr L7
ASTM A 194 Gr 4
ASTM A 193 Gr B16
ASTM A 194 Gr 4
ASTM A 193 Gr B8
ASTM A 194 Gr 8

For Stud
For Nut
For Stud
For Nut
For Stud
For Nut

GASKETS
Gaskets are used to avoid Static leakage and metal to metal contact.
There are two types of gaskets from material point of view.
1. Metallic Gasket:
Metal is used in the construction of Gasket either as main
material or as reinforcing material..
e.g.
Spiral wound gasket. Used with RF flanges up to 600 rating.
Thickness of spiral wound gasket is 4.5 mm.

2. Non-metallic Gasket:

Ring joint Gasket used with RJ flanges from 900 rating.


Metal is not used in the construction of gaskets.
e.g. Flat Gasket
Thickness of this gasket is normally 2 to 3 mm.
It is used in FF and T&G type of flange.

A) Design & Dimension Standard:


ANSI/ASME B 16.20
For Metallic Gaskets
ANSI/ASME B 16.21
For Non-metallic Gaskets
B) Material:
For Metallic Gasket
(1) S.S. ring for ring joint gasket.
(2) Spiral wound Gasket
(a) S.S. (as reinforcement) & for inner and outer (centering) ring.
(b) Filler material as follows.
Graphite used for high temperature.
PTFE used for low temperature.
CAF It is banned to use from health hazard point of view.
For Non-metallic Gasket
(1) Flat Gasket
(a) CAF (Compressed Asbestos Fiber)- It is banned to use from health hazard
point of view.
(b) PTFE
(c) Graphite

3. PIPING MANUAL :
ANSI/SME B 31.3 is used in Process Piping of following plants.
Petroleum Refineries.
Chemical Plants.
Pharmaceutical Plants.
Textile Industries.
Paper Industries.
Semiconductor Plants.
Cryogenic plants.
For piping components it specifies following details:

Design

Fabrication
Details

Material selection with


Properties

Testing requirements
/ Methods

Thickness of components considering internal and external pressure


Training Coordinator: D.H.Saraiya

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Types of various Branch


Flexibility and Supports
Piping Manual is a basic document, prepared based on ASME B31.3, for
(1) Disciplines listed below of Piping Department.
Piping Design
Piping Material
Stress Analysis
(2) Instrumentation Dept.
Piping Manual has following documents.
Standard / General Specifications for piping material
Pipe classes or Piping specifications
Valve specification Sheets
Technical purchase specifications
Special part specifications(not covered in pipe class)
Instrument nozzle assemblies
Piping supports standard
Above documents are used in piping design and procurement.
3.1
Standard / General specifications: It consists of
Applicable code & standards
General specifications for fabrication
General specifications for welding
General specifications for procurement
General specifications for certification
3.2
Pipe class: It is derived from
Fluid to be handled
Design pressure
Design temperature
Above three points are obtained from the P&ID / Process.
Based on the above information, material group & rating are to be decided using table 2 of
16.5 and table 2 of 16.34. Then pipe class / pipe specifications are developed.
3.2.1 Pipe Class: Provides various components with its
Size range
End connection
Design & dimension standard
Valve Specification Sheet Number
Material Grade
Technical purchase specification
Additional remark (if any)
3.2.2 Pipe class has 3 distinct tables:
Limit table(Pressure and Temperature limitation)
Thickness table(pipe thickness)
Branch table(for selection of branch component)
Limit table:
It specifies pressure and temperature limitation for the components listed in pipe class. From
this table, suitability of pipe class & its components for given design conditions is decided.
Thickness table:
It specifies schedule no & relevant pipe thickness for all the sizes. Similar thickness to pipe
shall be used for Butt Weld pipefitting, Weld Neck Flange.
Pipe thickness is to be calculated for internal design pressure as per para 304.1.2 of ASME B
31.3. Pipe thickness Calculation formula is available in MS EXCEL.
Branch Table:

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It gives types of branch whenever it is required to be taken from header pipe. In German
language Abzweig is Branch. So in LINDE pipe classes for all the branch types A is
specified as commodity code. Actual type is to be selected from the table. Branch types are
Unreinforced Branch- here direct welding of branch pipe to header pipe is done.
Reinforced Branch- here branch pipe is welded to header pipe with reinforced pad or ring.
(As per R-SP-1020 of Linde based on ASME B 31.3)
Equal / reduced tee
Weldolet
Sockolet
Half coupling
Based on calculation as per para 304.3 of ASME B 31.3, above branches are designed & their
dimensions are calculated. These branches are tabulated in branch table of a pipe class.
Appropriate branch is to be selected from this table.
3.2.3 Pipe Class Dsignation
The piping class designation consists of maximum six characters.
L A 1 R 61
Sequential Number
Flange Facing
Pressure Rating
Material Group
Job Letter
First digit Job Letter
L
C

Linde Standard Pipe Class


Special Pipe Class for a particular project

Second digit Material Group


A
C
D
G
N

Stainless Steel
Killed Carbon Steel (Low Temperature)
Carbon Steel / Carbon Steel for High Temperature
1.25% Cr 0.5% Mo Steel
Ni-Materials (Monel)

Third digit Pressure Rating


1
150
3
300
6
600
7
900
8
1500
9
2500
Forth digit Flange Facing
F
Flat Face
R
Raised Face
G
Tongue and Groove
J
Ring Joint
Last digit Sequential Number
01 49
DIN (Germany) Pipe Class
50 99
ANSI Pipe Class

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For example, Pipe Class CD1R66 indicates that it is a special pipe class with material group as
Carbon Steel having 150 pressure rating with Flange having Raised Face and it follows ANSI
Standard
3.2.4

Item Codes:
Piping Items
R
A
BD
BS
B45
B90
F
FSW
FSO
FWN
FTH
FB
FM
FS
FSB
FSL
MU
MUR
RDE
RDK
RSK
SA, SB
Flange unions
FVA
FVB
FVC
FVE
D
M
S
Valves

Pipe
Branch (Weldolet, Tee etc.)
Cap
Plug
Elbow 45
Elbow 90
Flange
Socket Weld Flange
Slip On Flange
Weld Neck Flange
Flange Threaded
Blind Flange
Orifice Flange
Spectacle Blind
Slip Blind
Slip Ring
Coupling
Coupling reduced
Reducer eccentric
Reducer concentric
Swadged Nipple
Mitre Bends type A B etc.
Flange Union
Flange Union
Flange Union
Flange Union
Gasket
Nut
Bolt

(Flange / Flange)
(Orifice Flange)
(Flange / Spectacle / Flange)
(Flange / Wafer Item / Flange)

FV stands for Flange Union.

A
Globe Valve
B
Globe Valve with regulating disc
D
Lift Check Valve
E
Swing Check Valve
F
Gate Valve
H
Butterfly Valve
K
Ball Valve
M
Valve according to pipe class for instrument connection
Valves are generally written in codes with end condition. For that following letters are used.
B
Butt welded ends
F
Flanged ends
S
Socket-weld-ends
G
Threaded ends
WA
Wafer / Wafer-lug type
SG
Socket weld/threaded ends
For example,
Training Coordinator: D.H.Saraiya

A-B

means

Globe Valve, Butt welded ends


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D-G means
H-WA means

Lift Check Valve, threaded ends


Butterfly Valve, Wafer/Wafer-lug type

Strainer: Three letters generally code strainers. First letter is always N which indicates that it
is a strainer. Second letter indicates end condition.
B
Butt welded ends
F
Flanged ends
S
Socket welded ends
Third letter indicates mesh size.
B
mesh size 0.315mm
C
mesh size 0.4mm
D
mesh size 0.5mm
G
mesh size 1.0mm
F
mesh size 1.6mm
H
mesh size 2.5mm
K
mesh size 3.15mm
Writing T or Y indicates the type of the strainer that is T-type or Y-type.
For example, NBB Strainer, T-type, mesh size 0.135mm, Butt welded ends.
NSF Strainer, Y-type, mesh size 1.6mm, Socket weld ends.
NFK Strainer, T-type, mesh size 3.15mm, Flanged ends.
Codes for End Connection
A
Outer thread
SS
Socket-weld both ends
B
Buttweld
TB
Welding joint T-type/ Butt weld
I
Inner thread
TS
Welding joint T-type/ Socket-weld
BB
Buttweld both ends
AA
Outer thread both ends
BF
Buttweld/Flanged
II
Inner thread both ends
F
Flanged
SI
Socket-weld/Inner thread
FF
Flanged both ends
3.3
INSTRUMENT NOZZLE ASSEMBLIES
Various Instruments are
(1) Pressure Indicator and Transmitter
Used on Piping & Equipment
(2) Temperature Indicator and Transmitter Used on Piping & Equipment
(3) Flow Indicator and Transmitter
Used on Piping
(4) Level Indicator and Transmitter
Used on Equipment
Above Instruments require piping parts to sit on / fix on. Such piping components (Branch, Pipe,
Flange, Valve, Flange Union etc.) are grouped together and an instrument nozzle assembly is formed
for modeling and for BOM.
Each assembly has an identifying number. This number is mentioned on P&ID. This assembly is
created in PDS (for modeling) & in MARIAN (for BOM) with same identifying number.
Designer can place the assembly by selecting its identifying number in PDS.
In BOM an assembly appears with its no. and break up.
Flange Union:
Flange Union is an assembly of Gaskets, Stud bolts & Nuts.
We do not model flange union. It is linked with flanges.
In BOM we get gasket, stud bolts & nuts as an assembly.
Following types of flange unions are available
FVA
Flange Union for Flange to Flange joint
FVC
Flange Union for Spectacle blind
FVE
Flange Union for Wafer Check valve
FVH
Flange Union for Butterfly valve
FVX
Special Flange Union (for Safety valve inlet)
3.4
LINDE SUPPORT STANDARD:
Supports are not defined in pipe class. They are independent of pipe class. So following LS
are used for supports:

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LS 802-01 for pipe spans

3.5

3.5.1

3.5.2

3.5.3
3.5.4

It specifies size wise unsupported span of pipes carrying


gaseous or liquid fluids and having different insulation types &
thickness.
LS series 540 onwards is for dimension & construction of various types of supports.
1) LS 540-01: For selection of supports.
Appropriate piping support type is to be selected from piping modeling
(Horizontal/Vertical), design temperature and insulation type & thickness.
This Standard specifies temperature limit, supports class/spec, type of supports, size
range, designation of supports, applicable design & dimension standard, for material
group.
2) LS 540-10: For material group (support class/spec.)
Piping support is an assembly of various structural components. This Standard specifies
material group with detailed material of each structural component.
Design temperature of line is to be considered for deciding material group (support
class/spec.)
Basic types of supports are:
Anchor
Sliding
Guiding
Resting
Above supports are used for Hot Insulated and Cold Insulated Piping and in both Horizontal
and Vertical arrangement.
Construction is different for different combination of above.
SPECIAL PARTS:
Parts not defined in Pipe Class.
Parts not governed by specific design & dimension standard.
Parts have varying geometric or process details.
Some special parts are mentioned below:
Steam Trap
To avoid steam loss the condensate has to be removed or released from the pipeline.
To ensure only condensate is released from pipeline, steam traps are used.
Steam traps trap the steam & release condensate in atmosphere or in the close system.
At every low point in the steam line, the steam trap is to be provided.
Differential Pressure and Condensate flow rate decides the type of steam trap.
Different types of Steam trap are:
Thermodynamic type
Inverted Bucket type
Ball float type
First type is of small capacity & last two are of higher capacity.
Strainer
It is used to remove impurities, so as to avoid damage in downstream equipment / system.
It is available for both gaseous as well as liquid fluids. For gaseous fluids mesh size is smaller
i.e. in micron and for liquid fluids mesh size is relatively higher.
There are three types of strainers
T type
BW ends
Y type
SW or Flanged ends
Conical strainer Wafer type (to be held between two flanges & for higher size)
Any component with one or more Specifications / Attributes beyond pipe class
Special Supports

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