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## Code No: R050210201 Set No. 1

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007
FLUID MECHANICS & HYDRAULIC MACHINERY
(Electrical & Electronic Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
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1. (a) Distinguish between (i) standard and local atmospheric pressures, (ii) baro-
metric pressure and absolute pressure and (iii)absolute pressure and gauge
pressure.
(b) A diver is working at a depth of 20 m below the surface of sea water (specific
weight =10kN/m3 ). Calculate the pressure intensity at this depth. What
would be the absolute pressure if barometer reads 760 mm of mercury column
at the sea level? [8+8]

2. (a) Define the equation of continuity. Obtain an expression for continuity equation
for a one- dimensional flow
(b) A pipe of diameter 40 cm carries water at a velocity of 25 m/s. The pressures
at the point A and B are given as 29.4 N/cm2 and 22.56N/cm2 respectively
while the datum head at A and B are 28 m and 30 m. Find the loss of head
between A and B. [8+8]

## 3. (a) Define Major Energy Loss and Minor Energy Loss.

(b) Briefly explain Hydraulic Gradiant Line and Total Energy Line.

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(c) The rate of flow of water through a horizontal pope is 0.3m3 /sec. The di-
ameter of the pipe is suddenly enlarged fron 25cm to 50cm. The pressure
intensity in the smaller pipe is 1.4Kgf /cm2. Determine loss of head due to
sudden enlargement, pressure intensity in the large pipe and power lost due
to enlargement. [4+4+8]

4. (a) Derive the expressions for force and work done per second by the jet when it
strikes the inclined plate moving in the direction of the jet.
(b) A jet of water of diameter 70mm moving with a velocity of 40m/sec strikes a
curved fixed plate tangentially at one end at an angle of 300 to the horizontal.
The jet leaves the plate at an angle of 200 to the horizontal. Find the force
exerted by the jet on the plate in the horizontal and vertical direction. [8+8]

5. (a) What are the elements of hydroelectric power stations ? Write elaborately
about any two of them with neat sketches.
(b) A turbine with an efficiency of 90% is to installed in a hydroelectric plant. The
head and discharge available at the plant are 40m and 25m3 /sec respectively.
The turbine has to run at 120rpm. What is the power developed and what is
the type of turbine based on specific speed. [8+8]

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## Code No: R050210201 Set No. 1

6. (a) What is an axial flow turbines ? What are its parts ? Explain with sketches.
(b) Derive the equation for work done on the runner of an axial flow turbine from
fundamentals. [6+10]

7. (a) What are the constant efficiency curves of a hydraulic turbine ? Sketch them
and explain their uses
(b) A Francis turbine is working under varying conditions and the head drops

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down from 48m to 35 m. How will the speed , discharge and power change
under constant efficiency and homologous conditions. [6+10]

8. (a) Derive the equation for work done by the impeller of a centrifugal pump on
the fluid handled. What are different efficiencies of centrifugal pump ?
(b) Explain the working of a reciprocation pump with a neat sketch showing all
the components. [10+6]

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## Code No: R050210201 Set No. 2

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007
FLUID MECHANICS & HYDRAULIC MACHINERY
(Electrical & Electronic Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

www.andhracolleges.com
1. (a) State Newtons equation of viscosity and give examples of its application.
(b) An oil of viscosity 5 poise is used for lubrication between a shaft and sleeve.
The diameter of shaft is 0.5 m and it rotates at 200 rpm. Calculate the horse
power lost in the oil for a sleeve length of 100 mm. The thickness of the oil
film is 1.0 mm.
- [8+8]
2. (a) Derive the equation of continuity for one dimensional flow of an incompressible
fluid.
(b) Explain the terms:
i. Path line
ii. Stream line
iii. Streak line. [8+8]
3. (a) Derive the Darcy-weisbach equation for friction head loss in a pipe.
(b) Water is flowing through a horizontal pipe line 1500m long and 200mm in
diameter. Pressures at the two ends of the pope line are respectively 12Kpa

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and 2Kpa. If f = 0.015, determine the discharge through the pipe in litres per
minute. Consider only frictional loss. [8+8]
4. (a) Derive an expression for force exerted by a jet on stationary inclined flat plate.
(b) A nozzle of 50mm diameter delivers a stream of water at 20m/sec perpendic-
ular to a plate that moves away from the Jet at 5m/sec.find
i. the force on the plate
ii. work done and
iii. the efficiency of jet. [7+9]
5. (a) What are the components of a mass curve ? What are its properties ? Explain
how it is constructed from a hydrograph.
(b) Draw a neat sketch of a hydro power plant and show clearly the various ele-
ments. Explain about the elements clearly and elaborately. [8+8]
6. (a) What is jet ratio and angle of deflection of jet in hydraulic design of a Pelton
wheel ? What are the hydraulic functions of casing of a Pelton wheel ?
(b) Why is the reaction turbine outlet placed above the tail water level. Of the
cylindrical and conical draft tubes which one is preferable and why. Explain
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## Code No: R050210201 Set No. 2

7. (a) Show the governing mechanism of a Pelton wheel turbine with a neat sketch
and explain how it works.
(b) A Francis turbine produces 6750 Kw at 300 rpm under a net head of 45m with
an overall efficiency of 85%. What would be revolutions per minute, discharge
and brake power of the turbine under a net head of 60m under homologous
conditions.
- [8+8]

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8. (a) What equation is employed to find the work done by the impeller of a cen-
trifugal pump. Derive the equation for work done.
(b) What are the equations for work done and discharge of a reciprocating pump
? Define the slip and coefficient of discharge of a reciprocating pump. [8+8]

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## Code No: R050210201 Set No. 3

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007
FLUID MECHANICS & HYDRAULIC MACHINERY
(Electrical & Electronic Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

www.andhracolleges.com
1. (a) Distinguish between (i) standard and local atmospheric pressures, (ii) baro-
metric pressure and absolute pressure and (iii)absolute pressure and gauge
pressure.
(b) A diver is working at a depth of 20 m below the surface of sea water (specific
weight =10kN/m3 ). Calculate the pressure intensity at this depth. What
would be the absolute pressure if barometer reads 760 mm of mercury column
at the sea level?

2. (a) Under what conditions a stream line coincides with a streak line.
[8+8]

(b) Flow of water in a river during floods varies with time. How is the flow
described?
(c) Water flows through a horizontal conical pipe, with diameter at the larger end
as 1.3 m and that at the smaller end as 0.70 m. the pressure head at the
smaller head is 5 m of water, and the discharge is 3.5 m3 /sec. Calculate the
velocities at the two ends and the pressure head at the larger end. Neglect
losses. [4+4+8]

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3. (a) Derive an equation for discharge of a venturimeter.
(b) Explain why Cd of a venturimeter is more than that of orifice meter.
(c) A horizontal venturimeter with inlet and throat diameters 300mm and mm
respectively is used to measure the flow of water. The pressure intensity at
inlet is 130KN/m2 . While the vaccum pressure head at the throat is 350mm
of mercury. Assuming that 3% of head is lost in between inlet and throat, find
Cd of venturimeter and rate of flow. [6+2+8]

4. (a) Derive an expression for the force exerted by a jet striking the curved plate at
one end tangentially when the plate is symetrical.
(b) A jet of water 120 mm in diameter and moving with a velocity of 25m/sec
strikes normally on a flat plate. Determine the power developed and the
efficiency of the system when
i. the plate is stationary
ii. the plate is moving with a velocity of 8m/sec in the direction of the jet.
And
iii. the plate is moving with a velocity 8m/sec towards the jet. [7+9]

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## Code No: R050210201 Set No. 3

5. (a) What is the name of hydroelectric power station that uses the flow of stream
as it is available ? How do you compare this with reservoir or storage type of
power station ? Explain with neat sketches if necessary.
(b) The hydro power plant has a turbine with the following details. Find the
power developed and what is the specific speed of the turbine. Hydraulic
efficiency = 90%. Net head =65m1 discharge=15m3 /s, speed=100 rpm [8+8]

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6. (a) What are the important parts of a reaction turbine ? Draw neat sketches and
explain.
(b) What is moment of momentum equation ? Using the equation derive the
equation for work done on the runner of a reaction turbine. [6+10]

7. (a) What are the constant efficiency curves of a hydraulic turbine ? Sketch them
and explain their uses
(b) A Francis turbine is working under varying conditions and the head drops
down from 48m to 35 m. How will the speed , discharge and power change
under constant efficiency and homologous conditions. [6+10]

8. (a) Define
i. Theoretical discharge
ii. Actual discharge
iii. Slip and
iv. Coefficient of discharge of reciprocating pump
(b) A single acting reciprocating pup has a 25 cm cylinder with a stroke of 40
cm. The diameters of suction and delivery pipes are 15 cm and 20 cm respec-

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tively. If the speed of the pump is 30 rpm, what is the maximum velocity and
acceleration of water in delivery and suction pipes ? [8+8]

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## Code No: R050210201 Set No. 4

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007
FLUID MECHANICS & HYDRAULIC MACHINERY
(Electrical & Electronic Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

www.andhracolleges.com
1. (a) Obtain an expression for capillary rise of a liquid.
(b) The velocity distribution over a plate is given by V = 1/3 y -y 2 in which v
is the velocity in m/sec at adistance y metres obve the plate. Determine the
stress at y = 0 and y = 0.1 m. Take µ = 0.835N − s/m2
2. (a) Write three important basic equations of fluid flow. Explain them.
(b) What are the different types of fluid flow? Explain.
3. (a) Derive an equation for discharge of a venturimeter.
(b) Explain why Cd of a venturimeter is more than that of orifice meter.
[8+8]

[8+8]

(c) A horizontal venturimeter with inlet and throat diameters 300mm and mm
respectively is used to measure the flow of water. The pressure intensity at
inlet is 130KN/m2 . While the vaccum pressure head at the throat is 350mm
of mercury. Assuming that 3% of head is lost in between inlet and throat, find
Cd of venturimeter and rate of flow. [6+2+8]
4. (a) Derive the expressions for force and work done per second by the jet when it
strikes a curved plate moving in the direction of the jet.

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(b) A jet of water 20cm in diameter and moving with a velocity of 20m/sec im-
pinges normally on a series of flat vanes mounted on the periphery of a wheel.
If the velocity of the vanes is 8m/sec, determine
i. the force exerted by the jet on the wheel
ii. work done by the jet on the wheel per second and
iii. hydraulic efficiency. [7+9]
5. (a) What are the elements of hydro electric power plants ? Describe about water
ways and penstocks with neat sketches if necessary.
(b) The catchment area at a proposed site for a hydropower plant is 200 Km2 and
possible head of water is 140 m. The average annual rainfall is 145 cm and
the losses are 16%. How much power can be developed ? [8+8]
6. (a) What is draft tube and what are its functions in a reaction turbine.
(b) Derive the equation for work done in Pelton wheel turbine from fundamentals.
- [6+10]
7. (a) Why is governing of turbines required ? What are the main components of
governing mechanism for a Pelton wheel turbine ? Draw a neat sketch and
explain.
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## Code No: R050210201 Set No. 4

(b) A hydraulic turbine generates 7500 Kw under a net head of 150m at a speed
of 300 rpm. Hydraulic efficiency and mechanical efficiency are 92 % and 85%
. Determine the discharge, specific speed of the turbine and type of turbine.
- [8+8]

8. (a) Why does a centrifugal pump get its name ? Explain the working of a cen-
trifugal pump with a neat diagram showing different parts.

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(b) Explain clearly the effect of acceleration of piston on velocity and pressure in
suction pipe and delivery pipe. Define slip and coefficient of discharge and
write their equations. [6+10]

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