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Code No: R050210202

Set No. 1

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 ELECTRICAL MACHINES - I (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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2. (a) What is an equalizer connection? What is necessity of equalizer connection? (b) What is the purpose of compensating winding? Explain in detail. (b) What is critical speed? Explain the signiﬁcance of critical speed. 6. (a) Diﬀerentiate between generator action and motor action of a DC machine.

1. With the help of neat diagram obtain the expression for the energy stored in a magnetic system for a simple attracted armature type relay. Explain the operation of system. [16]

(b) An 8 pole DC generator has per pole ﬂux of 40mWb and winding is connected in lap with 960 conductors. Calculate the generated EMF on open circuit when it runs at 400 rpm. If the armature is wave wound at what speed must the machine be driven to generate the same voltage. [8+8]

3. (a) Explain about demagnetizing Ampere turn per pole and Cross magnetizing Ampere Turn per pole. [8+8]

4. (a) Draw the neat graph to show open circuit characteristic of a separately excited DC generator? Why is a ﬁeld regulator necessary for this machine. [10+6]

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5. (a) Sketch the internal and external characteristics of DC shunt and series generators. What are their ﬁelds of application? (b) Discuss the need for parallel operation of generators. Explain the load sharing of DC Shunt generators operating in parallel. [8+8]

(b) Explain the applications of DC shunt and series motors with the help of their characteristics and equations. [8+8]

7. For a Ward-Leonard system two identical 220 V, 15 A DC machines are used. Total armature resistance of each machine is 0.4 Ω and the magnetization curve for each machine at 1500 RPM is as given below: Ea 120 160 197 210 220 228 232 236 243 248 If 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.2 1.45 The generator of Ward-Leonard system is driven at a constant speed of 1500 RPM. (a) The generator ﬁeld current is varied from 0.115 Amp to 1.4 Amp, while the motor ﬁeld current is maintained constant at 0.6 Amp. Find the speed range for full load armature current of 15 Amp and at no load (neglect no load current).

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Code No: R050210202

Set No. 1

(b) The maximum speed, at full load, in above part is to be doubled. If the generator ﬁeld current is not allowed to exceed 1 Amp., ﬁnd the minimum motor ﬁeld current. [8+8] 8. (a) Explain various losses and their equations,, that takes place in DC load shunt compound generator and short shunt compound motor.

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(b) Find the eﬃciency of long shunt compound generator rated at 250kW, 230 V, when supplying 75 % of rated load, at rated voltage. The resistances of armature & series ﬁeld are 9mΩ and 3 mΩ respectively. The shunt ﬁeld current is 13 Amp. When the machine is run as a motor at no-load the armature current is 25 A at rated voltage. [8+8]

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Code No: R050210202

Set No. 2

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 ELECTRICAL MACHINES - I (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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(b) What is the purpose of compensating winding? Explain in detail. 5. (a) What are the reasons for the parallel operation of DC generators?

1. (a) What is ﬁeld energy? What is the relation of mechanical energy and ﬁeld energy? Relate them in a linear system. (b) The magnetic ﬂux density on the surface of an iron face is 1.45 T, ﬁnd the force density on the iron face. [8+8]

2. (a) A DC generator is connected with lap winding. The numbers of poles in machine are 6. If the resistance of each conductor is 2 milliohm and if there are 60 slots with 4 conductors in each slot, ﬁnd the resistance of armature. Repeat the calculation if the winding is wave winding. (b) Explain the terms equalizer rings and dummy coils? With which windings they are related? [10+6]

3. (a) Explain about demagnetizing Ampere turn per pole and Cross magnetizing Ampere Turn per pole. [8+8]

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7. (a) With Neat diagram Explain the construction and working of 4-point starter i. The no load speed, for a no load line current of 6 Amp.

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4. What is critical speed? How do you draw magnetization characteristics in laboratory. [16]

(b) What are the conditions necessary for parallel operation of DC shunt generators? (c) Explain the conditions under which two shunt generators operating in parallel do not share the total load in exact proportion to the machine ratings.[4+4+8]

6. (a) Deﬁne torque. Derive the expression for torque developed by a D.C. motor from fundamentals. (b) Determine the torque developed when a current of 30A passes through the armature of a motor with the following particulars: lap winding, 310 conductors, 4-pole, pole-shoes 16.2 cm long subtending an angle of 600 at the centre, bore radius 16.2 cm, ﬂux density in air gap 0.7 tesla. [8+8]

(b) A DC shunt motor runs at 750 RPM from 250 V supply and is taking a full load line current of 60 Amps. Its armature and ﬁeld resistances are 0.4 Ω and 125 Ω respectively and brush voltage drop is 2V, calculate,

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Code No: R050210202

Set No. 2

ii. The value of resistance to be added in series with armature to reduce full load speed to 600 RPM. [8+8] 8. (a) Explain constant and variable losses. Draw the graph of losses v/s load. (b) A 60 kW, 250 V shunt motor takes 16 Amp, when running light at 1440 RPM. The hot resistance of the armature and ﬁeld are 0.2 Ω and 125 Ω respectively.

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i. Estimate the eﬃciency of the motor when taking 152 A. ii. Also estimate the eﬃciency if working as generator and delivering a load current of 151 A at 250 V. [6+10]

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Code No: R050210202

Set No. 3

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, February 2007 ELECTRICAL MACHINES - I (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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2. (a) What is an equalizer connection? What is necessity of equalizer connection? (b) What is the purpose of compensating winding? Explain in detail.

**1. (a) With the help of energy balance theory, explain the concept of coenergy and mechanical energy.
**

2 (b) Two coupled coils have self and mutual inductances of L11 = L22 = 1+2x andL12 = 1 − 2x .IfI1 = 5Amp and I2 = −2 Amp, ﬁnd the input energy required to increase x from 0 to 0.5 m. [8+8]

(b) An 8 pole DC generator has per pole ﬂux of 40mWb and winding is connected in lap with 960 conductors. Calculate the generated EMF on open circuit when it runs at 400 rpm. If the armature is wave wound at what speed must the machine be driven to generate the same voltage. [8+8]

3. (a) Explain about demagnetizing Ampere turn per pole and Cross magnetizing Ampere Turn per pole. [8+8] 4. What is critical speed? How do you draw magnetization characteristics in laboratory. [16]

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5. (a) Explain clearly why an equilizer connection makes it possible for two compound generators to operate in parallel in stable equilibrium. (b) Discuss the necessity for parallel operation of generators. Explain the parallel operation of DC Series generators. [8+8]

6. (a) Deﬁne torque. Derive the expression for torque developed by a D.C. motor from fundamentals. (b) Determine the torque developed when a current of 30A passes through the armature of a motor with the following particulars: lap winding, 310 conductors, 4-pole, pole-shoes 16.2 cm long subtending an angle of 600 at the centre, bore radius 16.2 cm, ﬂux density in air gap 0.7 tesla. [8+8]

7. (a) Compare armature voltage control and ﬂux control methods of speed control of DC motor. Enumerate the advantage and disadvantage of each method. (b) A 400 V DC shunt motor takes a current of 5.6 A on no-load and 68.3 A on full load. The load current weakens the ﬁeld by 3 %. Calculate the ratio of full-load speed to no-load speed, if Ra = 0.18 Ω, brush voltage drop = 2 V, Rf = 200 Ω. Also calculate the resistance to be added in series with armature to reduce speed to 50% of no load speed in gross torque remains unchanged. [6+10]

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Code No: R050210202

Set No. 3

8. (a) The following readings are obtained when performing a brake test on DC shunt motor. Spring Balances, 08 kgs and 30 kgs. Diameter of drum = 42 cm. Speed of the motor = 1000 rpm. Applied voltage = 220 V. Line current = 50 A. Calculate out put power and eﬃciency. (b) A 500 V DC shunt motor takes a current of 5 A on no-load. The resistances of the armature and ﬁeld circuit are 0.2 Ω and 300 Ω respectively. Find, the eﬃciency when loaded and taking a current of 125 A and the percentage change of speed. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: R050210202

Set No. 4

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2. (a) What is an equalizer connection? What is necessity of equalizer connection? (b) What is the purpose of compensating winding? Explain in detail. 5. (a) What are the reasons for the parallel operation of DC generators? 6. (a) What is the signiﬁcance of back e.m.f in a DC motor? (b) Deduce the condition for maximum power of a DC motor.

1. With the help of neat diagram obtain the expression for the energy stored in a magnetic system for a simple attracted armature type relay. Explain the operation of system. [16]

(b) An 8 pole DC generator has per pole ﬂux of 40mWb and winding is connected in lap with 960 conductors. Calculate the generated EMF on open circuit when it runs at 400 rpm. If the armature is wave wound at what speed must the machine be driven to generate the same voltage. [8+8]

3. (a) Explain about demagnetizing Ampere turn per pole and Cross magnetizing Ampere Turn per pole. [8+8]

4. What is critical speed? How do you draw magnetization characteristics in laboratory. [16]

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(b) What are the conditions necessary for parallel operation of DC shunt generators? (c) ”Two compound generators operating in parallel will be in unstable equilibrium when no equilizer is used”. Justify. [4+4+8]

(c) A 12-pole lap connected 230V shunt motor has 410 conductors. It takes 41A on full-load. The ﬂux per pole is 0.05 Wb. The armature and ﬁeld resistances are 0.1 ohm and 230 ohms respectively. Contact drop per brush is 1V. Determine the speed of motor at full-load. [6+6+4]

7. (a) A 220 V DC shunt motor, with an armature resistance of 0.1 Ω is running at 1000 RPM and takes an armature current of 50 A. If the ﬁeld ﬂux is suddenly reduced by 10%, obtain i. the maximum value of current at this instant and the corresponding torque. ii. Ultimate speed and armature current after the transients are over. Assume constant load.

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Code No: R050210202

Set No. 4

[10+6]

(b) Explain the use of diverters in speed control of DC series motors. 8. (a) How the rotational losses can be computed by retardation test.

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(b) A retardation test is made on a separately excited DC machine as a motor. The induced EMF falls from 240 V to 175 V in 45 Seconds on opening the armature circuits and 5 Seconds on suddenly changing armature connection from supply to a load resistance taking an average current of 10A. Find the eﬃciency of the machine when running as a motor & taking a current of 25 Amp on a supply of 240V. The resistance of armature is 0.4 Ω & that of its ﬁeld winding is 300 Ω. [8+8]

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