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Canadian Pharmacy Review

Pharmacy Prep

Social, Administrative, and


Management
Review and Guide
Misbah Biabani, Ph.D
Director
Toronto Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (TIPS) Inc.
Toronto, ON M2N K7

Pharmacy Prep
Professional Exams Preparation Center
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Canadian Pharmacy Review


Disclaimer

Your use and review of this information constitutes acceptance of the following terms and
conditions:
The information contained in the notes intended as an educational aid only. It is not intended
as medical advice for individual conditions or treatment. It is not a substitute for a medical
exam, nor does it replace the need for services provided by medical professionals. Talk to your
doctor or pharmacist before taking any prescription or over the counter drugs (including any
herbal medicines or supplements) or following any treatment or regimen. Only your doctor or
pharmacist can provide you with advice on what is safe and effective for you. Pharmacy prep
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2000-2008 TIPS. All rights reserved.
Foreword by
Misbah Biabani, Ph.D
Coordinator, Pharmacy Prep
Toronto Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (TIPS) Inc
5460 Yonge St. Suites 209 and 303
Toronto ON M2N 6K7, Canada

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Canadian Pharmacy Review

Content
Part III: Social / Behavioural /Administrative Sciences
39-Bioethics and Professional ethics
40-Canadian Healthcare System
41-Canadian Pharmacy Regulations and administration
42-Social and behavioural aspects of pharmacy profession
43-Pharmacy Management
44-Pharmacoeconomics
45-Drug information Resources
46-The new drug approval process
47-Basics of clinical research and Epidemiology
48-Biostatistics

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PHARMACY PREP
ETHICAL STANDARDS
1-The ethical standard beneficence in pharmacy practice means:
A-Pharmacist act with justice
B-Pharmacist act with fairness
C-Pharmacist act with honesty and without deception
D-Pharmacist does well to patient
E-Pharmacist do prevent harm
Ans2-The ethical standard non-maleficiency in pharmacy practice means:
A-Pharmacist act with justice
B-Pharmacist act with fairness
C-Pharmacist act with honesty and without deception
D-Pharmacist does well to patient
E-Pharmacist do prevent harm
Ans3-The ethical standard veracity in pharmacy counselling means:
A-Pharmacist act with justice
B-Pharmacist act with fairness
C-Pharmacist act with honesty and without deception
D-Pharmacist does well to patient
E-Pharmacist do prevent harm
Ans4-The ethical standard justice in pharmacy practice means:
A-Pharmacist act with equality
B-Pharmacist act with fairness
C-Pharmacist act with honesty and without deception
D-Pharmacist does well to patient
E-Pharmacist do prevent harm
Ans-A
5- Patient cannot afford to buy new medication that is not covered by his insurance plan.
Pharmacist called his doctor and asked him to change the medication into another
medication covered by the patients insurance plan. Which ethic principle did the
pharmacist follow?
a) Beneficence
b) Veracity
c) Justice
d) Non-malfeasance
e) Fidelity
Ans:
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6-A pharmacist stops counseling a patient who repeatedly takes the medication
incorrectly. Which ethical principle is violated by pharmacist?
A-Justice
B-Beneficence
C-Non-maleficiency
D-Autonomy
E-Veracity
Ans7-Pharmacy professional ethical standards include non-maleficence, which means:
A-Pharmacist should act with honesty and veracity
B-Pharmacist should act with fairness
C-Pharmacist should prevent harm
D-Pharmacist should place the benefit of the patient above all else.
E-Pharmacist should respect patient choice.
Ans-C
8. A physician phones a pharmacist asking him not to tell the patient about the side
effects of a drug because if he does, the patient will not take it. The pharmacist complies.
Both the physician and pharmacist are seeking which ethic for the patient?
a) Non-maleficence
b) Beneficence
c) Autonomy
d) Veracity
e) Justice
Ans:
9. A physician phones a pharmacist asking him not to tell the patient about the side
effects of a drug because if he does, the patient will not take it. The pharmacist complies.
Both the physician and pharmacist have violated which ethic principle for the patient?
a) Non-maleficence
b) Beneficence
c) Autonomy
d) Veracity
e) Justice
Ans:
10. A pharmacist who refuses to counsel and AIDS patient violates which ethic?
a) Non-maleficence
b) Beneficence
c) Autonomy
d) Veracity
e) Justice
Ans:

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11-Which of the following is incorrect combination?
A-Autonomy = Right of self determination
B-Beneficence = doing good
C-Non-maleficiency = Preventing harm
D-Justice = unequal distribution of benefits and burden
E-Veracity = Honesty without deception
Ans-D
12. This principle expresses the concept that pharmacist have a duty to be honest and
trustworthy in their dealings with people.
A.Principles of Ethics
B.Code of Professional Conduct
C. Principle of veracity ("truthfulness")
D.Principle of honesty
Ans-C

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Canadian Healthcare System

PHARMACY PREP
CANADIAN HEALTHCARE SYSTEM
1. All of the following are the principles of Canadian Health Act (CHA), EXCEPT:
A- Universality
B-Private administration
C-Accessibility
D-Portability
E-Comprehensiveness
Ans-B
Comments: Canadian Health Act is single tier system that is based on public
administration, not a private administration.
2-A national pharmacy regulatory body NAPRA stands for:
A-National Association of Pharmaceutical Regulatory Administration.
B-National Administration of pharmacy regulatory authority
C-National association of pharmacy regulatory authorities
D-National association of pharmacy manufacturer regulatory authority
E-National association of provincial regulatory authorities
Ans-C
3-Who determines the patented prescription drug price?
A-Canada Research Based Pharmaceutical companies (Rx&D)
B-Generic pharmaceutical Association (CGPA)
C-Patented Medicines Prices Review Board (PMPRB)
D-Health Canada (HC)
E-National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authority (NAPRA)
Ans-C
4- Regulation or rules of Canadian pharmacies are mainly created by:
a) Provincial authorities
b) Pharmacy college authorities
c) Governmental authorities
d) National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities (NAPRA)
e) None of the above
Ans-D
5-What is PMPRB?
A- Patented Medicines Prices Review Board
B- Prescription Medicines Prices Review Board
C- Non-Prescription Medicines Prices Review Board
D- Prescription Medicines Patent Review Board
E- None of the above
Ans-A
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Canadian Healthcare System

6-Who sets the prices of over the counter drugs in pharmacy?


A-PMPRB
B-Health Canada
C-Federal Government
D-Manufacturer
E-Pharmacy Manager
Ans-E

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Pharmacy Prep MOCK Test 2006

PHARMACY PREP
PHARMACY PRACTICE REGULATIONS
1-What is NAPRA stands for?
A-National association of Pharmaceutical Regulatory Authority
B-National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authority
C-National Administration of pharmacy Regulatory authority
D-National Administration of pharmacy Regional authority
Ans-B
2-Drug schedules in Canada is controlled by the?
A-Health Canada
B-Pharmaceutical Manufacturer
C-NAPRA
D-National Drug Scheduling Advisory Committee (NDSAC)
E-Registrar of Provincial College of Pharmacy
Ans-D
Tips: NDSAC is a national drug schedule advisory committee, which a part of NAPRA.
3. Which of the following fall under NAPRA schedules?
I.
Prescriptions
II.
OTCs sold with pharmacist intervention
III.
OTC sold without pharmacist intervention
a) I only
b) III only
c) I and II only
d) II and III only
e) All of the above
Ans: E
4-Tylenol # 1 is:
A- Acetaminophen300mg+ codeine8mg+ Caffeine15mg
B- Acetaminophen300mg+ codeine15mg+Caffeine15mg
C- Acetaminophen300mg+ codeine30mg+Caffeine15mg
D- Acetaminophen300mg+ codeine60mg
E- Acetaminophen 160mg+codeine 8mg+caffeine 15mg
Ans-A
Tips: Tylenol#1, No prescription needed, Pharmacist intervention required
Schedule II drug.

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Social / Behavioral Aspects of Pharmacy Profession

PHARMACY PREP
SOCIAL / BEHAVIORAL ASPECTS OF PHARMACY PROFESSION
1. The style of management in which the owner of a pharmacy emphasizes the development of
detailed policies and written procedures for employees to observe at all times is referred as:
a) Participative
b) Autocratic
c) Benevolent
d) Consultative
e) Bureaucratic
Ans-E
2. Informed consent exists when:
I. All relevant information has been provided
II. The patient understands the information
III. Consent is freely given and there is no coercion
a) I only
b) III only
c) I and II only
d) II and III only
e) All are correct
Ans-E
3-A diabetic patient came to you complaining about his hyperglycemia; you realized the
increased dose, sometime you realized that he is buying a rich chocolate, sugar candies and
food containing high carbohydrates.
A-Should you advice him and explain the risks and ask her see her physician
B-Let him decide what he wants
C-But not (do not) obligates him and forbid him
D-Refer her to doctor
E-Refer her to emergency
Ans-A
4-A mother told you that her insurance company lost the receipts for her daughter for the last
month and she asked you if you can reprint for her and you noticed that her daughter has taken
2 antibiotics and a birth control so:
A. you should give the receipts directly to the mother free of charge
B. you should give the receipts directly to the mother with extra charge
C. you should contact the insurance company at first
D. you should ask a permission from the daughter at first (so as not to break confidentiality).
Ans-D

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Social / Behavioral Aspects of Pharmacy Profession

5-You noticed the technician come down to help a patient choosing a Cough Product contains
Codeine. You may do all of the following actions EXCEPT
A. Go down to interrupt the discussion and make the sale
B. Ask the technician if the patient has allergy to Codeine after the sale
C. Review with her the Law of dispensing over the counter drugs
D. Don't humiliate the technician in front of the customer
E. Send her to additional training courses
Ans: B
6-If in any pharmacy it is very busy in compounding, who can change the duties of other
technician?
A-Pharmacy manager
B-Pharmacist working on that time
C-Pharmacy technician
D-Provincial college of pharmacy
Ans-B

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PHARMACY PREP
PHARMACY PRACTICE MANAGEMENT
1-Pharmacy ABC has sales of prescription medication for the year 2004 to 2005. In order
to find out profit of pharmacy ABC, which of the following financial statement may be
useful:
I-Balance sheet
II-Retain earning statement
III-Income statement
A-I only
B-III only
C-I and II only
D-II and III only
E-All of the above
Ans-B
2-All of the following include as part of income statement, EXCEPT:
A-Sales
B-Profit
C-Cost of goods sold
D-Account payable
E-Gross margin
Ans-D
3- Financial statement that is total income minus expenses is:
a) Income statement
b) Profit statement
c) Retained statement
d) Net income
e) Income sheet
Ans- D
Comments: Net income is the financial statement that is total income minus expenses.
5- A financial statement that is used to determine the total value of Rxs drug sales for a
pharmacy during the course of a year is known as:
a) Income statement
b) Profit statement
c) Retained statement
d) Net income
e) Balance sheet
Ans- A
Comments: Income statement is the financial statement used to determine the total value
of RXs drug sales for a pharmacy during the course of a year.
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6-Delegation include:
I-Delegating a project to technician
II-Assisting technician in project
III-Monitoring completion of project
A-I only
B-III only
C-I and II only
D-II and III only
E-All of the above
Ans-E
7-Negligence may be described as:
A-Refusing to fill prescription for control drug substance
B-Refusing to fill narcotic drug prescription
C-Unable to meet the standard of the average pharmacist
D-Refuse to disclose patient information to unidentified person
E-Avoiding a patient who is difficult to handle and argumentative
Ans-C
8- The manager of the pharmacy made a list of work that should be done by his
employers in order of priority, this is called
a) Delegation
b) Job analysis
c) Job description
d) Negligence
e) None of the above
Ans- C
Tips: Job description is a description of all the work that should be done by the employers
in order of priority. The manager normally does it.
9- How can you provide the best counseling to your patient
I- The pharmacy assistant gives an information sheet to the patient
II- The pharmacist explain how to use the drug
III- The pharmacist discuss with patient side effects, therapy and listening the
expectations of patient
a) I only
b) III only
c) I and II only
d) II and III only
e) All are correct
Ans- D
Tips: The pharmacist should always interact with the patient providing clear verbal
information such as explaining how to take the medication, side effects and therapy, and
completing the concealing with extra writing or sheet information.

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10-A senior pharmacy technician has a worked in a community pharmacy for 10 years.
He is well trained and welcomes new learning opportunities. His manager now wanting
to delegate a new technical project to him, should:
I- Discuss suggested steps to accomplish the project
II- Negotiate a time schedule for completion of the project
III- Provide support and follow up as required
a) I only
b) III only
c) I and II only
d) II and III only
e) All are correct
Ans-E
Tips: Delegation of a job should include the suggested steps to accomplish the project; a
negotiation of time schedule for completion of the project and the person doing the
delegation should provide support and follow up as required.
11-Which of the following is the most important component of business plan:
A-Location analysis
B-Market area analysis
C-Site analysis
D-Product analysis
E-None of the above
Ans-B
12-What is POS:
A-Point of science
B-Point of society
C-Point of sale
D-Point of submit
E-All of the above
Ans-C
13- Computer software and hardware program very useful in pharmacies that combines
and track all the business information as product information, cash register, inventory,
stocks and so on.
a) Pharmacare system
b) Health Watch system
c) Point of sale (POS)
d) Universal Pharmacy system
e) Business update computer system
Ans- C
Tips: POS-Point of sale is a computer software and hardware program very useful in
pharmacies that combines and track all the business information such as product
information, cash register, inventory, stocks and so on.
14-What is DIN:
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A-Drug Identification Notice
B-Notice of compliance
C-Drug identification number
D-Drug information number
E-Drug Identity Notice
Ans-C
15-Which of the following is not a type of ownership
A-Incorporation
B-Sole proprietorship
C-Leasing
D-Franchise
E-Cooperative businesses
Ans- C
Comments: Leasing (Renting) is not a form of enterprise.
16-Which of the following is not a type of pharmacy:
A-Banner pharmacy
B-Franchise pharmacy
C-Central fill pharmacy
D-Mail order pharmacy
E-Rental pharmacy license
Ans-E
17-Total sales of prescription drugs are $210,000 and cost of good sold is 180,000. What
is gross profit?
A-71%
B-14%
C-15%
D-20%
E-25%
Ans-B
18-Net income is?
A- Total income from sales
B- Gross income + total expenses
C- Gross income - total expenses
D- Gross income + total expenses + current assets
E- Gross income + total expenses + current assets + Fixed assets
Ans-C
19-Cost of product is 100, and mark up is 30%, what is totalling selling price?
Which of the following is not a form of business
A-Incorporation
B-sole proprietorship
C-leasing
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D-Franchise
Ans-C
Comments: Leasing (Renting) is not a form of enterprise
20-Which of the following is the most important in pharmacy location analysis:
A-Trading area
B-Market area analysis
C-Site consideration
D-Region
E-Geographical area
Ans-B
21-Which of the following is the most important in pharmacy site consideration:
A-Sales per square feet
B-Convenience and distance
C-Parking space
D-Physical characteristics of space
E-Use of ratios
Ans-e
Comments: use of ratios is frequently used rule of thumb in site considerations, this
include sales per square feet, number of prescription per patient, and average price for
prescription.
22-What is the test marketing in pharmacy:
A-through new papers
B-through community papers
C-through TV
D-Door to door flyers
E-Distribution of flyer in mall
23-Pharmacy ABC have sales of prescription medication for the year 2004 to 2005. In
order to find out profit of pharmacy ABC, which of the following financial statement
may be useful:
I-Balance sheet
II-Retain earning statement
III-income statement
24-All of the following include as part of income statement, EXCEPT:
A-sales
B-profit
C-cost of goods sold
D-account payable
E-gross margin
25-Which of the following is not covered in total assets:
I-Pharmacy furniture
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II-Account receivable
III-Account payable
26-The style of management in which owner of pharmacy store emphasizes the
development of detailed policies and written procedure for employees to observe at all
times is referred as:
A-bureaucratic
B-autocratic
C-assertive
D-consultative
E-benevolent
27-The style of management in which owner of pharmacy store emphasizes the
development of detailed policies and written procedure for employees to observe at all
times is referred as:
A-bureaucraticwork procedure are described in details policies and written procedure.
B-autocraticImplementing personal opinion without consultations.
C-assertive
D-consultativewith consultation
E-benevolentgenerous and kind
Ans-A
28-The inventory turnover rate is a measure of a pharmacys
A-liquidity
B-solvency
C-Efficacy
D-Profitability
Ans-C
29-The previous turnover rate was 6 and this year sales is $150,000, at start of year
$25,000 at the end of year 50,000 the inventory capital. What is the difference of turn
over rate this year from previous year?
A-4
B-3
C-2
D-1
Ans-C
30-What is the normal turnover rate of pharmacy:
A-3
B-7
C-5
D-10
Ans-c
31-Turnover rate (TOR) is indicator of:
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A-Profit
B-Efficiency
C-Loss
D-Inventory status
E-Merchandising problems
Ans-B
32-In a market there is only one seller and there are many buyers. This competition
described as?
A-Monopoly
B-Monopolistic competition
C-Oligopoly
D-Oligopolistic competition
Ans-A
33-All of the following are essential of business, except?
A-Promotion
B-Place
C-Product
D-Price
E-Transportation
Ans-E
Tips: there are 4 Ps; Place, Product, Price and promotion
34-If you open a pharmacy in multiculture area, what you should do increase your sales?
A-you have signs of multiculture
B-Hire technician from same cultures
C-Develop literature with different language
D-Offer
35-Which of the following structure of pharmacies is difficult open and operate?
A-Sole ownership
B-Franchise
c-Banner pharmacy
D-Partnership
36-If pharmacy manager for 16 year he is doing all the job by himself, without taking any
idea and skills from other, what is that called?
A-Beurocratic
B-Autocratic
C-Independent
D-Assertive
E-Submissive
ABC pharmacy has following figures appearing on its balance sheet.
Cost of goods sold
$500,000
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Beginning inventory
Ending inventory
Total current assets
Total fixed assets
Total liabilities

$200,000
$220,000
$150,000
$40,000
$75,000

37. Inventory turnover rate for ABC pharmacy is


a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

4.3
2.3
3.5
6.0
8.0

Ans: B
Sold = $500,000
Average inventory = $200,000+$220,000/2 = $210,000
Turnover rate = 500,000/210,000 =2.3
39. Net worth of ABC pharmacy is
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

$195,000
$225,000
$115,000
$75,000
$110,000

Ans: C
Comments: Net worth = Total assets total liabilities
($150,000+$40,000) - $75,000 = $115,000
40. Liquidity generally expresses a pharmacys abilities to meet its
a) Assets
b) Current liabilities
c) Inventory
d) Prepaid expense
e) Desired inventory levels
Ans: B
41. All of the following are important fundamental principles of marketing EXCEPT:
a) Product
b) Price
c) Profession
d) Promotion
e) Place
Ans: C

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PHARMACY PREP
PHARMACOECONOMICS
1-In the pharmacoeconomics considerations, the following aspects is the most important:
A-Pharmacist
B-Hospital
C-Society
D-Doctor
E-Patient
Ans-C
2- Pharmacoeconomics means:
a) Analyses of cost and benefit of the drug therapy to the healthcare system and society
b) Cost of pharmaceutical dispensing fee
c) Cost of products sold in a pharmacy
d) Analyses of cost and benefit for the pharmacy business
e) Prices determined by the provincial authorities to be followed by the pharmacy
Ans- A
Tips: Pharmacoeconomics is the description and analysis of the costs of drug therapy to
health care system and society.
3-What is QALY?
A-Quantity Adjusted Life Year
B-Quality Adjusted Life Year
C-Quantity of Available for Long Year
D-Health related quantity of life
E-Quality of as per life year
Ans-B
4-What is HRQOL?
A-Health Related Quality Of Life
B-Health Related Quantity Of Life
C-Health Related Quantity Of Year
D-None of the above
Ans-B
5-Cost utility analysis (CUA) is measured?
A-Quality unit
B-Cost unit
C-Natural unit
D-Quantity
E-Dollars
Ans-E

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6-Pharmacoeconomic studies are used to analyze cost of drugs to:
A-Healthcare system
B-Society
C-Pharmacist
D-Pharmaceutical manufacturer
Ans-B
7-Pharmacy manager wants to increase salary of staff pharmacy, do you consider all
except?
A-other pharmacist available to do his job
B-budget
C-pharmacist asking a raise
D-consider his experience
E-Life allowance
Ans-E
8-Cost Utility Analysis measures in terms of:
A-HRQL
B-QALY
C-Dollar
D-Financial consequences
Comments: Quality adjusted life year (QALY)
Ans-B
9-Health related quality of life (HRQL) is an example of
A-Clinical outcome
B-Structural outcome
C-Economic outcome
D-Humanistic outcome
Ans-D
10-Cost utility analysis (CUA) is measured in?
A-Quality unit
B-Cost unit
C-Natural unit
D-Quantity
E-Dollars
Ans-E
Pharmacoeconomic studies are used to analyze cost of drugs to:
A-Healthcare system
B-Society
C-Pharmacist
D-Pharmaceutical manufacturer
E-Physician

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Ans-B
11-Pharmacy manager wants to increase salary of staff pharmacy, do you consider all
except?
A-other pharmacist available to do his job
B-budget
C-pharmacist asking a raise
D-consider his experience
E-Life allowance
Ans-E
12-What is SF-36
A-Short-Form 36
B-Slow release 36
C-General health status
D-Short functions 36
E-Patient non clinical information
Ans-A
Tips: Short form 36 (SF-36) most frequently used in pharmacoeconomic general health
status instrument measuring 8 dimensions: physical functions, social functions, role
emotional, role physical, bodily pain, mental health, general health, and vitality.

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Information resources

PHARMACY PREP
PHARMACY PRACTICE INFORMATION RESOURCES
1-A Canadian pharmaceutical reference CPS stands for:
A-Compendium of pharmaceutical Sciences
B-Compendium of Pharmaceutical Supplements
C-Compendium of Pharmaceutical Society
D-Compendium of Pharmaceutical Specialties
E-Compendium of Pharmaceutical Sources
Ans-D
2-A patient presents a prescription that requires the extemporaneous preparation of a
buffered eyedrop. Which of the following is the source for information on the correct
buffering of the eyedrop?
a) Facts and comparisons
b) The Merck manual
c) Pharmindex
d) Remingtons pharmaceutical sciences
e) Physicians desk reference
Ans: D
3-One of your regular patients comes to the pharmacy in search of Dogmatil for her
brother. He has just arrived from Singapore for a visit, but his medication was lost with
his luggage. She says her brother needs the medication for a CNS condition and
shouldnt go without it. She wants to know if he can get Dogmatil here. Which of the
following appropriate reference:
a. Canadian hospital journal
b. American hospital journal
c. CPS
d. Martindale, The complete drug reference
e. National formulary
Ans-D
4-Cochrane collaboration is?
A-Evidenced based medicine database
B-A Canadian pharmacy journal
C-Collaboration of medical professionals
D-A natural products database
E-The group of people with same characteristics
Ans-A

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Information resources

61. Compendium of pharmaceutical specialties (CPS) is useful resource for locating


which of the following information?
A. Approved indication for all prescription pharmaceuticals in Canada
B. Detailed monographs for all prescription pharmaceuticals available in Canada
C. Clinical recommendations for dental prophylaxis of bacterial endocarditis
D. Canadian consensus guidelines on drug therapies used to treat asthma and COPD
E. Recommendation patient self-selection products in Canadian pharmacies
Ans-C
What is suitable reference source to locate information about immunization schedules in
Canada?
A-Martindale
B-USP-DI
C-Handbook of immunization
D-CPS
E-Vaccine manufacturer
Ans-D

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PHARMACY PREP
DRUG DISCOVERY AND DEVELOPMENT
1-What is correct about phase I clinical trials?
A-Healthy human volunteers are tested
B-Disease human volunteers are tested
C-Larger population than Phase II is tested
D-Drugs are approved for sale after phase III clinical trials.
Ans-A
2-All of the following are true about Phase III human clinical trial, EXCEPT?
A-Healthy human volunteers are tested
B-Disease human volunteers are tested
C-Larger population than Phase II is tested
D-Drugs are approved for sale after phase III clinical trials.
Ans-A
3-Medications that prescribed and sold over the counter are approved by?
A-Canadian Health Act
B-NAPRA
C-Health Canada
D-Federal Government of Canada
E-Provincial governments
Ans-C

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PHARMACY PREP
EPIDEMIOLOGY AND STATISTICAL METHODS
1-Which of the following studies are the most credible?
A-Single blind
B-Double blind
C-Meta analysis
D-Case reports
E-Case series

Ans-C
2-In controlled clinical trial, treatment should be allocated by
A-Randomization
B-Day of week
C-Date of birth
D-Hospital number
Ans-A
3-Choose the incorrect statement about the p (probability) value?
A- The p (probability) value is the chance of a type I error.
B- If a p value is equal to/or lower than 0.05, it is unlikely that a type I error has been
made; that is, a type I error will be made 5 times or less out of 100.
C- A p value equal to/or less than 0.05 is generally considered to be statistically
significant; lower p values (e.g., p < 0.01) may be required for statistical significance
in studies with large sample sizes.
D- The p (probability) value is the chance of a type II error.
Ans-D
4-Cohort is as study design, which is?
A-Common characteristic of a group
B-Past study comparison
C-Current study comparison
Ans-A
5. Randomization
A. Specific criteria are used to assign any patient to particular group.
B. No specific criteria are used to assign any patient to particular group.
C. In clinical trial ensuring compliance with government regulations
D. System or procedures designed to ensure that study is being performed
Ans.b

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PHARMACY PREP.
BIOSTATISTICS CALCULATIONS
The next four questions have as reference the following information:
In a chromatographic analysis of a drug we found the following results
2, 4, 8, 5, 7, 4 and standard deviation 5.
1- What is the mean in this analysis?
a) 4
b) 5
c) 30
d) 15
e) 6
2- What is the median in this analysis?
a) 2
b) 5
c) 4
d) 7
e) 8
3- What is the mode in this analysis?
a) 2
b) 4
c) 5
d) 7
e) 8
4- What is the Coefficient of variance?
a) 5
b) 10
c) 25
d) 50
e) 100
5- Type I error, also called alpha-error give what kind of results?
a) False-positive
b) False-negative
c) Positive false
d) False-false
e) Positive-positive
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6- Correct statements regarding biostatics error may include:


I- Type I error also known as -error can admit a variance error of 1 to 5%
II- Type II error also known as -error is a positive-false type of error because it shows a
very small difference-delta error (99,99998)
III- In type I error the data shows no difference but there is difference, it is false-positive
a) I only
b) III only
c) I and II only
d) II and III only
e) All are correct
7- Five subjects given a single intravenous dose of a drug have the following elimination
half-life: 3, 7, 2, 3 and 5hr. The mean half-life is:
a) 3hr
b) 2hr
c) 5.4hr
d) 4hr
e) 4.5hr
8- In a pharmacoepidemiologic study, a group of patients receiving a drug and WHO
share a common characteristic or conditioning such as age or diagnostic:
a) Cluster
b) Segment
c) Strata
d) Control
e) Cohort
9- In statistic a parametric test can be used to analyze data provided that:
I- There is homogeneity of variance among the groups
II- The data is normally distributed
III- That the level of significance (p) is not less than 0.05
a) I only
b) III only
c) I and II only
d) II and III only
e) All are correct
10- An increase in the incidence of diseases, conditions or other health related events in a
defined human population that is clearly in excess of that which was expected during a
specific time is called:
a) Epidemics
b) Endemics
c) Pandemics
d) Epidemiologic predisposition
e) All are correct
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11- Endemic diseases are conditions or health related behaviors that are constantly
present in human population. Example of endemic disease may include:
a) SARS
b) AIDS
c) Flu
d) Influenza
e) Cancer
12- Correct statement regarding primary prevention may include:
a) Early detection and treatment of the disease
b) Involve the palliative treatment and rehabilitation therapy
c) Reduction in the incidence of disease through immunization, education and others
d) The diagnostic of disease
e) Treatment of disease
13- In biostatistic the difference between the highest and lowest data observation is
called:
a) Mean
b) Mode
c) Median
d) Range
e) Standard deviation
14- In a biostatistics analysis, the normal distribution calculations found to have the
mean, media and mode with the same value. This is called:
a) Normal distribution
b) Symmetrical distribution
c) Measures of dispersion
d) Measure of central tendency
e) Standard deviation
15- In a biostatistic test of a drug, the normal distribution found was equal to 68%. We
may assume that the standard deviation from the mean value is:
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4
e) 5
16- In biostatistics, which of the following is not a statistical test?
a) Students test
b) Chi-square test
c) Null hypothesis
d) Paired-t test
e) F-distribution

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17- Statistical test where two treatments are applied to a single group of experimental unit
is called:
a) Students test
b) Paired-t test
c) F-distribution
d) Chi-square test
e) Measures of central tendency
18- Correct statements regarding BIAS include:
I- They are experimental errors
II- They can be classified in selection bias, information bias and confounding bias
III- Selection bias happens when the study results are distorted by the selection process
a) I only
b) III only
c) I and II only
d) II and III only
e) All are correct
19- Experimental error resulted from poor data collection or inaccurate measurement is
called:
a) Selection bias
b) Information bias
c) Confounding bias
d) Type II error
e) Type I error
20- In a clinical trial for development of a new drug, phase II procedures include:
a) Animal experiments
b) Pharmacokinetic test in a health adult
c) Safety and efficacy tests done in a large population that have the disease or condition
for what the drug is developed
d) Test the new drug with comparison of standard drug
e) Studies to compare the drug with its competitor
21- In your pharmacy you have a bottler of aspirin that cost $3,00. You would like to
reduce the price of aspirin to $2,80 because you believe this will increase the sales of
aspirin from 55 to 85 bottles. What would be the coefficient of elasticity?
a) 0
b) 1
c) 2
d) 3
e) 5

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22- With the results of the coefficient of elasticity from question 21, we can assume that
the revenue will:
a) Be the same as before
b) Be increased
c) Be decreased
d) Have neither increase nor decrease
e) Have loss
23-Distribution and determinants of disease frequency in human studies is
A-Epidemiology
B-Biostatistics
C-Publisher
D-Socio economics
Ans-A
Difference between means to two samples can statistically analysed by?
A- T-tests
B- Analysis of variance:
C- Chi square test
D-Correlation
E-Multiple regression
Ans-A
Differences between means of more than two samples can statistically analysed by.
A- T-tests
B- Analysis of variance:
C- Chi square test
D-Correlation
E-Multiple regression
Ans-B
Differences between frequencies in a sample can statistically analysed by?
A- T-tests
B- Analysis of variance:
C- Chi square test
D-Correlation
E-Multiple regression
Ans-C

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CORRECT ANSWERS:
1- B 2+4+8+5+7+4 = 5
6
2- C 2, 4, 4, 5, 7, 8
3- B 2, 4, 4, 5, 7, 8
4- E Coef. of Variance = Standard Dev. x 100 = 5 x 100 = 100
Mean
5
5- A
Comments: Type I error is used in biostatistics analysis and classified as False-Positive
test because it can accept a variance error in the test of 1 to 5%, however this difference
does not mean complete error of the test.
6- E
Comments: Type I error, please read answer 5. Type II error (-error) is a PositiveFalse test because the variance of error is very small (Delta error), so the data shows
difference but there is no difference.
7- D

3+7+2+3+5 = 4
5

8- E
Comments: In pharmacoepidemiology, cohort is a study design of a group of people who
are either of the same age or share some other common characteristics
9- E
10- A
Comments: Epidemics are an increase in the incidence of diseases, conditions or other
health related events in a defined human population that is clearly in excess of that which
was expected during a specific time is called. Example: Flu
11- B
Comments: Endemics diseases are conditions or health related behaviours that are
constantly present in a human population. Example: AIDS
12- C
Comments: Primary prevention is a reduction in incidence of disease through
immunization, sanitation, education or other means of eliminating pathogenic
contamination in the human environment.
13- D
Comments: Range is the difference between the highest and lowest data observation.
Example: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10. The range is 10-2= 8

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14- B
Comments: Symmetrical distribution happens when the mean, median and mode are the
same valour in a given data.
15- A
Comments: Number of standard deviation from the mean data characterizing the normal
population: 68% = 1, 95% = 2, 99% = 3, 99.99% = 4
16- C
Comments: Null hypothesis is not a statistical test it is a hypothesis test that states no
difference between the hypothesis and the reality (test done).
17- D
Comments: Paired-t test is a type of test where two treatments are applied to a single
group of experimental unit. Example: The bioavailability test of generic drug to its
reference standard drug in a group of people.
18- E
Comments: Bias are experimental errors normally classified in selection bias also called
sampling, information bias also called misclassification and confounding bias.
19- B
Comments: Information bias also called misclassification is a type of experimental error
happening when the study results become distorted by poor data collection or inaccurate
measurement.
20- C
Comments: In a phase II clinical trial the drugs is tested for safety and efficacy in a large
population that have the disease or conditions for what the drug is developed.
21- E

E=Q
P

Q = 85 x 100 = 154
55
154 93 = 61

P = 2.8 x 100 = 93
3
E = 30 = 0.4
61
22- B

Values range of coefficient of elasticity: = 1 No loss, no gain


> 1 Increase in revenue
< 1 Loss

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BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCE
1- COMPREHENSIVE PHARMACY REVIEW Lippincott William & Wilkins
Fourth edition
2- CPS-COMPENDIUM OF PHARMACEUTICALS AND SPECIALITIES - Canadian
Pharmacist Association 2001 edition.
3- MEDICAL DICTIONARY Dorlands illustrated 27th edition.
4- PHARMACY PREP Lectures series & study guide for Evaluating ExaminationTIPS - 2003/2004
5- THERAPUTIC CHOICES Canadian Pharmacist Association -Third edition
6- USP DI Drug Information for the Health Care Professional15th edition Volume I.

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