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- Continution Hypothesis Testing
- statistics syllabus
- Introduction
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- agresti_1992
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- Statistics FinalReview
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- Statistics Two Workbook
- Thesis Writing
- Hypothesis Test Example for Population Mean (1)
- Instruction
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Sampling Distributions

Confidence Intervals

Hypothesis Tests

Using StatTools

Test 2 Review

Betsy Greenberg

Betsy Greenberg

Elementary Business Statistics – Inference Review

McCombs

Prepare for Test 2

Sampling Distributions

1

Prepare for Test 2

2

Sampling Distributions

3

Confidence Intervals

4

Hypothesis Tests

5

Using StatTools

Betsy Greenberg

Elementary Business Statistics – Inference Review

Confidence Intervals

Hypothesis Tests

Using StatTools

McCombs

Prepare for Test 2

Sampling Distributions

Confidence Intervals

Hypothesis Tests

Using StatTools

Prepare for Test #2

**Use ”What have we learned?”
**

Understand all terms

**Solve extra problems
**

Text has many exercises

Solve as many as you have time for

Betsy Greenberg

Elementary Business Statistics – Inference Review

McCombs

Prepare for Test 2

Sampling Distributions

Confidence Intervals

Hypothesis Tests

Using StatTools

Prepare for Test #1

**Try the sample test
**

Make TWO pages of notes (both sides)

Include definitions, formulas, Excel and StatTools instructions,

z∗ values, etc.

Anything you want

Put your name on your sheet of notes. It will be collected

when you have completed the test.

Betsy Greenberg

Elementary Business Statistics – Inference Review

McCombs

Prepare for Test 2

Sampling Distributions

Confidence Intervals

Hypothesis Tests

Using StatTools

What to bring

ID

2 pages of notes (both sides)

Pencils

Blank paper will be provided

Betsy Greenberg

Elementary Business Statistics – Inference Review

McCombs

Prepare for Test 2

Sampling Distributions

Confidence Intervals

Hypothesis Tests

Using StatTools

Where is the test?

**Test is in the MOD Lab - CBA 5.304/5.325
**

Login with your McCombs password

Lab computers use Office 2014

Data Analysis and StatTools are available

Betsy Greenberg

Elementary Business Statistics – Inference Review

McCombs

Prepare for Test 2

Sampling Distributions

Confidence Intervals

Hypothesis Tests

Using StatTools

What’s included in the Test?

All of Chapter 9

Chapter 10 except for 10.7

All of Chapter 11

Chapter 12 except for 12.5 and 12.6

Betsy Greenberg

Elementary Business Statistics – Inference Review

McCombs

Prepare for Test 2

Sampling Distributions

Confidence Intervals

Hypothesis Tests

Using StatTools

Sampling Distribution of pˆ

**The mean of the samplingq
**

distribution is p

The standard deviation is p(1−p)

n

Since p is unknown,

we use the standard error instead which is

Betsy Greenberg

Elementary Business Statistics – Inference Review

q

p(1−

ˆ

p)

ˆ

n

McCombs

Prepare for Test 2

Sampling Distributions

Confidence Intervals

Hypothesis Tests

Using StatTools

Sampling Distribution of y¯

If yi has mean µ and standard

deviation

σ,

P y1 +···+y

n

y¯ =

has mean µ

n

If the yi s are independent,

the standard deviation = √σn

Since σ is typically unknown,

it will be estimated with the

sample standard deviation, s

The standard error is

Betsy Greenberg

Elementary Business Statistics – Inference Review

√s

n

McCombs

Prepare for Test 2

Sampling Distributions

Confidence Intervals

Hypothesis Tests

Using StatTools

Statistical Inference

**Methods for drawing conclusions about a population from
**

sample data are called statistical inference

Methods

1

**Confidence Intervals – estimating a value of a population
**

parameter

2

**Tests of significance – assess evidence for a claim about a
**

population

Betsy Greenberg

Elementary Business Statistics – Inference Review

McCombs

Prepare for Test 2

Sampling Distributions

Confidence Intervals

Hypothesis Tests

Using StatTools

**Checklist for Inference
**

Independence:

The sampled values must be independent of each other.

Randomization:

The sample is a simple random sample from the relevant

population.

10% condition:

Sample size is less than 10% of the population size.

Sample size condition:

Success\failure condition for proportions

Nearly normal condition for means

Betsy Greenberg

Elementary Business Statistics – Inference Review

McCombs

Prepare for Test 2

Sampling Distributions

Confidence Intervals

Hypothesis Tests

Using StatTools

**Specific sample size conditions:
**

Confidence Interval for proportion:

Both npˆ and n(1 − p)

ˆ are at least 10.

Hypothesis test for proportion:

Both np0 and n(1 − p0 ) are at least 10.

CI and Tests for means:

n is greater than both 10(skewness)2 and 10|kurtosis|

**Use Excel function SKEW and KURT
**

Betsy Greenberg

Elementary Business Statistics – Inference Review

McCombs

Prepare for Test 2

Sampling Distributions

Confidence Intervals

Hypothesis Tests

Using StatTools

Confidence Intervals

A confidence interval has the form:

Estimate ± Margin of Error

Estimate ± (z ∗ or t ∗ ) × Standard Error (SE)

Betsy Greenberg

Elementary Business Statistics – Inference Review

McCombs

Prepare for Test 2

Sampling Distributions

Confidence Intervals

Hypothesis Tests

Using StatTools

Confidence Intervals

The confidence level C , shows how confident we are that the

procedure will catch the true population parameter.

The procedures give confidence intervals that C% of the time

will include the true population parameter

Type of Problems

Proportions

Mean

Matched pairs

Two (independent) samples

Betsy Greenberg

Elementary Business Statistics – Inference Review

McCombs

Prepare for Test 2

Sampling Distributions

Confidence Intervals

Hypothesis Tests

Using StatTools

Confidence Intervals for: Population Proportion, p

= Number of successes

number of trials

q

ˆ

p)

ˆ

Standard Error: SE = p(1−

n

Estimate: pˆ =

X

n

Critical Value: z ∗

Margin of Error:

z ∗ SE

Betsy Greenberg

Elementary Business Statistics – Inference Review

=

z∗

q

p(1−

ˆ

p)

ˆ

n

McCombs

Prepare for Test 2

Sampling Distributions

Confidence Intervals

Hypothesis Tests

Using StatTools

Finding ±z ∗ for 95% confidence

NORM.INV(0.025, 0, 1)

Betsy Greenberg

Elementary Business Statistics – Inference Review

and

NORM.INV(0.975,0,1)

McCombs

Prepare for Test 2

Sampling Distributions

Confidence Intervals

Hypothesis Tests

Using StatTools

Finding ±z ∗ for 99% confidence

NORM.INV(0.005, 0, 1)

Betsy Greenberg

Elementary Business Statistics – Inference Review

and

NORM.INV(0.995,0,1)

McCombs

Prepare for Test 2

Sampling Distributions

Confidence Intervals

Hypothesis Tests

Using StatTools

**Confidence Intervals for: One Population Mean
**

Estimate: y¯ (Excel fn: AVERAGE)

Standard Error: SE = √sn

qP

(x−¯

y )2

where s =

(Excel fn: STDEV.S)

n−1

Degrees of freedom: k = n − 1

Critical Value: t ∗ for a distribution t(k)

Margin of Error: t ∗ SE = t ∗

Betsy Greenberg

Elementary Business Statistics – Inference Review

√s

n

McCombs

Prepare for Test 2

Sampling Distributions

Confidence Intervals

Hypothesis Tests

Using StatTools

**Comparing Two Groups
**

Pared Data

Confidence interval for µdifference :

Calculate the differences and then treat as one sample:

s

y¯ ± t ∗ √

n

Two Independent Samples

Confidence interval for µ1 − µ2 :

s

(¯

y1 − y¯2 ) ± t ∗

Betsy Greenberg

Elementary Business Statistics – Inference Review

s12

s2

+ 2

n1 n2

McCombs

Prepare for Test 2

Sampling Distributions

Confidence Intervals

Hypothesis Tests

Using StatTools

Finding ±t ∗ for 95% confidence and df = n - 1

T.INV(0.025, df)

Betsy Greenberg

Elementary Business Statistics – Inference Review

and

T.INV(0.975, df)

McCombs

Prepare for Test 2

Sampling Distributions

Confidence Intervals

Hypothesis Tests

Using StatTools

Finding ±t ∗ for 99% confidence and df = n - 1

T.INV(0.005, df)

Betsy Greenberg

Elementary Business Statistics – Inference Review

and

T.INV(0.995, df)

McCombs

Prepare for Test 2

Sampling Distributions

Confidence Intervals

Hypothesis Tests

Using StatTools

**What does 95% Confidence Mean?
**

We are 95% confident that the true value lies in our interval

We are using a procedure that gives an interval that includes

the true value 95% of the time. 5% of the time that we use

this procedure, we will get unlucky and the true value will be

outside of the interval.

The true value is probably inside of the interval.

Betsy Greenberg

Elementary Business Statistics – Inference Review

McCombs

Prepare for Test 2

Sampling Distributions

Confidence Intervals

Hypothesis Tests

Using StatTools

Hypothesis Tests

Hypotheses State claims, H0 and Ha , about a population in terms

of the population parameter

Model Are the Independence, Randomness, 10% Condition,

and Sample Size Conditions satisfied?

Mechanics Calculate the test statistic and P-value

pˆ − p0

z=q

p0 (1−p0 )

n

t=

y¯ − µ0

√s

n

t=

(¯

y1 − y¯2 ) − 0

q 2

s1

s22

+

n1

n2

**Conclusion Compare the P-value and the significance level, α
**

If the P-value ≤ α, reject H0 . Say the results are

statistically significant.

Betsy Greenberg

Elementary Business Statistics – Inference Review

McCombs

Prepare for Test 2

Sampling Distributions

Confidence Intervals

Hypothesis Tests

Using StatTools

Hypothesis Tests

Hypotheses State claims, H0 and Ha , about a population in terms

of the population parameter

Model Are the Independence, Randomness, 10% Condition,

and Sample Size Conditions satisfied?

Mechanics Calculate the test statistic and P-value

value from data − value from H0

SE

Conclusion Compare the P-value and the significance level, α

If the P-value ≤ α, reject H0 . Say the results are

statistically significant.

Betsy Greenberg

Elementary Business Statistics – Inference Review

McCombs

Prepare for Test 2

Sampling Distributions

Confidence Intervals

Hypothesis Tests

Using StatTools

Two Types of Errors

Betsy Greenberg

Elementary Business Statistics – Inference Review

McCombs

Prepare for Test 2

Sampling Distributions

Confidence Intervals

Hypothesis Tests

Using StatTools

Error probabilities

α = P(Type I error)

= P(reject H0 when H0 is true)

= significance level

β = P(Type II error)

= P(fail to reject H0 when H0 is false)

depends on the true value of p

Power = 1 − β

Betsy Greenberg

Elementary Business Statistics – Inference Review

McCombs

Prepare for Test 2

Sampling Distributions

Confidence Intervals

Hypothesis Tests

Using StatTools

P-value for Proportions

**One-tailed tests
**

HA : p > p0

=1-NORM.DIST( p,

ˆ p0 ,

q

p0 (1−p0 )

n

, 1)

HA : p < p0

=NORM.DIST(p,

ˆ p0 ,

q

p0 (1−p0 )

n

, 1)

**Two-tailed test
**

HA : p 6= p0

Double one of the above

Betsy Greenberg

Elementary Business Statistics – Inference Review

McCombs

Prepare for Test 2

Sampling Distributions

Confidence Intervals

Hypothesis Tests

Using StatTools

**P-value for Means
**

One-tailed tests

HA : µ > µ0

Use =T.DIST.RT(t,deg freedom)

HA : µ < µ0

Use =T.DIST(t,deg freedom,1)

**Two-tailed test
**

HA : µ 6= µ0

Use =T.DIST.2T(ABS(t),deg freedom)

Betsy Greenberg

Elementary Business Statistics – Inference Review

McCombs

Prepare for Test 2

Sampling Distributions

Confidence Intervals

Hypothesis Tests

Using StatTools

**StatTools > Statistical Inference
**

First use the Data Set Manager

Select Confidence Interval or Hypothesis Test

Betsy Greenberg

Elementary Business Statistics – Inference Review

McCombs

Prepare for Test 2

Sampling Distributions

Confidence Intervals

Hypothesis Tests

Using StatTools

StatTools > Statistical Inference

**Next select Proportion or Mean/Std Deviation
**

Then fill out the dialog box

Betsy Greenberg

Elementary Business Statistics – Inference Review

McCombs

Prepare for Test 2

Sampling Distributions

Confidence Intervals

Hypothesis Tests

Using StatTools

**Confidence Interval for one Proportion:
**

Make a table with counts or proportions for success and failure

Table must have column titles. Use the Data Set Manager

StatTools > Statistical Inference > Confidence Interval >

Proportion

Select One-Sample Analysis and Summary Table with Counts

or Proportions (depending on your data)

Select your level of confidence. If your summary data is

proportions, enter the sample size.

Betsy Greenberg

Elementary Business Statistics – Inference Review

McCombs

Prepare for Test 2

Sampling Distributions

Confidence Intervals

Hypothesis Tests

Using StatTools

**Hypothesis Test for one Proportion:
**

Make a table with counts or proportions for success and failure

Table must have column titles. Use the Data Set Manager

StatTools > Statistical Inference > Hypothesis Test >

Proportion

Select One-Sample Analysis and Summary Table with Counts

or Proportions (depending on your data)

Select the null and alternative hypothesis

If your summary data is proportions, enter the sample size.

Betsy Greenberg

Elementary Business Statistics – Inference Review

McCombs

Prepare for Test 2

Sampling Distributions

Confidence Intervals

Hypothesis Tests

Using StatTools

Confidence Interval for one Mean:

**StatTools > Statistical Inference > Confidence Interval >
**

Mean/Std. Deviation

Select One-Sample Analysis and check For the Mean

Betsy Greenberg

Elementary Business Statistics – Inference Review

McCombs

Prepare for Test 2

Sampling Distributions

Confidence Intervals

Hypothesis Tests

Using StatTools

Hypothesis Test for one Mean:

**StatTools > Statistical Inference > Hypothesis Test >
**

Mean/Std. Deviation

Select One-Sample Analysis and check For the Mean

Select the null and alternative hypothesis

Betsy Greenberg

Elementary Business Statistics – Inference Review

McCombs

Prepare for Test 2

Sampling Distributions

Confidence Intervals

Hypothesis Tests

Using StatTools

Hypothesis Test for Matched Pairs

**StatTools > Statistical Inference > Hypothesis Test >
**

Mean/Std. Deviation

Select Paired Sample Analysis and check For the Mean

Select the null and alternative hypothesis

Betsy Greenberg

Elementary Business Statistics – Inference Review

McCombs

Prepare for Test 2

Sampling Distributions

Confidence Intervals

Hypothesis Tests

Using StatTools

Confidence Interval for Matched Pairs

**StatTools > Statistical Inference > Confidence Interval >
**

Mean/Std. Deviation

Select Paired Sample Analysis and check For the Mean

Betsy Greenberg

Elementary Business Statistics – Inference Review

McCombs

Prepare for Test 2

Sampling Distributions

Confidence Intervals

Hypothesis Tests

Using StatTools

Hypothesis Test for Two Independent Samples

**StatTools > Statistical Inference > Hypothesis Test >
**

Mean/Std. Deviation

Select Two-Sample Analysis and check For the Mean

Select the null and alternative hypothesis

Betsy Greenberg

Elementary Business Statistics – Inference Review

McCombs

Prepare for Test 2

Sampling Distributions

Confidence Intervals

Hypothesis Tests

Using StatTools

Confidence Interval for Two Independent Samples

**StatTools > Statistical Inference > Confidence Interval >
**

Mean/Std. Deviation

Select Two-Sample Analysis and check For the Mean

Betsy Greenberg

Elementary Business Statistics – Inference Review

McCombs

Prepare for Test 2

Sampling Distributions

Confidence Intervals

Hypothesis Tests

Using StatTools

Sample Size Calculations

**StatTools > Statistical Inference > Sample Size Selection
**

Select Mean or Proportion as needed

Half-Length of Interval is the desired margin of error

Betsy Greenberg

Elementary Business Statistics – Inference Review

McCombs

Prepare for Test 2

Sampling Distributions

Confidence Intervals

Hypothesis Tests

Using StatTools

Using StatTools with only Summary Data

Proportions

Make a table with your data giving categories and either

counts or proportions

Change data format to Summary Table with Counts or

Summary Table with Proportions

Means

Make fake data and use the appropriate StatTools procedure

Correct the results by changing the sample size, mean, and

standard deviation

Betsy Greenberg

Elementary Business Statistics – Inference Review

McCombs

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