1961: Describe and compare the excretory system of a flatworm (Platyhelminthes), an earthworm (Annelida), and a grasshopper (Arthropoda).

Include labeled diagrams with your answer. 1962: a. Compare the digestive system of a planarian with that of an earthworm. b. Compare the body wall of a hydra with that of a tapeworm. c. Compare the circulatory system of a crayfish with that of an earthworm. DO NOT ANSWER THIS QUESTION!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 1967: Nitrogenous waste products are excreted by animals in various forms. Many aquatic animals excrete ammonia, birds and reptiles excrete uric acid, and man excretes urea. Describe the formation of two of these waste products and discuss the adaptive value of these three methods of nitrogenous excretion. 1996: Structure and function are related in the various organ systems of animals. Select two of the following four organ systems in vertebrates: * respiratory * digestive * excretory * nervous For each of the two systems you choose, discuss the structure and function of two adaptations that aid in the transport or exchange of molecules (or ions). Be sure to related structure to function in each example Additional required NON-AP Exam question: Using page 639 of your textbook, describe the cleavage patterns, coelom formation, and fate of blastopore. You may use diagrams to supplement your written descriptions but you will not be given any credit for them. Plagiarism will result in a forfeiture of all points.

1961: The flatworm, earthworm and grasshopper have very different kinds of excretory systems. With the flatworm (Platyhelminthes) being the most basic, then the earthworm (Annelida), to the grasshopper (Arthropoda ) being the most complex. The flatworm has only one pore for mouth and anus, but the grasshopper and the earthworm has 2 holes, one for the mouth and one for the anus. The flatworm uses the nephridium as their excretory system. In the diagram below, you can see this pore. For the grasshopper and earthworms, its quite simple also. The food goes in one end and pops out another. The solid waste of a earthworm, called castings, are very important for a healthy soil. The earthworm uses an excretory pore called nephridia, which is also used in all the other annelids. Each segment contains this pore and the pore is connected to a metanephridia which are primitive kidneys for the worm. The nephridium can be seen in the diagram below. The grasshopper excretory system is the most complex. The grasshopper like the earthworm has two openings. Body fluids goes are drawn to the malphigian tubules in the abdomen of the grasshopper. The body fluids are returned to the body but the nitrogenous waste continues to the grasshopper’s gut. Finally, the nitrogenous waste is excreted as uric acid. In the diagram, you can see the malphigian tubes of a grasshopper.

1962: a. Planarians One opening for mouth and anus. Has a pharynx for food getting. Gastrovascular cavity Suck for food. b. Hydra 2 germ layers Body wall creates a mouth Can release toxic needles

Earthworms Two openings, one for the mouth and one for the anus. Has a mouth for food getting. Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, crop, gizzard and intestine Uses lips to “grab” food

Tapeworm 3 germ layers The body wall is the mouth Have tiny threads to attach

c. Crayfish Opened circulatory system One dorsal heart Respiration occurs through the body surface, gills, trachea, and/or book lungs Uses copper to carry oxygen Blood is with body fluid

Earthworm Closed circulatory system 5 hearts Respiration occurs on the surface of the skin when its wet Use hemoglobin to carry oxygen Blood is separate from body fluid

1996: Respiratory: The respiratory system consists of very simple things. It consists of the lungs diaphragm, heart and the blood tubes. The blood tubes are the veins, vessels and capillaries. Vessels carry oxygen rich blood and veins carries oxygen poor blood. Capillaries are microscopic blood vessels that go to your tip of your fingers. Through evolution, the capillary walls thinned and became permeable to the blood cells so that the oxygen molecules can go through the vessel wall to the cell. The air goes through the nose and down the oral pharynx and into the left and right bronchi. The left side of the lung only has two lobes while the right lung has three. Inside the lungs there are alveoli which is where the oxygen transfer from the air to the blood. The heart has four chambers and the left atrium it the biggest because it pumps the blood all around the body. The main organ that actually allows you to breathe in and take in air is the diaphragm. When you breathe in, the diaphragm enlarges or releases pressure so that air can come into the lungs. When you breathe out, the diaphragm contracts and increase the pressure so that the air would go out. Nervous: The nervous system is very complex. Throughout the body, there are sensory cells known as neurons. There are three types of neurons. Sensory neurons are for sensing and sending back information to the brain. Motor neurons control the muscles. Relay neurons are like transmitters which connects all the neuron cells. On a neuron, there are three main parts. The dendrites receive information from another cell. The axon sends information to another cell. The cell body is the main part of the cells attaching both arms. So when you start transferring impulses, the impulse goes through a evolved tube called the Myelin Sheath. This tube basically makes the impulses go faster because of ionic concentration. This helps to deliver messages from far distances. The 2 main structures are the brain and the spinal cord. Both of those structures have gray and white matter. White is basically axons and gray matter is mostly cell bodies. The brain’s main goal is to keep homeostasis. It is split into two halves/regions which are symmetrical. The brain has three main parts. The cerebrum, cerebellum and the brain stem. The cerebrum is for higher thinking and logic which includes the neocortex which is only found in humans. The cerebellum is instinctive features such as running away and hiding. This part of the brain is like a brain of the lizard. The last part of the brain is the most simplest. It controls the involuntary motions such as breathing a blinking. The spinal cord has two main functions. The cord connects the brain to the muscle neurons and muscle cells. It is also a minor coordination center for simple reflexes.

NON-AP Exam question: The differences between protostomes and deuterostomes are very obvious and easy to understand. When the cells are developing, the cleavage differs. It becomes easily seen in the eight-cell stage. The protostomes has a spiral and determinate type of cleavage, while the deuterostome has a radial and indeterminate cleavage. The deuterostome is more roundish while the protostomes have a more flat circle shape. The coelom formation is also quite different. For the protostomes, the coelom settles in between the ectoderm and the endoderm and it sits at the bottom. For the deuterostome, the coelom is attached to the endoderm and it forms two bumps. The fate of the blastopore is only a slight difference. The protostomes has a only a mouth while the deuterostome has an anus and a mouth forms from a secondary hole.

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