Edmund Fung Demon in the Freezer Questions 1.

WHO-They ruled to keep all the patients out of hospitals so it doesn’t spread. This is because the virus can spread very easily in a hospital since all patients have a disadvantage due to the cause that took them to the hospital. Hospitals are amplifiers of variola. From the hospital, it can go out to different parts of the world. WHO would like all the infected to stay in their own houses and basically let them die. Since the doctors cannot really do much, there is no use of associating a doctor with the patient. The WHO also have a stockpile of million of doses of smallpox vaccine in downtown Geneva. Germans-The Germans wanted to vaccinate everyone who may have contact or not with a special German vaccine. The WHO highly objected and said that the German vaccine was out dated and unless. Therefore, the WHO urge the Germans to use the WHO smallpox vaccine in conjunction with the German vaccine. Their tactic was the ring-vaccination. This is where everyone around the area with smallpox is vaccinated so that the virus has no where to go. Smallpox Eradication Program-This program is led by the Soviet Union. The WHO donated most of their vaccine to this program. The vaccine is a poxvirus which is closely related to a smallpox virus. Although the people who gets this vaccine may get sick and very few die, they do get immunity for a week or so. Personally, I would go with the Germans. Firstly, their ring-vaccination idea has worked. In the book, it mentions Foege who used the ringvaccination idea in Nigeria and it worked; choking off the virus. Secondly using vaccines seems more ethnical than letting people die. 2. FBI-The FBI hindered USAMRIID by using up the reference labs to do forensic evidence for bioterror event. In the same case, the FBI would work with the USAMRIID together to solve the mystery. Another way the FBI hindered USAMRIID was that the Army confirms that the anthrax powder was extremely fine and dangerous, but Kuhlman from the FBI was claiming that the powder was ten to fifty times less dangerous than the USAMRIID confirmed. The argument at the meeting heated up very quickly. CIA-The CIA helped USAMRIID by getting control of the JacksonRamshaw paper that was published. This is because it seemed like a vulnerability to the government’s plans to assemble a stockpile of vaccine. CIA didn’t really hinder, but they didn’t provide much help. This is because since the bioweapon program ended in 1969, the CIA has lost much of its biology knowledge.

CDC-Only CDC had the smallpox virus other than Russia. This is where USAMRIID got their right to use the virus on monkeys and this is where they got the actually virus. They helped USAMRIID by letting them study smallpox and to do test on them. But for them to use it, they must prove that they can make a vaccine for it. This is why USAMRIID tested smallpox on the monkeys. The first time they failed. The CDC hindered the USAMRIID by not letting then test for a while. At last, USAMRIID go their test through. 3. The Amerithrax was made to solve the bioterrorest issues. Other than the 5 homicides, there were a couple more important items. Amerithrax split in the 1 and 2. 1 was classic detective style. 2 was more of the scientific style. Murch also said that the classic detective work would solve the issue, not the fancy science stuff. During research they believe that the mails were probably sent using Opsecs. Opsec is operation security. This is where the actual lead doesn’t do anything but lead. The leader will hire random other people to do the actual work therefore the real leader can never be traced back. 4. Bacchus is a program lead by the CIA and it was a secret program. This purpose was to see if terrorist could be able to buy ordinary equipment and make anthrax with it without being known. Yes, they accomplished it but making a surrogate not the real anthrax. They made BT. Its similar to Amerithrax because they both deal with terrorist making anthrax. In ways it help Amerithrax because it prove that terrorist were able to produce anthrax without being known. The difference was that Bacchus was just an experiment and alone it proves nothing other than that it was possible to make anthrax secretly. But on the other hand, Amerithrax has a problem to solve on a bigger scale, not just proving something. 5. Mr. Hatfill did have a suspicious character. He enjoyed working with ebola and smallpox at the same time. He also claims he is finding a possible cure for smallpox. Also he has an equipment which can grow human tissue to do testing on. The claims that he made which were not true: --Never worked in special forces. --Never got a Ph.D from Rhode University in South Africa. He was given a national security clearance in 1999. Later he ask for a higher-level clearance through a application with a back ground check. In the August of 2001 the government removed all his clearances. 2 months later, the anthrax was mailed.

6. IL-4 mousepox was engineered by man named Jackson. He was part of the Co-operative Research Center for the Biological Control of Pest Animals, in Canberra. They did it because they were trying to sterilize mice, therefore controlling the population. But instead the result concluded that 90% of the mice including immune ones were wiped out. All the scientist did was put in one foreign gene. The IL-4 gene. 7. In the last few pages of the book, Mark Martinez kept an arm of a 3-4 year old girl. It was an American girl who died of variola major. The symptoms was that she was covered in smallpox pustules. She died when the pustules were crusting. The effect to Jarling, Hensley, and the author was that in the future most of the people would be living in cities. Therefore with on person with smallpox, it would spread at the speed of light. Also all three of them realized that complete eradication was impossible. Eradication from the natural world was possible but not from the hands of humans. 8. Of course I think we can have a resurgence of smallpox in the society of the USA. Of course actually I China would be hit also just cause they have so many people. In the USA terrorist would most likely use smallpox as a bioweapon. This is because smallpox is so easy to manipulate, just like what it said in the book. You can edit the gene of the smallpox with a little online training. Not only that, smallpox transfer easily. Of course there is Ebola, but yet it is hard to control. In conclusion, I think humans will have a third world war but this time with bioweapons. Therefore US will be hit with smallpox. Since viruses can alter, the different kinds of virus work together creating an unknown virus. Finally the virus wipes out human kind. I always have a thought that in the cycle of this living earth, it will at one time again be ruled by viruses and bacteria. Once again going to unicellular. All this will be sparked by a bio world war starting with our play with smallpox. 9. When the Jackson-Ramshaw was published it had a small burst of attention and media. They published it in the Journal of Virology in February 2001. The reaction was that it was published and spread throughout the web. The concerns was that the book explained how to make the virus and explain how they found out and what they found out. The Australian government said that they should publish it so that it doesn’t looked like they were making a bioweapon.

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