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Road Types and

Terminology
By:
Curtis F. Berthelot Ph.D., P.Eng.
Department of Civil Engineering

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Lecture Objectives

Discuss common types of road structures.


Define common road terminology used in the road
engineering profession.

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Introduction

Objective of road transportation system:


Move people and goods in a manner that is:
Effective
Efficient
Safe
Comfortable
Lowest whole life cycle total costs:
Road agency costs
Road user costs

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National Highway
Systems

National road highway networks date back to antiquity:


Roman Empire.
Modern road networks:
French Autoroute-Napoleonic Empire.
German Autobahn prior to WWII.
Italian Autostrada prior to WWII.
US National Highway System Act 1948:
Interstate system present value $1T.
Canadas road network present value $50 to 100B.
Saskatchewan road network valued at $7B.
There is a distinct correlation between national
prosperity (GNP) and the efficiency of that nations
road transportation system.
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Common Road Types

Prairie Trails-Dirt Roads.


Gravel Roads.
BST: Bitumen Surface Treatment Roads (nonstructural
dust free):
TMS: Thin Membrane Surfaced.
AMOS: Asphalt Mat on Subgrade.
Double Seal on Granular.
In-Place Recycled/Reverted BST.

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Common Road Types

Road Types contd:


Flexible Pavements: Asphalt Concrete Surface Coarse:
Conventional Pavement: Subgrade, Subbase, Base,
HMAC.
Sandwiched.
Full Depth Asphalt Concrete.

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Common Road Types

Rigid Pavements: Portland Cement Concrete Surface


Coarse:
Jointed Plain Concrete Pavements (JPCP).
Jointed Reinforced Concrete Pavements (JRCP).
Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavements
(CRCP).
Prestressed Concrete Pavement (PCP).
Roller Compacted Concrete Pavement (RCCP).

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Common Road Types

Composite Pavements:
PCC on AC (white topping)
AC on PCC (black topping)
Specialty Pavements:
Airports
Industrial-heavy loads
Race Tracks, etc

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Selection of Road Type

The type of road constructed is a balance between:


Whole life cycle economics
User utility
Functionality
Risk assessment
Long term sustainability

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Saskatchewan Road
Network

Saskatchewan provincial highway road network is


comprised of 25,688 km:
11,578 km of structural pavements.
8,470 km of BSTs.
5,640 km of gravel highways.
Total:
11,578 km structural paved roads.
14,110 km nonstructural roads.

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Saskatchewan Road
Network

Saskatchewan municipal road network is comprised of


166,529 km:
8,573 km of primary grid roads.
3,040 km paved.
5,543 km gravel.
12,641 km of gravel grid roads.
29,357 km of farm access roads.
2,654 km of special roads.
435 km paved.
2,219 km gravel.
63,388 km of local access roads.
45,416 km of land access or bladed trails.
14,500 km of prairie trails.

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Prairie Trails and


Dirt Roads

May or may not have a prepared subgrade.


Typically across virgin prairie.
Typically exist for personal use.
Dust/mud.

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Prairie Trails and


Dirt Roads

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Prairie Trails and


Dirt Roads

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Gravel Roads

Prepared subgrade.
Granular wearing coarse.
Good performance obtained throughout gravel
punching into road surface to form a hard crust.
Easy to maintain with motorgrader.
Dust/mud.
Stone chips.
Washboarding.
Softspots.

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Gravel Roads

Gravel Surface
Gravel Crust

....

Prepared Subgrade

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Gravel Roads

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Gravel Roads

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Gravel Roads

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Gravel Roads

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Gravel Roads

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Gravel Roads

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Gravel Roads

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Gravel Roads

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Gravel Roads

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Bitumen Surface
Treated Roads

BSTs have a thin lift of a bituminous concrete to


provide a dust free and mud free wearing surface:
Oil Treatment
TMS: Thin Membrane Surfaced
AMOS: Asphalt Mat on Subgrade
Double Seal on Granular
In-Place Recycled/Reverted BST

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Bitumen Surface
Treated Roads

Bituminous Surface

....

Gravel Crust
Prepared Subgrade

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Oil Treatment

Constructed by spraying bitumen to the surface of a


gravel road:
Asphalt emulsion
Cutback asphalt
Oil Field Sludge oil
Tall oil
Provide a dust free wearing coarse.
Helps shed water.
Intended for low truck traffic.

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Oil Treatment

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Thin Membrane Surface


(TMS)

TMSs are constructed of a 40mm lift of cold mix


asphalt concrete on prepared subgrade to provide a dust
free and mud free wearing surface.
Originally intended for granular subgrades with little
truck traffic.
Have been built on all subgrades.
Can be easily maintained by sandvicblading in hot
weather.
Non structural.

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Thin Membrane Surface


(TMS)

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Thin Membrane Surface


(TMS)

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Thin Membrane Surface


(TMS)

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Thin Membrane Surface


(TMS)

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Thin Membrane Surface


(TMS)

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Thin Membrane Surface


(TMS)

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Thin Membrane Surface


(TMS)

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Thin Membrane Surface


(TMS)

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Thin Membrane Surface


(TMS)

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Thin Membrane Surface


(TMS)

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Asphalt Mat on Subgrade


(AMOS)

AMOSs are constructed of a 40mm to 150mm lift of hot


mix asphalt concrete wearing coarse on prepared
subgrade.
Provides a dust free and mud free wearing surface.
Provides some structural strength.
Originally intended for granular subgrades with little to
moderate truck traffic.
Have been built on all subgrade types.

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Asphalt Mat on Subgrade


(AMOS)

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Asphalt Mat on Subgrade


(AMOS)

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Asphalt Mat on Subgrade


(AMOS)

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Asphalt Mat on Subgrade


(AMOS)

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Asphalt Mat on Subgrade


(AMOS)

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Double Seal

Double seals are used to provide a dust free wearing


coarse for road structures with adequate substructural
support (brittle eggshell).
Provides no structural strength.
Commonly used with granular overlays and little truck
traffic.
Commonly used in conjunction with reclamation of
BSTs.

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Double Seal

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Double Seal

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Revert to Gravel

Gravel reverted roads are BSTs that have been


rotomixed, reshaped, and recompacted.
Typically performed for safety reasons.
Performed when BST is in need of reconstruction.
May be a stop gap treatment or a longer term solution.
Can be easily maintained with motor graders.
Risk is exposure of subgrade.

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Revert to Gravel

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Revert to Gravel

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Revert to Gravel

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Revert to Gravel

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Revert to Gravel

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Revert to Gravel

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Revert to Gravel

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Flexible Pavements

Asphalt concrete pavements are designed to provide:


Structural support-distribute stresses in the
substructure.
Water resistance to substructure.
Good skid resistance and ride.
Resistance to weathering.
Offer some flexibility under traffic and
environmental loading.

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Flexible Pavements
Granular Flexible Pavement
50 to 150mm Asphaltic Concrete
100 to 200mm Base
100 to 300mm Subbase
Prepared Subgrade

Full Depth Flexible Pavement


100 to 250mm Asphaltic Concrete
100 to 200mm Stabilized (Optional)
Prepared Subgrade

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Flexible Pavements

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Flexible Pavements

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Flexible Pavements
(Gravel Shoulder)

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Flexible Pavements
(Sealed Shoulder)

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Flexible Pavements
(Paved Shoulder)

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Rigid Pavements

Rigid pavements are comprised of a prepared subgrade


(often stabilized) with a granular base and Portland
cement concrete slab.
All load carrying capacity is provided by the Portland
cement concrete slab that acts as a bridge across the
underlying road structure.
Base provides drainage and should contain no fines to
prevent pumping and generation of voids.
Portland cement should be sulfate resistant and have air
entrainment in freeze thaw regions.

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Rigid Pavements

Typical rigid pavement structures:


100 to 400mm of Portland cement concrete.
50 to 150mm granular base (provide drainage).
150mm prepared subgrade.

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Rigid Pavements

Convenient to use plate theory on a viscous fluid


subgrade (Winkler foundation) in mechanistic design
and analysis of PCC pavements:
Westergaard (1926)
Bradbury
Darter
Barenburg
Zollinger

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Rigid Pavements

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Rigid Pavements

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Rigid Pavements

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Rigid Pavements

There are five common types of rigid pavements:


Jointed Plain Concrete Pavements (JPCP).
Jointed Reinforced Concrete Pavements (JRCP).
Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavements
(CRCP).
Prestressed Concrete Pavement (PCP).
Roller Compacted Concrete Pavement (RCCP).

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Jointed Plain Concrete


Pavements (JPCP)

Constructed with closely spaced joints sawcut at angles


to traffic flow but at different angle from snow blades.
No reinforcing.
Load transfer at joints is from aggregate interlock
and/or dowels.
As joint spacing increases, aggregate interlock
decreases:
Max spacing 6 meters with dowels.
Max spacing 4 meters without dowels.

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Jointed Plain Concrete


Pavements (JPCP)

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Jointed Plain Concrete


Pavements (JPCP)

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Jointed Plain Concrete


Pavements (JPCP)

Constructed with one or two layers of reinforcing bars


or mesh.
Reinforcing does not increase load carrying capacity,
but enables longer joint spacing (up to 30m, usually
15m).
Reinforcing holds the mat together after hairline cracks
form.
Constructed with joints and load transfer dowels.

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Jointed Plain Concrete


Pavements (JPCP)

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Continuously Reinforced
Concrete Pavements (CRCP)

Constructed without joints.


Reinforcing is provided by continuous reinforcing bars.
Characteristic hairline cracks at very close intervals.
Joints are considered weak spots in PCC pavement
design, therefore thinner slabs can be used with CRCP
(70 percent of conventional thickness).
Popular among 20 states and 20,000 kms have been
constructed.

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Continuously Reinforced
Concrete Pavements (CRCP)

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Prestressed Concrete
Pavements (PCP)

Design concept is concrete is weak in tension but


strong in compression.
Constructed with no joints.
Reinforcing is provided by prestressed reinforcing bars.
Commonly used in airports to save in slab thickness.
Subjective design methods are used.

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Prestressed Concrete
Pavements (PCP)

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Roller Compacted Concrete


Pavements (RCCP)

Zero slump Portland cement concrete that is placed by


a paver the same as asphalt concrete.
Typically used in industrial applications with high load
carrying capacity but short performance life
requirements.
Life cycle is typically shorter than rigid pavements.

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Roller Compacted Concrete


Pavements (RCCP)

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Roller Compacted Concrete


Pavements (RCCP)

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Roller Compacted Concrete


Pavements (RCCP)

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Roller Compacted Concrete


Pavements (RCCP)

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Composite Pavements

AC over PCC (black topping).


PCC over AC (white topping).
Commonly used for road rehabilitation of PCC
pavements:
Crack and seat
Rubblize
Overlay with AC or PCC
Some new designed composite pavements:
Toronto ring road 701 PCC over AC stabilized base.

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Composite Pavements

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Specialty Pavements

Airport pavements:
Design must consider runways, taxiways and aprons
for specific aircraft.
Performance requirements are more stringent than
those of conventional road pavements.
Asphalt concrete and Portland cement concrete
pavements are both used for airports. However, for
higher loadings, Portland cement concrete
pavements are usually the pavement of choice.
Geometry and ride are critical design parameters.

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Specialty Pavements

Industrial pavements:
Wheel loads are typically much higher and slower
moving than highway applications.
Service life may be considerably shorter than other
pavement types.
Serviceability requirements are typically not as
stringent as highway applications.

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Specialty Pavements

Racetrack pavements:
Wheel loads are typically lower and faster moving
than highway applications.
Service life may be considerably shorter than other
pavement types.
Smoothness requirements are very stringent.
High shear flow resistance on curves.

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Full Depth Stabilization

Substructure layers may be stabilized:


Granular
Lime/Cement/Flyash/Kiln Dusts
Emulsified Bitumen
Foamed Bitumen
Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP)
Mechanical Stabilizers
Ionic Soil Stabilizers

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Full Depth Stabilization

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Full Depth Stabilization

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Full Depth Stabilization

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Full Depth Stabilization

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Discussion
Be competent. If you have heard of the Peter Principle,
understand that we do not practice it here. We depend
on you knowing your job. Bravado wont make up for a
lack of competence. If you need additional training, ask.
A willingness to learn and improve your skill level is a
sure sign of growth potential. The more competent you
become, the more we can rely on you to help us meet our
goals as an organization.

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