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Introduction to Road and

Airfield Pavement
Engineering
By:
Curtis F. Berthelot Ph.D., P.Eng.
Department of Civil Engineering

Transportation
Research
Centre

Lecture Objectives

Discuss course syllabus, lectures, labs and assignments.


Discuss transportation from antiquity to modern times.
Discuss engineering aspects of road and airfield pavement
systems.
Overview of the Canadian road transport system.

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History of Road Transport

Road transportation dates back to antiquity:


Footpaths.
Pack-animal trails.
Simple sleds and wheeled carts (10,000 b.c.).

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History of Road Transport

As civilization evolved, the need for effective


transportation increased:
Nepal: 5000 b.c.
Egyptians: 3000 b.c. (transport materials for great
pyramids)
Greeks-Babylon: first pavement: 2000 b.c.
Romans integrated road system network: 500 b.c.

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Road TransportationRoman Empire

Roman road network facilitated the evolution of modern


western civilization:
Military conquests over the barbarians.
National defense.
Communication.
Commerce.
Prosperity.
Knowledge.

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Road TransportationRoman Empire

Ref: Roman Roads of Europe, NHH Sitwell, Cassell-London, 1981

Introduction to Road and Airfield Pavement Engineering

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Road TransportationRoman Empire

Ref: Roman Roads of Europe, NHH Sitwell, Cassell-London, 1981

Introduction to Road and Airfield Pavement Engineering

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Road TransportationRoman Empire

Introduction to Road and Airfield Pavement Engineering

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Road TransportationRoman Empire

Introduction to Road and Airfield Pavement Engineering

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Road TransportationRoman Empire

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Road TransportationRoman Empire

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Road TransportationRoman Empire

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Road TransportationRoman Empire

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Road TransportationRoman Empire

Roman road network was fully engineered/managed at


the network and project levels:
Standard geometric designs.
Standard materials.
Standard structures.
Standard drainage.
Standard maintenance and preservation practices.
Standard carts.

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Road TransportationRoman Empire

Ref: Roman Roads of Europe, NHH Sitwell, Cassell-London, 1981

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Road TransportationRoman Empire

Ref: Roman Roads of Europe, NHH Sitwell, Cassell-London, 1981

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Road TransportationRoman Empire

Ref: Roman Roads of Europe, NHH Sitwell, Cassell-London, 1981

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Road TransportationRoman Empire

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Road TransportationRoman Empire

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Road TransportationRoman Empire

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Road Transportation
Dark Ages

Following the decline and fall of the Western Roman


Empire in 450, road building and most other forms of
technological advancement ceased during the dark ages
(1000 years).
Travel resorted back to footpaths and horse back (carts
were uncomfortable due to the poor quality of roads).

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Road Transportation
Dark Ages

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Road Transportation
Modern Times

Napoleonic Empire brought the rebirth of national road


transportation systems:
Standard structural design and materials (subbase,
base, bound wearing coarse).

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Road Transportation
Modern Times

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Road Transportation
Modern Times

Ref: Asphalt Contractor, February, 1999 Issue

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Road Transportation
Modern Times

Ref: Asphalt Contractor, February, 1999 Issue

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Road Transportation
Modern Times

Ref: Asphalt Contractor, February, 1999 Issue

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Road Transportation
Modern Times

Post WWII:
Significant economic growth and increased standard
of living after World War II marked the beginning of
the modern road transportation era.
History shows an almost perfect correlation between
increases in transportation efficiency and increases
in gross national product.
Today; transportation in North America contributes
approximately 20% of the nations total GNP:
100 billion CDN.
1 trillion USD.

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Road Transportation
Modern Times
Canadas Highway Network
Over 900,000 km of public roads
67% municipal
31% provincial/territorial responsibility
2% federal responsibility

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Road Transportation
Modern Times
National Highway SystemNational Highway System (NHS)
0

400

800

1,200

Kilometers

W
hi t

eh
o

rse

Yello
wknif

e

Vic
tori
a

Van

c ou
ve r

ton
Saskatoo

.J
St

Charlottetow

Regina

Quebec

Winnipeg

Bay
Thunder

ury
Sudb

wa
Otta

Sarnia
Wind

T or o

ntre
Mo

al

rict
on

Calg
a ry

s
-Ile
ept
S

n 's
oh

x
lifa
Ha

Fre
de

Edmo
n

nto

sor

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Road Transportation
Modern Times
z

Highways are primarily


provincial/territorial
responsibility.
Federal government has
contributed through ad hoc
agreements over the years
Until 1984, about 10% of
federal fuel tax revenues
were spent on provincial
highway contributions
Since then, revenues have
continued to grow, but
highway spending has
fluctuated representing
only 3% of revenues in 2000

Federal Highway Contributions and Fuel


Tax Revenues
Federal Fuel Tax (cents/litre)

$5.0B

1.5

3.5

$4.5B

4.5 6.5 7.5


5.5

8.5

10.0

$4.0B
$3.5B
$3.0B
$2.5B
$2.0B
$1.5B
$1.0B
$0.5B
$0.0B
78

80 82 84

86 88

90 92

94 96 98 '00 '02 '04

Source: Statistics Canada and Transport Canada, 2001

Introduction to Road and Airfield Pavement Engineering

Based on 2% annual growth

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Road Transportation
Modern Times
Traffic Levels on the National Highway System
- West
Cars and trucks per day
Traffic ranges

Less than 5,000


5,000 to 19,999
20,000 or more

Yellowknife

Traffic bands

Whitehorse

100,000 50,000 25,000


200
400
600
Kilometers

Edmonton

Prince George

Saskatoon

Cache Creek

Calgary

Regina

Kamloops

Winnipeg

Vancouver

Lethbridge

Coutts

Victoria

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Road Transportation
Modern Times
Traffic Levels on the National Highway System - Ontario
Winnipeg

11

1
75

17
71

Emerson

17

Thunder Bay
Qu
11

Sudbury

Cars and trucks per day

eb
ec

Traffic ranges

17

Less than 5,000


5,000 to 19,999
20,000 or more

417

tre
M
on

Ottawa

al

69

Traffic bands
401

100,000 50,000 25,000


0
100
200
300
Kilometers

Toronto
Sarnia

Windsor

402

QEW

401

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Road Transportation
Modern Times
Traffic
Levels on the National Highway System - East
Cars and trucks per day
Traffic ranges

Less than 5,000


5,000 to 19,999
20,000 or more

Traffic bands
Sept-Iles

100,000 50,000
0
100 200

25,000
300

Baie-Comeau


Kilometers
Chicoutimi


Val-D'Or

Qubec
Sudbury

Trois-Rivires

Mon
tral

Ottawa


Drummondville

Fredericton

arl
Ch

e
o tt

n
to w

St. John's


Sherbrooke

Halifax

Toronto

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Road Transportation
Modern Times

Budget 2000 provided $600M for Strategic Highway


Infrastructure Program (SHIP)
$500M for highways
$100M for system integration

$65M for Border Crossing Transportation


Initiatives
$30M for Intelligent Transportation Systems
$5M for planning/modal integration studies
Budget 2000 funding clearly insufficient to address all
needs

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Road Transportation
Modern Times
Canada-US Average Annual Daily
Truck Traffic Growth

12000

Windsor / Ambassador (+105%)

Niagara / Peace Bridge (+104%)

10000

Sarnia (+138%)

N u m b er o f T ru ck s

Pacific Highway (+74%)


8000

Lacolle (+63%)

6000

4000

Number of trucks crossing the


Canada-US border doubled over
last ten years, and continues to
grow
Increasing truck traffic is
creating disproportionate
pressures on border processes
and infrastructure
81% of trucks traverse the border
at the five crossings shown

2000

0
1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

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Road Transportation
Modern Times

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Road Transportation
Modern Times

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Road Transportation
Modern Times
Modal Shares of U.S. Merchandise Trade with
NAFTA Partners by Value: 1997-2000
1997

1998

1999

2000

80
70

Percent

60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Truck

Rail

Air

Water

Introduction to Road and Airfield Pavement Engineering

Pipeline

Other land
modes

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Road Transportation
Modern Times
Modal Shares of U.S. NAFTA-Partner Merchandise
Trade by Value and Weight: 2000
Value

Weight

70
60

Percent

50
40
30
20
10
0
Truck

Rail

Pipeline

Air

Introduction to Road and Airfield Pavement Engineering

Water

Other and
unknown

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Road Transportation
Modern Times
United States
($/Year)
Transportation $19,058.00
Health Care $38,884.00
Education $61,121.00
Defence
$311,038.00
Total Budget $1,214,200.00

Canada
($/Year)
$52.00
$40.00
$546.00
$64,882.60

Saskatchewan
($/Year)
$312.00
$2,207.00
$1,126.00
$6,300.00

(Figures based on 2001 fiscal budgets in millions)

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Road Transportation
Modern Times
Total Expenditures (2001-02)
2500

Amount (Millions of Dollars)

2000

1500

1000

500

Agriculture

Education

Health

Interest

Other

Expenditures

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Social
Services

Transportation

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Road Transportation
Modern Times

Strategic objectives of road transport system:


Ensure high standards for safe and secure
transportation.
Protection of life, health, environment and property.
High public confidence in the safety and security of
our transportation system.
Contribute to, support and sustain Canadas
economic growth and social development.

Ref: Transport Canada 2001 2004 Business Plan An Update

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Road Transportation
Modern Times

An effective transportation system is:


Affordable.
Accessible.
Responsive to passengers.
Good for users and local communities.
Competitive and harmonized (domestically and
internationally).
Multi-modal.

Ref: Transport Canada 2001 2004 Business Plan An Update

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Road Transportation
Modern Times

Protect the Physical Environment:


An environmentally sustainable transportation
system for Canadians.
Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and
pollution from the transportation sector.
Prevention and mitigation of environmental damage
from transportation activities.
Sound environmental stewardship of Transport
Canadas properties and operations.

Ref: Transport Canada 2001 2004 Business Plan An Update

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Road Transportation
Modern Times

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Road Transportation
Modern Times

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Road Transportation
Modern Times

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Road Transportation
Modern Times

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Road Transportation
Modern Times

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Road Transportation
Modern Times

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Road Transportation
Modern Times

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Road Transportation
Modern Times

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Road Transportation
Modern Times

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Road Transportation
Modern Times

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Road Transportation
Modern Times

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Design of Airport
Pavements

Several differences exist between airport and highway


pavements:
Magnitude of applied loads.
Tire pressures.
Geometric section of pavements.
Number of load repetitions applied to pavement
during its design life.

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Design of Airport
Pavements

Design of airfields involves effect of the pavement upon


the aircraft as well as the effect of the aircraft on the
pavement.
Jet engines are easily damaged by debris sucked into
the air intake-design of shoulders and areas adjacent to
runway ends to make them resistant to erosion for jet
blasts.
Pavement must be resistant to fuel spillage and heat
which may cause softening of asphalt binder.

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Design of Airport
Pavements

Tire pressures may be in excess of 400psi. Such


pressures need high quality pavement to withstand high
shear effects of the tire.
Airfield designs based upon most critical areas:
Primary taxiways.
Runway ends.
Aprons.

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Design of Airport
Pavements

Schedule Services
Major Charter
Services
Total
Domestic Segments
Trans-Border
Other Int'l Segments
Loaded/Unloaded
Cargo (000kg)

Canadian Airport Air Passenger


Movements/Year
95,983,150
6,541,688
102,542,838
51,944,411
19,006,330
11,574,097
844,157
Ref: Air Carrier Traffic at Canadian Airport, Statistics Canada

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Design of Airport
Pavements

John G. Diefenbaker International Airport (Saskatoon).


Two runways:
09/27 is 2530 meters long, 60 meters wide.
15/33 is 1890 meters long, 45 meters wide.
Passenger movements:
Over 800,000 enplaned and deplaned passengers
per year.
200 daily flights during winter months and 260
during the summer.

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Engineering Design
Aspects of Pavements

Efficient.
Effective.
Good ride quality.
Safe.
Structurally sound.
Sustainable/maintainable (optimal whole life
costs/benefits/utility).
Minimal total costs (agency and user costs-PPP).

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Engineering Design
Aspects of Pavements

Recyclable.
Aesthetically pleasing.
Driver/passenger comfort.
Facilitate just in time-all the time delivery demands of
our economy.
Facilitate economic development.
Facilitate improved social quality of life.

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Discussion

When things go wrong most of us get angry. If we


didnt, it would be a sign that we dont really care
about what happens. When frustrated, channel
that energy into making a difference, so that
whatever made you angry can be resolved. If you
cannot tackle it alone, then pool the insights of
others to deal with the problem permanently. Use
anger as a catalyst to bring about lasting
solutions that improve life for everyone.

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