Sudan

Edmund Fung Mrs. Webster 11/11/2007 2-A

Demographics

Total population: Birth rate: Death rate: Infant Mortality rate: Total Fertility rate: Age Distribution:

39,379,358 34.86 births/1,000 population 14.39 deaths/1,000 population 91.78 deaths/1,000 live births 4.69 children born/woman 0-14 years: 41.6% (male 8,371,628/female 8,016,880) 15-64 years: 56% (male 11,080,025/female 10,956,458) 65 years and over: 2.4% (male 504,957/female 449,410) (2007 est.) male: 48.24 years female: 50.03 years total population: 49.11 years 40% female: 50.5% male: 71.8% total population: 61.1%

Life Expectancies:

Percent Urban: Literacy rates:

Sudan: Age-Sex Distribution, 2005 (Stage 2) AGE
90 +yrs 85-89 yrs 80-84 yrs 75-79 yrs 70-74 yrs. 65-69 yrs. 60-64 yrs. 55-59 yrs. 50-54 yrs. 45-49 yrs. 40-44 yrs. 35-39 yrs. 30-34 yrs. 25-29 yrs 20-24 yrs 15-19 yrs. 10-14 yrs. 5-9 yrs. 0-4 yrs.

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Government

Sudan currently has a provisional government. A provisional government is an emergency or temporary government set up when the previous government has been defeated or collapsed. A provisional government holds power until elections can be held. The elections are planned to be held by 2009. Sudan’s leader is known as a president. The president comes in to power by the citizens who voted for him/her. Citizens can vote as long as they our 17 years or older. Yes, the citizens do play a role in voting for the president. Women are also allowed to vote. As said in their new constitution, any citizen has the right to change the government. The citizens of Sudan do have a lot of civil liberties that we as Americans do. Here are some of their civil liberties that they have:

Freedom of Speech and Press Freedom of Peaceful Assembly and Association Freedom of Religion Freedom of Movement Within the Country, Foreign Travel, Emigration, and Repatriation

Classification: Periphery

Economics

Economic type: Labor Forces:

Chief industries:

GDP: Per capita GDP: Percent of population below provety line:

IMF macroeconomic reforms agriculture: 80% industry: 7% services: 13% 7.415 million people Agriculture Forestry and Fishing Mining Manufacturing Enegry $97.19 billion $2400 per year 40% of populatoin

Classification: Semi-Periphery

Transportation and Communication

Transportation: Types and kilometer of roads:

paved: 4,320 km unpaved: 7,580 km total: 11,900 km narrow gauge: 4,578 km 1.067-m gauge; 1,400 km 0.600-m gauge for cotton plantations total: 5,978 km paved: 16 unpaved: 85 main land in use: 636,900 cell phones: 4.683 million radio: AM 12, FM 1, shortwave 1 TV: 3 channels 21 private providers

Kilometer of Railroads: Types and number of airports: Communication: Number of telephones: Number of televisions and radios(stations): Number of internet service providers & who controls them:

Overview

Sudan has a little bit of the periphery and semi-periphery class of a country. The per capita GDP is in the semi-periphery section for $2400 a year. On the other hand, Sudan’s government is currently corrupted and they are rebuilding it, therefore that would lie in the periphery section. In simple words, I would put Sudan in the periphery section. This is because of multiple reasons. Mainly the population is still rising greatly. Their economy is not industrialized yet. The government is still not to a standard government. Last but not least communications and transportation is still restricted. There are a total of 39,379,358 people living in Sudan. The people in Sudan mostly ranges from the 15 to 64 in age. Their population is very fast growing, with lots of people younger in age. This is proven by the stage 2 population pyramid by the heresy kiss shape showing that the a lot of people are born but die quickly. The birth rate is high with 30-40 people per a 1000 people and the death rate is 15-20 people per a 1000 people. The infant mortality rate is 91 deaths out of 1000 new infants. The life expectancy is relatively low averaging at 49. The total fertility rate is about 5 newborns per women. All these factors described are periphery statistics. The literacy rate which is 61.1 percent of the population is the only element in which Sudan’s people lies in the semi-periphery classification. People are very important in a country. With powerful and innovative people, you can have a strong nation. But with that said, in Sudan, the population is still in its developing status and the whole country is only 40% urbanized. The diagram as shown in the demographics show that the population has a high birth rate, then people died out till the age of 90. The shape of the pyramid is very steep and spiked

concluding that this is a stage 2 country. With a population of young, fast growing but dieing quickly people, it puts the people section of Sudan in the periphery section as that Sudan is still trying to develop a stable population of people. Sudan’s economy is trying to rebuild with the IMF macroeconomic reforms. The IMF is the International Monetary Fund. It is the international organization that watches the global financial system. They are using the profit from the oil that they sell as the driver of their economy, since crop prices are dropping. Sudan has a very crossed economy. Sudan has an agricultural based economy. They are not yet very industrialize and in to cities yet. The country’s buying power is $97 billion, which lies in the semiperiphery area. That’s the same for their GDP (Gross Domestic Product) per person, or per capita, is $2,400, also in the semi-periphery area. With those places in semi-periphery, they still mostly farm. They have a full labor force of 7.415 million people. More than 50% of the labor force is in agriculture. Only 7 percent is in industry and 13 percent in services. This is because most of the people farm, and more than 50% of the land in Sudan is farmland. That pretty much means that Sudan’s labor force sits in the periphery section since I believe that in a developing country should be striding for an industrialized economy and that they should focus less on farming. Although most of Sudan’s economy is agriculture, only 40% of the people are below the poverty line. Sudan’s chief industries would include, energy, mining, fishing and foresting, manufacturing and agriculture. I would also put the economy of Sudan with people of Sudan in the periphery category just because they still have mostly farming and not industrialized labor forces.

To put Sudan’s government into a category is actually pretty easy. Since there is fighting in Sudan and the government is very unstable, the government will be periphery. Infact, they don’t have a standard government at all. This is because of their civil war. Sudan’s government is currently a provisional government. A provisional government is an emergency or temporary government set up when the previous government has been defeated or collapsed. This government will stand in place until the elections by 2009. The citizens do have the right to vote as long as they are over the age of 17. Although there is discrimination by religion towards women, women are allowed to vote. Sudan has a president like the United States of America. Overall in this provisional government, the citizens has most civil liberties as us Americans such as, Freedom of Speech and Press, Freedom of Peaceful Assembly and Association, and Freedom of Religion. But since Sudan has an unstable government, I would still place Sudan’s government into the periphery zone. This is because an unstable government can never lead to a developed country or even a developing country with the corruptness and that the money all just flies into the hands of the so called “ leaders”. Although they have a temporal workable government, things can still get out of control due to the war tension. So far, economy, people and government of Sudan have all settled in to the periphery part of the chart. Therefore for Sudan would be periphery overall since those were the most important “drivers” in a country. The government controls the country domestically including the people while the economy will help gain power internationally. The people are the power source to move both the economy and the government because the people are the ones who make the business and the people (in

most cases such as Sudan) drive the government. Now lets look at the minor but can be life-changing issues such as communications and transportation. Communication in turns of landline telephone is very rare compared to cell phones. Infact, only 5 million of the 39 million people actually have a landline phone or a cell phone. The statistics on this is really weird. This is because more people have cell phones then landline. About 4.6 million people have cell phones against 636,900 landline phones in Sudan. At the beginning, I thought the opposite, but it comes clear that there was no government to help company to lay the lines safely. There are very few radio stations, only 14 total; 12 AM, 1 FM, and 1 shortwave. Television for Sudan is even more pitiful. They only have 3 channels compared to the USA having 2218 channels. Both the radio and television stats would put Sudan into the periphery section. In contrast to the very few radio and television stations, Sudan has 21 private internet providers which would put that in the core section. Communication for Sudan also lies in the periphery area because their availability is very limited and not secured. Although you may argue with the internet service that they are not periphery but here are little more information about their computers. There are 3.6 computers per 1000 people and that only 3.2 percent of the population has internet access. So even if they have 21 internet providers, its not like it is going to help at all with the amount of users in Sudan. In finality, communication will still stay in the in periphery section. Transportation is very limited in Sudan. All of the transportation in Sudan sits in the periphery section. There are very few airports with actual paved runways. It is a 16 to 85 ratio of paved to unpaved airports. Only 5,978 kilometers of railroad run through Sudan and that is very little for 2.376 million sq km (size of Sudan) of land. Good thing

Sudan still provided 11900 km of highway, or how would we get around? But still more than half (7,580 km) is unpaved dirt road. Only 4,320 km is paved road. Sudan suffers the most in the transportation area. They barely have a decent transportation to even make it out of their little cities. Finally, I would also put Sudan’s transportation into the semiperiphery area. In conclusion, Sudan is a periphery country. Although some of the things do lie in other categories, with some logical thinking, we must conclude that Sudan falls into the category of periphery. Its economy and government are most likely the most important in a country for it to function, and they are both periphery. Again, the government has the power within a country, and that economy is the power of country internationally. People come second and they are the workers who drive both the economy and the government. The people section of Sudan also lies in the periphery section. Sudan’s services such as communication and transportation for the population also lie in the periphery section. So as a final word, Sudan is categorized as the least developed country in the world by the UN, which is also known as periphery.

Climate

Sudan has the total of five climates. They are tropical wet, tropical wet and dry, semiarid, highland, and desert. Their main climate zone is desert. It covers half of the whole country from the northern border to the Marra Mountains and Nuba Mountains. The topography, mountains, act as a barrier so that the desert doesn’t spread to the southern part of the country. Since Sudan lies in the lower latitudes of the world, the sun’s rays all shine across there therefore giving us a very dry and hot area. Also, the northern part is hotter then the south because the north is next the Red Sea and the south is more inland. Continentality proves that the more inland you go the air will cool down. So if the southern part of Sudan is more inland, and they will receive colder air. The Red Sea is towards the northern border of Sudan. There is a possibility that the shores are cooled by water currents but the Red Sea Hills act as a barrier so that the cooler air wouldn’t spread to the deserts. The two deserts in this location are Nubian Desert and Libyan Desert. The next biggest climate zone is semiarid. It basically covers the rest of south Sudan except for the edges. The topography of the mountains north of this climate zone blocks the northern deserts from invading the semiarid area. Again for continentality, southern Sudan is more inland therefore air currents which comes in would cool the land. Although there is cool air, the general location of Sudan is in the lower latitudes, therefore the sun’s rays will still heat things up. The tropical wet and dry area is along the southern border. This climate zone is still dry, but it is composed of the landforms and the elevation by the Imatong Mountains and the Ironstone plateau. The high elevation separates this region from the semiarid region up north. The climate zone of highlands is

mostly because of mountains on the west side of Ethiopia. One of the mountains which is closest to the border would be Tulu Welel mountain. The mountain stretches into Sudan. This is why this climate zone only protrudes into Sudan and is not a main climate zone. The last climate zone is also one that just touches Sudan. The tropical wet is the smallest climate zone in the whole Sudan country. It is mostly from the area of the Dem. Rep. of the Congo. The continentality, latitude and topography mark this climate zone just the same as the others. Overall, Sudan is a very arid and dry country since they are lower in latitude. Because of continentality, air currents, water currents, latitude, elevation and the topography, the climate zones also varies within Sudan.

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