hydraulics

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hydraulics

© All Rights Reserved

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Introduction

o Fig 1 shows the block diagram of a basic closed-loop, hydraulic actuation system.

The system consists of a linear proportional control valve, a hydraulic cylinder, and

a proportional controller.

o The transfer functions Gv ( s) and Gcyl ( s) represent the valve and cylinder

dynamics, respectively. The input to the system ( R( s) ) may represent the desired

speed or position of the cylinder, and the output (Y ( s) ) may represent the actual

speed or position of the cylinder.

o Due to the deadband experienced with may linear proportional valves, they are

probably better suited for velocity control than position control. However, we will

consider the use of this system to control the position of the hydraulic cylinder.

R( s) +

V (s)

Valve

Cylinder

Gv ( s)

Gcyl ( s)

Y (s)

o To understand the response of the closed-loop system, we start by analyzing the

open loop system shown in Figure 2. Unfortunately, measurements of this system

show the transfer functions Gv ( s) and Gcyl ( s) both depend on the magnitude of the

input voltage V ( s ) . In short, the system is non-linear.

o Analysis of this system is further complicated by voltage limits on the valve. The

valves used in the laboratory, for example, have an input voltage limit of 10 volts .

V (s)

Valve

Cylinder

Gv ( s)

Gcyl ( s)

Y (s)

o It should be noted that, even though the transfer functions Gv ( s) and Gcyl ( s) do

change as the input voltage V ( s ) changes, the form of the transfer functions does

not change.

1

o In fact, for some range of voltages, the transfer functions are similar. For example,

transfer functions calculated for a 5 volt command (as part of the Data Acquisition

Laboratory) tend to provide reasonable predictions of the cylinder position response

for a 7 volt command.

o To get an initial estimate of what proportional gain K could be used for the closed

loop system, we will use the transfer functions derived from the 5 volt data. This

should be a good representation of the system at larger voltages. In this case then,

the loop transfer function is

116303

GH ( s ) =

s ( s + 27.864)( s 2 + 127.83s + 10417)

o The RL diagram shown in Fig. 3 indicates that the system will be stable for

0 < K < 200 and the two slowest poles will be critically damped for K 14.8 .

o Fig 4 shows a Simulink model of the closed loop hydraulic actuation system. As in

the root locus analysis, the valve and cylinder transfer functions were derived from

the 5 volt data.

o The model assumes these transfer functions apply for all voltages, and in this sense,

it is linear.

o However, the model also includes the non-linear effects of saturation and

deadband. The command to the valve and the valve position are both forced to be in

the range of 10 volts, and for small commands it is assumed to have no response.

o The code sends the calculated data for valve command, valve response, cylinder

speed, and cylinder position to MATLAB for later plotting and analysis.

o Fig 5 shows the results using a proportional gain of K = 18 , saturation limits of 10

volts, and a deadband of 0.5 volts. Note the valve command is saturated for about

the first 1.5 seconds of the run forcing the cylinder to run at maximum speed until it

is close to the final value. At that point the valve command quickly decreases to its

minimum value.

o Note that when the command gets within the deadband, the valve response goes to

zero. As a result, the final position of the cylinder is only 4.98 inches, giving a

steady-state error of 0.02 inches.

o Note the closed loop system behaves like an open loop system for about the first

1.5 seconds. After that time, as the command reduces to its lowest value, the system

behaves as a closed loop system. Because the transfer functions will vary with

command magnitude, the actual system will not have this exact response.

3

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