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ABSTRAK

Latar Belakang : Menurut data World Health Organization 2008, kanker


merupakan penyebab utama mortalitas di dunia yaitu sekitar 13% dan penyakit ini
dapat meningkatkan risiko pasien terkena infeksi opurtunistik akibat penurunan daya
tahan tubuh.
Tujuan Penelitian : Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui prevalensi infeksi
protozoa usus pada pasien kanker di RSUP Haji Adam Malik, Medan.
Metode Penelitian : Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan cara descriptive cross
sectional pada 38 pasien yang sedang menjalani terapi yang dipilih secara
consecutive. Data diperoleh dengan cara pengumpulan sampel tinja, diperiksa di
laboratorium dengan teknik Kato dan pewarnaan Kinyoun Gabbet dan seterusnya
diolah dengan menggunakan SPSS versi 17,0.
Hasil Penelitian : Dari penelitian ini diketahui bahwa prevalensi infeksi protozoa
usus pada pasien kanker di RSUP Haji Adam Malik, Medan adalah 7,9 % yaitu
sebanyak 3 daripada 38 sampel tinja mencatatkan hasil positif infeksi protozoa usus
di mana satu sampel ditemukan ookista Cryptosporidium sp. manakala pada dua
sampel lagi ditemukan kista Entamoeba histolytica. Ketiga-tiga hasil positif
tergolong dalam kelompok umur lebih daripada 60 tahun (60 %) serta menjalani
kombinasi kemoterapi dan radioterapi (27,3 %). Dua pasien perempuan (9,5 %) dan
seorang laki laki (5,9 %) menunjukkan hasil positif di mana dua pasien (20 %)
menderita kanker stadium 4 manakala seorang (6,7 %) stadium 3.
Kesimpulan : Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa umur, jenis
terapi serta stadium kanker sangat mempengaruhi terjadinya infeksi opurtunistik
pada pasien kanker.

Kata kunci : prevalensi, infeksi protozoa usus, pasien kanker

Universitas Sumatera Utara

ABSTRACT
Background : According to World Health Organization 2008, cancer is the leading
cause of mortality in the world, which is approximately 13 %. The risk of patients
attaining opportunistic infections with neoplastic disease increases due to their
immunocompromised condition.
Objective : This research is done to investigate the prevalence of protozoal
infection in cancer patients at Haji Adam Malik General Hospital, Medan.
Methods : This study is performed in a descriptive cross sectional manner on 38
consecutive patients who is undergoing cancer therapy. Fecal samples are collected
and tested in laboratorium using the Kato method and Kinyoun Gabbet staining.
Data were analysed using the SPSS version 17.0 programme.
Results : From the research done, it is known that the prevalence of protozoal
infection in cancer patients at Haji Adam Malik General Hospital is 7,9 % which
indicates the positive result for 3 samples out of 38 fecal samples which were tested.
Cryptosporidium sp. oocyst was found in one of the 3 samples and the rest of the 2
samples show the existence of Entamoeba histolytica cyst. All the 3 positive samples
were found in the same age group which is more than 60 years (60 %) and
undergoing the combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy (27,3 %). 2 of the
samples belong to female (9,5 %) while the other is male (5,9 %). According to the
staging of cancer, 2 of the positive samples belong to the patient whose at stage 4
(20 %) and the other is at stage 3 (6,7 %).
Conclusion : Based on the research done, it can be concluded that age group, type of
therapy and the staging of cancer significantly influences the occurance of
opportunistic infections among cancer patients.

Key word : prevalence, protozoal infection, cancer patients

Universitas Sumatera Utara