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Mark theory II

Myers-Scotton considers the markedness model as an explanation accounting for

speakers socio-psychological motivations when they engage in CS [codeswitching].
Markedness model is a binary model which proceeds by series of hypotheses to report and
predict the CS met during the situations of interactions in bi/multilingual contexts.
The model suggests that all the linguistic choices have social and psychological
implications in the speech community where they are used. i.e. the interlocutors are
capable of adapting their linguistic choices. So, they indicate their own implications and
identity representations to the other participants.
One of the basic arguments of the markdness is that in a social context the linguistic choices
are understood as indicating sets of rights-and-obligation (RO) between participants in a given
type of interaction.
RO is an abstract construct, derived from situational factors, standing for the
attitudes and expectations of the participants towards one another.
Each time the speakers make a choice of code, they indicate their own role as well as
their relationships with their interlocutors.
This behavior is possible because certain code choices are habitually made and usually
bound to linguistic activities representing types of relations well defined between
interlocutors in the community. As a consequence, through this type of accumulation, a
code succeeds in indicating a set of RO, and therefore, to attribute a non-marked value
in the relations existing between the participants.
Markedness model and Negociation principle :
A way for the locutors to negociate their relationships with the other participants.
This principle finds its foundation in the works of the philosopher Grice (1975) in
particular in his theory of the ' principle of cooperation ' (co-operative principle) which
establishes the basis of its pragmatic conception of the communication. According to
him, the verbal communication implies an underlying implicit sense in what is openly
said. Therefore, the participants convey a sense beyond what is explicitly said.
She considers that the principle of negotiation is an implicit universal principle underlying all
the types of choice of codes at the level of the interpersonal negotiation and establish,
The author develops the principle of negotiation in the form of maxim:
Choose the form of your conversation contribution such that it indexes the set of rights and
obligations which you wish to be in force between speaker and addressee for the current
exchange. (Myers-Scotton, 1993a, p. 113) (italics in original).