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2015

Liberty Index of Congress


Clifford F. Thies


Executive Summary

Analysis of roll call votes during the 2015 session of the U.S. Congress shows an almost
complete split between Republicans and Democrats on economic liberties. In both
chambers, Republicans almost invariably favor free-market policies, and Democrats
socialistic policies. On personal liberties, there is something of a continuum, with
Republicans having an overall advantage from a "conservative-liberal" perspective. The top
scorer was Congressman Justin Amash of Michigan who scored a double-100, a rare
accomplishment in the 27-year history of the Liberty Index.


The Liberty Index


Since 1989, I have been compiling the Liberty Index of Congress. The index reflects the
two-dimensional political axis developed by David Nolan. For a time and from time to time,
Don Ernsberger then with the Libertarian Party and David Boaz of the Cato Institute have
performed similar exercises, with results highly correlated with those of mine.

On one axis is a sub-index of economic liberties such as free trade internationally and
domestically, and low taxes and spending. This component of the overall index is non-
exceptional. Its results correlate highly with many other such indexes, for example, the
FreedomWorks index.

On the other axis is a sub-index of personal liberties, such as Freedom of Speech and the
Right to Keep and Bear Arms. While there are points of tangency of this component with
some other indexes, our approach embraces the entire Bill of Rights, including expansive
definitions of privacy as provided by the 4th Amendment and liberty as provided by the 5th
Amendment, and an appreciation of the long-dormant 9th and 10th Amendments.

We also embrace the checks and balances provided by the Constitution as a safeguard of
our rights. While, in theory, an absolute monarch could secure the rights of his subjects, in
practice, governments better safeguard the rights of people when they are accountable to
the people through elections, and are structured so as to better pursue the common good
while safeguarding our rights. This is not necessarily a defense of the particular form of a
democratic republic incorporated into the Constitution.

In recent years, the federal government of the United States has become increasingly
arbitrary and even despotic. The will of the people as expressed in the election of the
members of Congress, as well as in the election of the President, and in the election of state
government is ignored by an executive branch that rules by executive action and the
support of a sufficient minority in Congress to sustain a veto, and through all-encompassing
budget deals. With this approach to governing, Congressional oversight of the executive
branch is short-circuited, and the concerns of various factions ignored.

As a consequence of the rupture of the checks and balances provided by the framework of
the U.S. government, the country has become involved in multiple unending wars, runs
unsustainable deficits, the standard of living of ordinary people is deteriorating, a plurality
of the people now believe their children will be worse off than they, labor force
participation is falling (independent of changes in the age distribution of the population),
poverty, drug abuse and suicide are on the rise, and an increasing number of once great
cities have become economically unviable and border on anarchy.

Roll Call Votes

The roll call votes involve 20 votes on each component, in each chamber, a total of 80 votes.
These are described in Tables 1 through 4 at the end of the text. As in prior years, I
consulted a small number of trusted persons familiar with the process, while remaining
responsible for the final decision.

The roll call votes going into the economic liberties sub-index are relatively easy to select.
These votes reflect a mix of overall levels of spending and taxing, and a variety of specific
taxes and spending. In addition, a good number of regulatory votes are included. The votes
also reflect a mix of votes from difficult to easy, so as to distinguish the best members of
Congress on economic liberties from those who are merely above-average. Likewise, to
distinguish the worst from the merely below-average.

Among the more interesting economic liberty votes during 2015 were: In the Senate, to
attach reauthorization of the Export-Import Bank into the Defense Authorization Bill, after
the Ex-Im Bank had seemingly been killed. And, in the House of Representatives, to free the
incandescent bulb (AKA "Edison Bulb"). Why should anyone have to pay $5 for a "Pelosi
Bulb" in order to have light in a closet?

The roll call votes going into the personal liberties sub-index are, in contrast, relatively
difficult to select. This year, as in some others, I caution against over-reliance on the Senate
personal liberties sub-index. In particular, on the Senate side, I found no de-funding votes
for the wars we're in. In contrast, I feel good about the personal liberties sub-index for the
House of Representatives. On the House side, I have three war de-funding votes
(Afghanistan, Iraq and Syria), three votes on the drug war, and four privacy votes (related
to the war on terrorism).

U.S. House of Representatives

2015 Liberty Index - Overall Results by Party - U.S. House of Representatives



In the U.S. House of Representatives, the political spectrum is considerably in the
Progressive Socialist to Republican Liberty direction, as opposed to the old "left-right" or

Liberal versus Conservative (in both cases, in the American understanding of the terms)
direction. Progressive Socialists, for example, do not believe in Freedom of Speech, but in
speech codes, regulated speech, and speech that is "non-offensive" to their constituencies.
They believe in "decided science" rather than free inquiry. They want the federal
government to approve textbooks, as well as teacher licensure and control over
curriculum, and they oppose private school choice. They want continuous wars, massive
surveillance, militarization of the police, and disarming of the public.

2015 Liberty Index - Top 20 - U.S. House of Representatives



As mentioned above, Justin Amash of Michigan was the top scorer, with a double-100 and
therefore an overall or average score of 100. We are happy to see prior high-scorers Dana
Rohrabacher and Tom McClintock of California among the top 20 of this year. Also,
newcomer Dave Brat of Virginia.

The absolutely worst scorer, from our point of view, was Debbie Wasserman Schultze of
Florida, with an overall score of 8. But, to be fair, it should be pointed out that from the
Progressive Socialist point of view, her score would be the best, although 8 points removed
from perfect. Scores for each member of the House are given in Table 6.

As observed by others, there is near polarization in the U.S. House of Representatives.
Almost all of "them" are Progressive Socialists to one degree or other. Almost all of "us" are
libertarians to one degree or other. There is hardly anybody in the middle.


The chart below shows that the political axis is not quite a straight line, but a kinked line.
Democrats tend to be arrayed randomly about their average score on the personal liberties
sub-index, whatever their score on the economic liberties sub-component. In contrast,
Republicans who tend to be more dedicated to free-market economics also tend to be more
dedicated to personal liberties.

This is a potentially interesting development in the Liberty Index. In past years, a more or
less straight line emerged common to both parties, whether oriented liberal versus
conservative (from the northwest quadrant of the chart to the southeast quadrant), or
progressive versus libertarian, or something in between. Rather than speculate as to the
significance of a kinked political spectrum, we should first see if it is persistent or fleeting.

U.S. Senate

2015 Liberty Index - Overall Results by Party - U.S. Senate



Over in the Senate, there appears to be even more polarization than in the House of
Representatives. The one non-progressive in the Democratic caucus is Joe Manchin of West
Virginia, and the most befuddled Republican is Susan Collins of Maine.

The top scorers are Rand Paul of Kentucky, with 93 overall, followed by Ted Cruz of Texas
and Mike Enzi of Wyoming, with 92. Steve Daines of Montana and James Lankford of
Oklahoma are tied for the top newcomer of the year.

At the bottom is Angus King of Maine, an independent in name only. He got an overall score
of 8. Bernie Sanders of Vermont didn't do so badly for someone who sits with the
Democrats. On the economic liberties component, he voted against reauthorization of the
Export-Import Bank, and on the personal liberties component he voted for the civil
liberties favored by old-fashioned liberals.

# # #

CLIFFORD F. THIES, a member of the Frederick County, Virginia, Republican Committee, is
a former national chairman of the Republican Liberty Caucus.


TABLE 1. 2015 Senate Roll Call Votes - Personal Liberties


#

Title

Description

LI

21

Keystone Pipeline - Private Land

clarify private land only acquired consistent with


Constitution

64

33

22

Keystone Pipeline - Eminent Doman

prohibit use of eminent domain in construction of


pipeline

43

54

26

Keystone Pipeline - Campaign Finance Disclosures

require disclosures of persons having a financial


interest in pipeline, to table

52

43

63

Immigration Executive Actions

prohibit funding of executive actions related to


immigration, cloture

57

42

74

Human Trafficking Restitution

use fines and penalties for restitution and


assistance to victims, cloture

57

41

105

Budget Resolution - Common Core

allow legislation to prohibit the mandating of


Common Core

54

46

107

Budget Resolution - Campaign Finance

allow legislation to require disclosure of campaign


finance

47

52

133

Budget Resolution - Voting Rights of Felons

allow legislation to restore voting rights to felons

47

51

167

Iran Nuclear Agreement - Treaty Designation

deem agreement to be a treaty

39

57

168

Iran Nuclear Agreement - Terrorism Certification

require president to certify that Iran is not


supporting terrorism

45

54

196

Patriot Act Reauthorization

authorize domestic surveillance with limitations,


cloture

77

17

198

Patriot Act Reauthorization - Amicus Curiae

relieve FISA courts from having to appoint amicus


curiae within six months

42

56

200

Patriot Act Reauthorization - Substitute


Amendment

require private carriers to notify NSA if they


change their data retention policy

43

56

203

Defense Appropriations - Definition of Spouse

define 'spouse' according to state law

53

42

209

Defense Appropriations - Torture

apply Army standard to entire government

78

21

210

Defense Appropriations - Iraqi Kurds

authorize direct arming of Iraqi Kurds

54

45

225

No Child Left Behind - school choice

funds follow students to private or public school

45

52

226

No Child Left Behind - state opt-out

allow states to opt-out with money converted into


block grants

44

54

238

No Child Left Behind - Climate Change Education

provide grants to improve climate science


curriculum

44

53

262

Planned Parenthood

prohibit funding, cloture

53

46

TABLE 2. 2015 Senate Roll Call Votes - Economic Liberties


#

Title

Description

LI

Keystone Pipeline - Export Ban

ban exports of crude oil, etc., sent through


pipeline, to table

57

42

Keystone Pipeline - Domestic Content

require domestic steel, etc., in construction of


pipeline, to table

53

46

39

Keystone Pipeline - Wilderness Study Areas

release areas not designated as wilderness areas


within one year

50

48

41

Keystone Pipeline - Fracking

remove exemptions of fracking from Safe Drinking


Water Act

35

63

68

Keystone Pipeline - Veto Override

immediately authorize, veto override

62

37

78

Budget Resolution - Revenue Increase

increase revenues over 10-year period by $441


billion

45

52

93

Budget Resolution - Minimum Wage

allow legislation to increase the federal minimum


wage

48

52

95

Budget Resolution - Medicaid

reduce cuts to Medicaid by $1.2 trillion

47

53

98

Budget Resolution - Paid Sick Leave

allow legislation to mandate paid sick leave

61

39

100

Budget Resolution - Free Community College

allow legislation to provide free community


college

45

55

101

Budget Resolution - Pell Grants

allow legislation to increase funding for Pell


Grants

46

54

127

Budget Resolution - Corporate Compensation

allow legislation making corporate compensation


above $1 million not deductible

44

54

131

Budget Resolution - Social Security

allow legislation to increase Social Security


benefits

42

56

132

Budget Resolution - Debt Limit

allow creation of a point of order against


increasing the debt limit

54

44

149

Budget Resolution - Student Loans

allow refinancing of student loans and raise taxes


on millionaires

45

52

150

Budget Resolution - Social Security

oppose cutting benefits, raising retirement age or


privatizing Social Security

84

13

153

Budget Resolution - Medicare

oppose cutting benefits or privatizing Medicare

45

52

187

Trade Promotion Authority - Currency


Manipulation

establish sanction against exchange rate


manipulation

48

51

190

Trade Promotion Authority - Trade Adjustment


Assistance

eliminate

36

62

206

Defense Authorization - Ex-Im Bank

reauthorize Export-Import Bank, to table

31

65

TABLE 3. 2015 House Roll Call Votes - Personal Liberties


#

Title

Description

LI

30

Homeland Security Appropriation - DACA

bar funds to president's Deferred Action for


Childhood Arrivals program

218

209

53

Homeland Security - Social Media Working Group

investigate use of social media in conjunction with


anti-terrorism actions

328

51

95

Education Law Overhaul - Stem grants

restrict grants to women, minorities and low-


income students

204

217

97

Education Law Overhaul - K-12 textbooks

insure textbooks meet standards

182

243

168

Cybersecurity Intelligence - Sunset

limit program to seven years

313

110

170

Cybersecurity Intelligence

promote government access to information of


private companies

307

116

224

Government Surveillance Authorities

authorize data collection and storage with


limitations

338

88

285

Commerce-Justice-Science Appropriations -
Marijuana Cultivation

bar funds from enforcing laws against marijuana


cultivation

206

222

286

Commerce-Justice-Science Appropriations -
Cannabidiol

bar funds from enforcing laws making cannabidiol


illegal

297

130

288

Commerce-Justice-Science Appropriations -
Industrial Hemp

bar funds from enforcing laws against industrial


hemp

289

132

289

Commerce-Justice-Science Appropriations -
Ammunition

bar funds from treating certain ammunition as


armor-piercing

250

171

294

Commerce-Justice-Science Appropriations -
Sanctuary Cities

bar funds to state and local governments that do


not cooperate on immigration policy

227

198

341

Defense Appropriations - Afghanistan

strike provisions allowing Sec. of Defense to


redirect money to infrastructure

233

199

342

Defense Appropriations - Iraq

eliminate $715 million for Iraqi training and


equipment

56

375

343

Defense Appropriations - Syria

eliminate $600 million for Syria training and


equipment

107

323

356

Defense Appropriations - Surveillance

bar funds to mandate companies alter products to


permit surveillance

255

174

410

Elementary and Secondary Education Overhaul -


Common Core

allow state to withdraw from Common Core

373

57

492

Iran Nuclear Agreement

president has failed to comply with the Nuclear


Agreement Act

245

186

501

Frivolous Lawsuit Sanctions

require courts to impose sanctions in frivolous


lawsuits equal to attorney fees

241

185

524

State Medicaid Abortion Exceptions

allow states to exclude abortion providers from


Medicaid programs

236

193

TABLE 4. 2015 House Roll Call Votes - Economic Liberties


#

Title

Description

LI

14

Health Care Employer Mandate

raise 30-hour threshold for mandated coverage to


40-hour

252

172

16

Keystone Pipeline

immediately authorize

266

153

37

Financial Regulatory Revisions

relax or delay numerous regulations

271

154

58

Health Care Overhaul Repeal

repeal 2010 health care overhaul

239

186

136

Budget Resolution - Progressive Caucus Substitute

raise spending by $3.7 trillion and raise taxes by


$6.9 trillion

96

330

138

Budget Resolution - Rep. Study Cmte. Substitute

lower spending by $7.1 trillion

132

294

139

Budget Resolution - Dem. Substitute

raise spending by $3.2 trillion

160

264

153

Budget Resolution - Paid Sick Leave

agree with Senate on paid sick leave

187

239

159

State and Local Sales Tax Deduction

make permanent state and local income tax


deduction

272

152

161

Estate Tax Repeal

repeal federal estate tax

240

179

191

Military Construction-VA Appropriations - Davis-


Bacon Act

bar funds from enforcing prevailing wages


provision

186

235

207

Energy-Water Appropriations - Light Bulbs

bar funds from enforcing prohibition against


incandescent light bulbs

232

189

219

Waters of the U.S.

limit authority of EPA to regulate 'waters of the


United States'

261

155

260

Research Tax Credit

make permanent the research tax credit

274

145

303

Transportation-HUD Appropriations - Amtrak


Operatingl Grants

eliminate

143

283

304

Transportation-HUD Appropriations - Amtrak


Capital Grants

eliminate

139

286

375

Medical Device Tax Repeal

repeal 2.3% tax on medical devices included in


2010 health care overhaul

280

140

399

Interior-Environment Appropriations - Grazing


Permits

remove provision allowing grazing permits to


ranchers displaced by fire or drought

178

251

402

Interior-Environment Appropriations - Fracking

restrict fracking

179

250

405

Interior-Environment Appropriations - Ivory sales

remove prohibition on rule banning sales of ivory


legally entering this country

183

244

61
70
13
85
20
15
78
15
85
14
13
73
15
75
13
20
20
83
78
73
63
16
68
83
85
85
92
90
24
13
92
78
16
83
85
13
88
13
80
85
75
20
30
85
13
78
85
80
85
20


I
R
D
R
D
R
D
D
R
D
R
D
D
D
R
R
D
D
D
R
R
D
R
D
D
R
R
R
R
I
R
D
D
R
R
D
R
D
R
D
R
R
R
D
R
D
D
D
R
D

Index

47
70
25
75
25
30
75
30
75
28
26
75
25
65
25
25
35
75
65
55
70
26
50
70
75
75
83
85
42
25
89
70
26
70
70
26
85
25
80
80
55
35
40
84
25
75
70
70
80
30


ME
IL
MN
OK
VT
UT
WV
MA
AZ
MO
KY
NJ
OR
MD
KS
AK
CT
WA
FL
KY
GA
MI
OH
RI
NV
ID
KS
SD
FL
VT
NE
HI
NY
SC
AL
NH
AL
MI
AK
MT
SD
NC
PA
NM
LA
VA
MA
RI
MS
OR

Personal

75
70
0
95
15
0
80
0
95
0
0
70
5
85
0
15
5
90
90
90
55
5
85
95
95
95
100
95
5
0
94
85
6
95
100
0
90
0
80
90
95
5
20
85
0
80
100
90
90
10


King, Angus
Kirk, Mark
Klobuchar, Amy
Lankford, James
Leahy, Patrick
Lee, Mike
Manchin, Joe
Markey, Ed
McCain, John
McCaskill, Claire
McConnell, Mitch
Menendez, Bob
Merkley, Jeff
Mikulski, Barbara
Moran, Jerry
Murkowski, Lisa
Murphy, Chris
Murray, Patti
Nelson, Bill
Paul, Rand
Perdue, David
Peters, Gary
Portman, Rob
Reed, Jack
Reid, Harry
Risch, Jim
Roberts, Pat
Rounds, Mike
Rubio, Marco
Sanders, Bernie
Sasse, Ben
Schatz, Brian
Schumer, Carl
Scott, Tim
Sessions, Jeff
Shaheen, Jeanne
Shelby, Richard
Stabenow, Debbie
Sullivan, Dan
Tester, Jon
Thune, John
Tillis, Thom
Toomey, Pat
Udall, Tom
Vitter, David
Warner, Mark
Warren, Elizabeth
Whitehouse, Sheldon
Wicker, Roger
Wyden, Ron

Economic


R
R
D
R
D
D
R
D
R
D
D
R
D
R
D
D
D
R
R
R
R
D
R
R
R
R
R
R
D
D
R
R
D
R
R
D
R
D
R
R
R
D
D
R
D
R
R
R
R
D

Index


TN
NH
WI
WY
CO
CT
MO
NJ
AR
CA
OH
NC
WA
WV
MD
DE
PA
LA
IN
MS
ME
DE
TN
TX
AR
ID
TX
MT
IN
IL
WY
IA
CA
NE
AZ
MN
CO
NY
SC
IA
UT
NM
ND
NV
HI
ND
OK
GA
WI
VA

Personal


Alexander, Lamar
Ayotte, Kelly
Baldwin, Tammy
Barrasso, Joe
Bennet, Michael
Blumenthal, Richard
Blunt, Roy
Booker, Corey
Boozman, John
Boxer, Barbara
Brown, Sherrod
Burr, Richard
Cantwell, Maria
Capito, Shelley Moore
Cardin, Ben
Carper, Tom
Casey, Bob
Cassidy, Bill
Coats, Dan
Cochran, Thad
Collins, Susan
Coons, Chris
Corker, Bob
Cornyn, John
Cotton, Tom
Crapo, Mike
Cruz, Ted
Daines, Steve
Donnelly, Joe
Durbin, Dick
Enzi, Mike
Ernst, Joni
Feinstein, Diane
Fischer, Deb
Flake, Jeff
Franken, Al
Gardner, Cory
Gillibrand, Kirsten
Graham, Lindsey
Grassley, Charles
Hatch, Orrin
Heinrich, Martin
Heitkamp, Heidi
Heller, Dean
Hirono, Mazie
Hoeven, John
Inhofe, John
Isakson, Johnny
Johnson, Ron
Kaine, Tim

Economic

TABLE 5. 2015 Senate Liberty Index and its components

0
79
0
100
0
100
32
0
85
10
100
0
0
0
85
80
0
5
5
95
100
0
70
0
0
95
90
90
94
5
100
0
0
95
95
0
90
0
90
15
90
95
84
5
100
20
0
0
90
5

17
55
30
80
25
82
55
25
65
35
60
26
25
28
89
75
25
26
26
90
60
30
75
25
24
75
75
75
79
25
74
32
25
75
70
25
80
32
85
30
80
75
75
25
70
26
25
25
70
30

8
67
15
90
13
91
43
13
75
23
80
13
13
14
87
78
13
16
16
93
80
15
73
13
12
85
83
83
86
15
87
16
13
85
83
13
85
16
88
23
85
85
80
15
85
23
13
13
80
18

10

Economic

Personal

Index

68
13
70
23
75
100
65
48
80
68
68
79
18
13
20
78
28
18
76
70
83
40
75
75
95
25
23
69
70
20
72
21
93
88
95
68
15
26
75
90
63
93
38
15
77
67
22
31
18
25

Party

50
27
45
30
60
100
50
30
65
58
55
63
35
25
40
65
30
30
61
50
70
35
55
55
95
50
40
53
50
29
50
37
90
75
90
45
25
26
65
80
50
85
35
30
60
50
39
58
32
30

District

85
0
95
15
90
100
80
65
95
79
80
95
0
0
0
90
26
5
90
90
95
45
95
94
95
0
5
85
90
10
94
5
95
100
100
90
5
25
85
100
75
100
40
0
95
84
6
5
5
20


Carson, Andre
Carter, Earl L. 'Buddy'
Carter, John
Cartwright, Matt
Castor, Kathy
Castro, Joaquin
Chabot, Steve
Chaffetz, Jason
Chu, Judy
Cicilline, David
Clark, Katherine
Clarke, Yvette
Clawson, Curt
Clay, Lacy
Cleaver, Emmanuel
Clyburn, James E.
Coffman, Mike
Cohen, Steve
Cole, Tim
Collins, Chris
Collins, Doug
Comstock, Barbara
Conaway, Mike
Connolly, Gerry
Conyers, John
Cook, Paul
Cooper, Jim
Costa, Jim
Costello, Ryan
Courtney, Joe
Cramer, Kevin
Crawford, Rick
Crenshaw, Ander
Crowley, Joseoh
Cuellar, Henry
Culberson, John
Cummings, Elijah
Curbelo, Carlos
Davis, Danny K.
Davis, Rodney
Davis, Susan
DeFazio, Peter
DeGette, Diana
Delaney, John
DeLauro, Rosa
DelBene, Suzan
Denham, Jeff
Dent, Charlie
DeSantis, Ron
DeSaulnier, Mark

State

Index

R
D
R
D
R
R
R
D
R
R
R
R
D
D
D
R
D
D
R
R
R
D
R
R
R
D
D
R
R
D
R
D
R
R
R
R
D
D
R
R
R
R
D
D
R
R
D
D
D
D

Personal

5
12
4
31
12
3
2
2
36
11
6
6
37
3
34
1
7
8
12
8
1
2
6
7
1
3
1
12
3
13
8
1
7
1
5
5
5
26
16
4
8
26
17
1
1
42
24
7
29
1

Economic

LA
NC
AL
CA
GA
MI
NV
NE
TX
PA
KY
TX
CA
OH
CA
MI
CA
VA
FL
MI
UT
GA
TN
TN
IA
OR
OR
IL
LA
PA
TX
PA
VA
OK
Al
IN
FL
CA
FL
CO
IN
TX
IL
NC
AL
CA
CA
MA
CA
DE

Party


Abraham, Ralph
Adams, Alma
Aderholt, Robert
Aguilar, Pete
Allen, Rick
Amash, Justin
Amodei, Mark
Ashford, Brad
Babin, Brian
Barletta, Lou
Barr, Andy
Barton, Joe
Bass, Karen
Beatty, Joyce
Becerra, Xavier
Benishek, Dan
Bera, Ami
Beyer, Don
Bilirakis, Gus
Bishop, Mike
Bishop, Rob
Bishop, Sanford
Black, Diane
Blackburn, Marsha
Blum, Rod
Blumenauer, Earl
Bonamici, Suzanne
Bost, Mike
Boustany, Charles
Boyle, Brendan F.
Brady, Kevin
Brady, Robert
Brat, Dave
Bridenstine, Jim
Brooks, Mo
Brooks, Susan W.
Brown, Corrine
Brownley, Julia
Buchanan, Vern
Buck, Ken
Bucshon, Larry
Burgess, Michael C.
Bustos, Cheri
Butterfield, G.K.
Byrne, Bradley
Calvert, Ken
Capps, Lois
Capuano, Michael E.
Cardenas, Tony
Carney, John

District

State

TABLE 6. 2015 House Liberty Index and its components (p. 1 of 5)

IN
GA
TX
PA
FL
TX
OH
UT
CA
RI
MA
NY
FL
MO
MO
SC
CO
TN
OK
NY
GA
VA
TX
VA
MI
CA
TN
CA
PA
CT
ND
AR
FL
NY
TX
TX
MD
FL
IL
IL
CA
OR
CO
MD
CT
WA
CA
PA
FL
CA

7
1
31
17
14
20
1
3
27
1
5
9
19
1
5
6
6
9
4
27
9
10
11
11
13
8
5
16
6
2
AL
1
4
14
28
7
7
26
7
13
53
4
1
6
3
1
10
15
6
11

D
R
R
D
D
D
R
R
D
D
D
D
R
D
D
D
R
D
R
R
R
R
R
D
D
R
D
D
R
D
R
R
R
D
D
R
D
R
D
R
D
D
D
D
D
D
R
R
R
D

5
95
88
5
5
10
95
100
0
0
10
0
100
0
0
11
95
5
85
84
95
80
100
16
0
80
25
40
80
10
85
94
80
0
60
76
0
79
5
84
10
5
5
32
5
20
84
80
100
0

20
65
45
37
30
32
60
65
32
50
53
42
84
37
22
30
60
40
50
65
70
47
55
30
37
45
35
30
55
40
70
45
45
40
32
47
30
50
30
60
30
60
40
25
40
40
45
40
75
30

13
80
67
21
18
21
78
83
16
25
31
21
92
18
11
20
78
23
68
75
83
64
78
23
18
63
30
35
68
25
78
70
63
20
46
62
15
64
18
72
20
33
23
28
23
30
65
60
88
15

11

Economic

Personal

Index

90
22
58
13
28
53
46
28
23
80
98
90
20
18
75
88
18
21
25
75
15
21
76
74
79
83
75
70
75
18
75
20
83
65
15
30
15
18
90
68
77
93
80
87
88
35
70
85
70
88

Party

85
32
35
26
50
37
36
50
33
70
95
85
40
35
65
80
35
37
40
65
30
37
53
63
63
70
55
55
65
25
60
35
65
45
30
50
30
32
90
55
74
85
65
80
75
20
50
75
56
80

District

95
12
80
0
5
70
57
6
13
90
100
95
0
0
85
95
0
5
10
84
0
5
100
85
95
95
95
85
85
10
90
5
100
85
0
10
0
5
90
80
80
100
95
93
100
50
90
95
85
95


Grayson, Alan
Green, Al
Green, Gene
Griffith, Morgan
Grijalva, Raul
Grothman, Glenn
Guinta, Frank
Guthrie, Brett
Gutierrez, Luis
Hahn, Janice
Hanna, Richard
Hardy, Cresent
Harper, Gregg
Harris, Andy
Hartzler, Vicky
Hastings, Alcee
Heck, Dennis
Heck, Joe
Hensarling, Jeb
Herrera Beutler, Jaime
Hice, Jody
Higgins, Brian
Hill, Frank
Himes, Jim
Hinojosa, Ruben
Holding, George
Honda, Mike
Hoyer, Steny
Hudson, Richard
Huelskamp, Tim
Huffman, Jared
Huizenga, Bill
Hultgren, Randy
Hunter, Duncan D.
Hurd, Will
Hurt, Robert
Israel, Steve
Issa, Darrell
Jackson Lee, Sheila
Jeffries, Hakeem
Jenkins, Evan
Jenkins, Lynn
Johnson, Bill
Johnson, Eddie Bernice
Johnson, Hank
Johnson, Sam
Jolly, David
Jones, Walter
Jordan, Jim
Joyce, David

State

Index

R
D
R
D
D
R
R
D
D
R
R
R
D
D
R
R
D
D
D
R
D
D
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
D
R
D
R
R
D
D
D
D
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
D
R
R
R
R

Personal

4
21
25
12
35
10
11
14
8
7
3
2
4
5
2
6
16
18
5
27
20
2
8
8
3
4
17
VA
1
11
5
22
8
11
11
2
7
3
5
7
19
1
6
4
4
2
12
6
6
14

Economic

TN
FL
FL
MI
TX
IL
NY
PA
IL
WI
SC
TN
MD
MN
NC
MN
NY
CA
CT
TX
CA
PA
TN
PA
TN
LA
TX
FL
NE
IL
NC
FL
AZ
NJ
OH
HI
AZ
CA
NJ
OH
NY
TX
CA
AZ
SC
FL
TX
LA
MO
GA

Party


DesJarlais, Scott
Deutch, Ted
Diaz-Balart, Mario
Dingell, Debbie
Doggett, Lloyd
Dold, Bob
Donovan, Dan
Doyle, Mike
Duckworth, Tammy
Duffy, Sean
Duncan, Jeff
Duncan, John
Edwards, Donna
Ellison, Keith
Ellmers, Renee
Emmer, Tom
Engel, Eliot
Eshoo, Anna
Esty, Elizabeth
Farenthold, Blake
Farr, Sam
Fattah, Chaka
Fincher, Stephen
Fitzpatrick, Mike
Fleischmann, Chuck
Fleming, John
Flores, Bill
Forbes, Randy
Fortenberry, Jeff
Foster, Bill
Foxx, Virginia
Frankel, Lois
Franks, Trent
Frelinghuysen, Rodney
Fudge, Marcia
Gabbard, Tulsi
Gallego, Ruben
Garamendi, John
Garrett, Scott
Gibbs, Bob
Gibson, Chris
Gohmert, Louie
Goodlatte, Robert
Gosar, Paul
Gowdy, Trey
Graham, Gwen
Granger, Kay
Graves, Garret
Graves, Sam
Graves, Tom

District

State

TABLE 6. 2015 House Liberty Index and its components (p. 2 of 5)

FL
TX
TX
VA
AZ
WI
NH
KY
IL
CA
NY
NV
MS
MD
MO
FL
WA
NV
TX
WA
GA
NY
AR
CT
TX
NC
CA
MD
NC
KS
CA
MI
IL
CA
TX
VA
NY
CA
TX
NY
WV
KS
OH
TX
GA
TX
FL
NC
OH
OH

9
9
29
9
3
6
1
2
4
44
22
4
3
1
4
20
10
3
5
3
10
26
2
4
15
13
17
5
8
1
2
2
14
50
23
5
3
49
18
8
3
2
6
30
4
3
13
3
4
14

D
D
D
R
D
R
R
R
D
D
R
R
R
R
R
D
D
R
R
R
R
D
R
D
D
R
D
D
R
R
D
R
R
R
R
R
D
R
D
D
R
R
R
D
D
R
R
R
R
R

5
10
35
85
0
100
80
95
0
0
80
80
85
95
100
5
15
95
100
79
100
10
95
10
7
95
0
5
100
95
0
100
90
100
90
90
5
90
11
0
85
95
90
0
0
95
74
65
100
80

55
40
37
75
45
80
74
60
32
45
55
40
55
70
55
39
30
58
65
65
85
37
45
30
24
50
50
30
53
85
50
58
72
70
55
72
21
70
27
30
63
60
55
30
28
65
50
95
85
65

30
25
36
80
23
90
77
78
16
23
68
60
70
83
78
22
23
76
83
72
93
23
70
20
15
73
25
18
76
90
25
79
81
85
73
81
13
80
19
15
74
78
73
15
14
80
62
80
93
73

12

R
D
R
R
R
D
D
D
R
R
R
D
R
R
R
D
D
R
R
R
R
R
R
D
D
R
R
D
R
D
D
D
R
R
R
D
D
R
R
D
R
R
D
R
D
R
D
R
D
D

Index

4
6
23
10
4
4
7
2
10
1
5
9
2
11
7
5
6
6
7
10
1
4
2
4
6
2
5
18
18
10
32
1
19
4
AL
8
1
11
22
16
22
4
6
6
9
3
10
2
12
7

Personal

KY
CA
CA
TX
CA
MN
WA
MA
NC
WV
WA
CA
AZ
NC
PA
NY
NY
IN
FL
MI
FL
MI
WV
WI
MA
OK
SC
FL
PA
NY
CA
MA
TX
WA
SD
MN
NJ
FL
CA
TX
TX
MS
NJ
AL
NJ
MN
NJ
NM
CA
CO

Economic

13
58
23
65
18
81
21
18
28
29
60
79
68
25
83
70
31
98
80
78
73
18
23
26
78
21
26
18
23
30
31
65
26
25
68
93
85
23
18
65
78
20
18
93
18
58
16
38
83
63

Party

26
40
32
45
32
63
32
30
30
42
40
58
50
30
65
50
37
95
70
55
55
32
30
42
60
42
53
30
45
50
32
50
26
50
50
90
70
45
30
50
65
25
30
90
25
35
26
35
65
45

District

0
75
15
85
5
100
10
5
25
15
80
100
85
20
100
90
25
100
89
100
90
5
15
10
95
0
0
5
0
11
30
80
26
0
85
95
100
0
5
80
90
15
5
95
11
80
5
40
100
80


Massie, Thomas
Matsui, Doris
McCarthy, Kevin
McCaul, Michael
McClintock, Tom
McCollum, Betty
McDermott, Jim
McGovern, Jim
McHenry, Patrick
McKinley, David
McMorris Rodgers, Cathy
McNerney, Jerry
McSally, Martha
Meadows, Mark
Meehan, Patrick
Meeks, Gregory
Meng, Grace
Messer, Luke
Mica, John L.
Miller, Candice
Miller, Jeff
Moolenaar, John
Mooney, Alex
Moore, Gwen
Moulton, Seth
Mullin, Markwayne
Mulvaney, Mick
Murphy, Patrick
Murphy, Tim
Nadler, Jerrold
Napolitano, Grace
Neal, Richard
Neugebauer, Randy
Newhouse, Dan
Noem, Kristi
Nolan, Rick
Norcross, Donald
Nugent, Richard
Nunes, David
O'Rourke, Beto
Olson, Pete
Palazzo, Steven
Pallone, Frank
Palmer, Gary
Pascrell, Bill
Paulsen, Erik
Payne, Jr., Donald
Pearce, Steve
Pelosi, Nancy
Perlmutter, Ed

State

Index

D
R
D
R
D
R
D
D
D
D
R
R
R
D
R
R
D
R
R
R
R
D
D
D
R
D
D
D
D
D
D
R
D
D
R
R
R
D
D
R
R
D
D
R
D
R
D
D
R
R

Personal

9
24
9
3
2
1
4
5
6
3
2
4
16
1
2
25
2
1
1
5
7
2
2
1
5
14
13
9
5
33
3
2
2
19
7
11
4
47
17
3
3
1
3
AL
8
3
12
18
24
10

Economic

OH
NY
MA
PA
IL
MS
MA
MI
WA
WI
NY
IA
IL
AZ
MN
CA
NH
ID
CA
CO
NJ
RI
WA
CT
OH
MI
CA
MI
GA
CA
IL
NJ
IA
CA
MO
GA
UT
CA
NY
OK
MO
NM
NM
WY
MA
NJ
NY
NY
TX
PA

Party


Kaptur, Marcy
Katko, John
Keating, Bill
Kelly, Mike
Kelly, Robin
Kelly, Trent
Kennedy, Joseph P.
Kildee, Dan
Kilmer, Derek
Kind, Ron
King, Peter
King, Steve
Kinzinger, Adam
Kirkpatrick, Ann
Kline, John
Knight, Steve
Kuster, Ann McLane
Labrador, Raul
LaMalfa, Doug
Lamborn, Doug
Lance, Leonard
Langevin, Jim
Larsen, Rick
Larson, John B.
Latta, Bob
Lawrence, Brenda
Lee, Barbara
Levin, Sandy
Lewis, John
Lieu, Ted
Lipinski, Dan
LoBiondo, Frank
Loebsack, Dave
Lofgren, Zoe
Long, Billy
Loudermilk, Barry
Love, Mia
Lowenthal, Alan
Lowey, Nita
Lucas, Frabk
Luetkemeyer, Blaine
Lujan Grisham, Michelle
Lujan, Ben Ray
Lummis, Cynthia
Lynch, Stephen F.
MacArthur, Tom
Maloney, Carolyn
Maloney, Sean Patrick
Marchant, Kenny
Marino, Tom

District

State

TABLE 6. 2015 House Liberty Index and its components (p. 3 of 5)

95 100 98
0
35 18
85 50 68
100 55 78
95 95 95
0
30 15
5
45 25
0
55 28
95 50 73
80 50 65
85 60 73
11 30 20
90 40 65
100 70 85
80 40 60
0
33 17
0
32 16
100 60 80
90 55 73
85 50 68
100 60 80
90 50 70
90 80 85
0
30 15
10 35 23
95 50 73
95 95 95
40 28 34
84 60 72
0
35 18
0
32 16
10 47 29
95 70 83
85 65 75
95 50 72
15 45 30
15 30 23
89 65 77
84 40 62
7
45 26
100 72 86
95 50 73
0
55 28
100 70 85
5
25 15
90 70 80
0
35 18
90 55 73
5
28 16
15 30 23

13

Economic

Personal

Index

97
25
54
25
73
70
25
87
63
43
75
88
15
85
18
20
80
73
53
70
93
18
88
25
70
70
88
62
78
95
79
78
68
61
80
75
73
15
73
22
20
16
73
78
21
90
18
22
95
15

Party

100
20
45
50
50
55
50
85
50
70
50
80
30
80
26
40
60
60
26
55
90
25
75
35
60
45
75
45
60
95
68
55
50
47
65
65
50
30
55
20
20
26
50
55
32
80
35
33
95
30

District

94
30
63
0
95
85
0
89
75
15
100
95
0
90
10
0
100
85
80
85
95
10
100
15
80
95
100
79
95
95
89
100
85
75
95
84
95
0
90
23
20
5
95
100
11
100
0
11
95
0


Scalise, Steve
Schakowsky, Jan
Schiff, Adam
Schock, Aaron
Schrader, Kurt
Schweikert, David
Scott, Austin
Scott, David
Scott, Robert
Sensenbrenner, Jim
Serrano, Jose E.
Sessions, Pete
Sewell, Terri
Sherman, Brad
Shimkus, John
Shuster, Bill
Simpson, Mike
Sinema, Kyrsten
Sires, Albio
Slaughter, Louise
Smith, Adam
Smith, Adrian
Smith, Chris
Smith, Jason T.
Smith, Lamar
Speier, Jackie
Stefanik, Elise
Stewart, Chris
Stivers, Steve
Stutzman, Marlin
Swalwell, Eric
Takai, Mark
Takano, Mark
Thompson, Bennie G.
Thompson, Glenn
Thompson, Mike
Thornberry, Mac
Tiberi, Pat
Tipton, Scott
Titus, Dina
Tonko, Paul D.
Torres, Norma
Trott, Dave
Tsongas, Niki
Turner, Mike
Upton, Fred
Valadao, David
Van Hollen, Chris
Vargas, Juan
Veasey, Marc

State

Index

R
D
D
D
R
R
D
R
R
D
R
R
D
R
D
D
R
R
R
R
R
D
R
D
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
D
R
D
D
D
R
R
D
R
D
D
R
D

Personal

4
52
7
1
9
16
2
2
2
2
4
8
4
6
5
13
4
23
8
16
8
4
7
2
2
2
1
5
3
48
4
17
27
6
15
12
7
40
39
36
2
1
5
1
13
5
38
46
1
3

Economic

PA
CA
MN
ME
NC
PA
WI
TX
ME
CO
KS
FL
NC
GA
IL
NY
TX
NY
WA
OH
WI
NY
SC
LA
VA
AL
TN
KY
AL
CA
IN
FL
FL
IL
FL
PA
NC
CA
CA
CA
MD
IL
OK
WI
OH
AZ
CA
CA
SC
MD

Party


Perry, Scott
Peters, Scott
Peterson, Collin
Pingree, Chellie
Pittenger, Robert
Pitts, Joe
Pocan, Mark
Poe, Ted
Poliquin, Bruce
Polis, Jared
Pompeo, Mike
Posey, Bill
Price, David
Price, Tom
Quigley, Mike
Rangel, Charles
Ratcliffe, John
Reed, Tom
Reichert, Dave
Renacci, Jim
Ribble, Reid
Rice, Kathleen
Rice, Tom
Richmond, Cedric
Rigell, Scott
Roby, Martha
Roe, Phil
Rogers, Hal
Rogers, Mike D.
Rohrabacher, Dana
Rokita, Todd
Rooney, Thomas J.
Ros-Lehtinen, Ileana
Roskam, Peter
Ross, Dennis
Rothfus, Keith
Rouzer, David
Roybal-Allard, Lucille
Royce, Ed
Ruiz, Raul
Ruppersberger, Dutch
Rush, Bobby
Russell, Steve
Ryan, Paul
Ryan, Tim
Salmon, Matt
Sanchez, Linda
Sanchez, Loretta
Sanford, Mark
Sarbanes, John

District

State

TABLE 6. 2015 House Liberty Index and its components (p. 4 of 5)

LA
IL
CA
IL
OR
AZ
GA
GA
VA
WI
NY
TX
AL
CA
IL
PA
ID
AZ
NJ
NY
WA
NE
NJ
MO
TX
CA
NY
UT
OH
IN
CA
HI
CA
MS
PA
CA
TX
OH
CO
NV
NY
CA
MI
MA
OH
MI
CA
MD
CA
TX

1
9
28
18
5
6
8
13
3
5
15
32
7
30
15
9
2
9
8
25
9
3
4
8
21
14
21
2
15
3
15
1
41
2
5
5
13
12
3
1
20
35
11
3
10
6
21
8
51
33

R
D
D
R
D
R
R
D
D
R
D
R
D
D
R
R
R
D
D
D
D
R
R
R
R
D
R
R
R
R
D
D
D
D
R
D
R
R
R
D
D
D
R
D
R
R
R
D
D
D

95
0
5
86
35
95
100
20
0
95
0
100
19
5
90
85
85
55
10
0
0
95
85
95
100
10
80
94
85
95
20
5
0
0
80
10
95
80
94
20
10
15
85
5
85
85
85
5
5
20

55
45
25
50
45
85
65
37
35
70
40
55
16
30
55
45
53
16
30
47
31
55
50
65
60
44
50
47
58
75
30
30
45
30
65
28
45
50
80
40
45
20
50
53
45
55
40
45
30
25

75
23
15
68
40
90
83
28
18
83
20
78
17
18
73
65
69
35
20
24
16
75
68
80
80
27
65
71
71
85
25
18
23
15
73
19
70
65
87
30
28
18
68
29
65
70
63
25
18
23

14

District

Party

Economic

Personal

Index


Vela, Filamon
Velazquez, Nydia
Visclosky, Pete
Wagner, Ann
Walberg, Tim
Walden, Greg
Walker, Mark
Walorski, Jackie
Walters, Mimi
Walz, Tim
Wasserman Schultz, Debbie
Waters, Maxine
Watson Coleman, Bonnie
Weber, Randy
Webster, Daniel
Welch, Peter
Wenstrup, Brad
Westerman, Bruce
Westmoreland, Lynn
Whitfield, Ed
Williams, Roger
Wilson, Frederica
Wilson, Joe
Wittman, Rob
Womack, Steve
Woodall, Rob
Yarmuth, John
Yoder, Kevin
Yoho, Ted
Young, David
Young, Donald
Young, Todd
Zeldin, Lee
Zinke, Ryan

State

TABLE 6. 2015 House Liberty Index and its components (p. 5 of 5)

TX
NY
IN
MO
MI
OR
NC
IN
CA
MN
FL
CA
NJ
TX
FL
VT
OH
AR
GA
KY
TX
FL
SC
VA
AR
GA
KY
KY
FL
IA
AK
IN
NY
MT

34
7
1
2
7
2
6
2
45
1
23
43
12
14
10
AL
2
4
3
1
25
24
2
1
3
7
3
3
3
3
AL
9
1
AL

D
D
D
R
R
R
R
R
R
D
D
D
D
R
R
D
R
R
R
R
R
D
R
R
R
R
D
R
R
R
R
R
R
R

20
0
10
84
90
80
95
100
90
30
6
0
0
95
90
0
95
95
95
72
95
0
100
80
80
100
5
90
95
90
81
79
75
80

32
40
25
53
55
60
75
58
50
40
11
44
55
70
55
50
50
50
68
50
70
39
50
55
45
70
37
70
80
60
63
60
65
65

26
20
18
68
73
70
85
79
70
35
8
22
28
83
73
25
73
73
82
61
83
19
75
68
63
85
21
80
88
75
72
69
70
73

15