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Moment of inertia is a measurement of an object's resistance to angular accelera

tion.
Polar moment of inertia is a measurement of an object's resistance to torsion (t
wisting).
A moment is equivalent to a force multiplied by the length of the line passing t
hrough the point of reaction and
that is perpendicular to the force.
A bending moment is the internal reaction to a bending load.
It is therefore acting on a surface that would be normal to the neutral axis of
the part.
A couple is the moment that is the resultant of two forces of the same magnitude
,
acting in opposite direction at the same distance from the reaction point.
Therefore, this force system is statically equivalent to a pure moment (no resul
tant force).
Torque is a moment that is applied in such a way that it tends to rotate a body
around its axis.
The usual example being a torsional moment on a shaft.
Factor of safety is a term describing the load carrying capacity of a system bey
ond the expected or actual loads.