Reinforced Concrete

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Reinforced Concrete

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1 INTRO DUCTIO N

The design of different reinforced concrete sections of beams will be considered in this chapter.

1.2 DESIGN AND ANALYSIS

The main task of a structural engineer is the analysis and design of structures. The two approaches of design and analysis

will be used in this chapter:

Design of a section. This implies that the external ultimate moment is known, and it is required to compute the

dimensions of an adequate concrete section and the amount of steel reinforcement. Concrete strength and yield of steel

used are given.

Analysis of a section. This implies that the dimensions and steel used in the section (in addition to concrete and steel

yield strengths) are given, and it is required to calculate the internal ultimate moment capacity of the section so that it can

be compared with the applied external ultimate moment.

1.3 BASIC ASSUMPTIO NS IN FLEXURE THEO RY

Five basic assumptions are made:

1. Plane sections before bending remain plane after bending.

2. Strain in concrete is the same as in reinforcing bars at the same level, provided that the bond between the steel and

concrete is sufficient to keep them acting together under

the different load stages i.e., no slip can occur between the

two materials.

3. The stress-strain curves for the steel and concrete are known.

4. The tensile strength of concrete may be neglected.

5. At ultimate strength, the maximum strain at the extreme compression fiber is assumed

Egyptian Code.

The assumption of plane sections remaining plane (Bernoulli's principle) means that strains above and below the neutral

axis NA are proportional to the distance from the neutral axis, Fig. 1.1. Tests on reinforced concrete members have

indicated that this assumption is very nearly correct at all stages of loading up to flexural failure, provided good bond

exists between the concrete and steel. This assumption, however, does not hold for deep beams or in regions of high

shear.

To study the behavior of a reinforced concrete beam section under increasing moment, let us examine how strains

and stresses progress at different stages of loading:

1.4.1 Noncracked, Linear Stage

As illustrated in Fig. 1.2, where moments are small, compressive stresses are very low and the maximum tensile stress of

concrete is less than its rupture strength, f ctr . In this stage the entire concrete section is effective, with the steel bars at the

tension side sustaining a strain equal to that of the surrounding concrete (

to that in the adjacent concrete multiplied by the modular ratio n. Utilizing the Transformed Area Concept, in which the

steel is transformed into an equivalent concrete area

This stage should be considered as the basis for calculating the cracking moment Mcr , which produces tensile stresses

at the bottom fibers equal to the modulus of rupture of concrete, Fig. 1.3. The Egyptian Code recommends the flexural

formula M/Z to compute the flexural strength of the section:

(1.1a)

where

is the moment of inertia of gross concrete section about the centroidal axis, neglecting the reinforcement, yt is

the distance from the centroidal axis of cross section, neglecting steel, to extreme fiber tension and f ctr is the modulus of

rupture of concrete. The Egyptian code (ECCS) suggests an imperical formula relates the modulus of rupture of concrete

to its compressive strength:

N/mm2

(1.1b)

When the moment is increased beyond Mcr , the tensile stresses in concrete at the tension zone increased until they were

greater than the modulus of rupture f ctr , and cracks will develop. The neutral axis shifts upward, and cracks extend close

to the level of the shifted neutral axis. Cracked concrete below the neutral axis is assumed to be not effective and the

steel bars resist the entire tensile force. The stress-strain curve for concrete is approximately linear up to 0.40 f cu ; hence if

the concrete stress does not exceed this value, the elastic (straight line) theory formula M/Z may be used to analyze the

"all concrete" area in Fig. 1.4.

For moments greater than these producing stage 2, the maximum compressive stress in concrete exceeds 0.40 .

However, concrete in compression has not crushed. Although strains are assumed to remain proportional to the distance

from the neutral axis, stresses are not and, therefore, the flexural formula M/Z of the conventional elastic theory cannot

be used to compute the flexural strength of the section. The Internal Couple Approach, instead, will be used to compute

the section strength. This approach allows two equations for equilibrium, for the analysis and design of structural

members, that are valid for any load and any section. As Fig. 1.5 indicates, the compressive force C should be equal to

the tensile force T, otherwise the section will have a linear displacement plus rotation. Thus,

C=T

(1.2a)

The internal moment is equal to either the tensile force T multiplied by its arm yct

(1.2b)

(1.3)

where

is the steel stress. The resultant internal compressive force is obtained by integrating

the stress block over the area bc. Taking an infinitesimal strip dy of area dA equals b by dy, located at a distance y from

the neutral axis and subject to an assumed uniform compressive stress f and strain X the compressive force C is given

by

(1.4)

This stage may be considered as the basis for calculating the flexural strength of the section at first yield of the tension

steel (known as the yield moment

extreme fiber of the concrete may be appreciably less than 0.003. If the steel reaches the yield strain and the concrete

reaches the extreme fiber compression strain of 0.003, simultaneously, the yield moment occurs and equals the ultimate

moment Mu . Otherwise, if the concrete crushed before the steel yields, the yield moment will never take place.

1.4.4 Ultimate Strength Stage

For the given section, when the moment is further increased, strains increased rapidly until the maximum carrying

capacity of the beam was reached at ultimate moment Mu . The section will reach its ultimate flexural strength when the

concrete reaches an extreme fiber compression strain Xcu of 0.003 and the tensile steel strain Xs cloud have any value

higher or lower than the yield strain

As Fig. 1.6 indicates, the compressive forces C1 and C2 are obtained by integrating the parabolic and rectangular

stress blocks over the rectangular areas A1 and A2 of

and

, respectively.

(1.5)

The position of C is at a distance y from the top fiber where y is computed from

The distance between the resultant internal forces, known as the internal lever arm, is

yct = d - 0.4 c

(1.6)

where d, the distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the steel area, is known as the effective

depth. The ultimate strength Mu is therefore

(1.7)

1.5 EQ UIVALENT RECTANGULAR CO MPRESSIO N STRESS BLO CK

As a means of simplification, the Egyptian Code has suggested the replacement of the actual shape of the concrete

compressive stress block (a second-degree parabola up to 0.002 and a horizontal branch up to 0.003) by an equivalent

rectangular stress block, Fig. 1.7.

A concrete stress of

the edges of the cross section and a line parallel to the neutral axis at a distance

from the fiber of maximum

compressive strain, where c is the distance between the top of the compressive section and the neutral axis NA.

For the resultant compressive forces of the actual and equivalent stress blocks of Fig. 1.7, to have the same

magnitude and line of action, the average stress of the equivalent rectangular stress block and its depth are

and

where

strength Mu in Section 1.4.4.

and

The equivalent rectangular stress block applies, as the Egyptian Code permits, to rectangular, T and trapezoidal

sections, Fig. 1.8.

For sections as shown in Fig. 1.9, stress distribution should be based on the actual stress-strain diagram. The above

procedure, however, can be implemented to obtain the parameters

and

The types of flexural failure possible (tension, compression and balanced) and the nominal (ideal) strength Mu of the

beam section (a singly reinforced rectangular section) are discussed next.

1.6.1 Tension Failure

If the steel content of the section is small (an under-reinforced concrete section), the steel will reach its yield strength

before the concrete reaches its maximum capacity. The flexural strength of the section is reached when the strain in the

extreme compression fiber of the concrete is approximately 0.003, Fig. 1.10. With further increase in strain, the moment

of resistance reduces, and crushing commences in the compressed region of the concrete. This type of failure, because it

is initiated by yielding of the tension steel, could be referred to as a "primary tension failure," or simply "tension failure."

The section then fails in a "ductile" fashion with adequate visible warning before failure.

FIGURE 1.10. Single reinforced section when the tension failure is reached.

and

we have

which results in

(1.8)

The nominal strength Mu (which obtained from theory predicting the failure of the section on assumed section geometry and

specified materials strengths i.e.,

= 1.0), is

(1.9)

If the steel content of the section is large (an over-reinforced concrete section), the concrete may reach its maximum

capacity before the steel yields. Again the flexural strength of the section is reached when the strain in the extreme

compression fiber of the concrete is approximately 0.003, Fig. 1.11. The section then fails suddenly in a "brittle" fashion

if the concrete is not confined and there may be little visible warning of failure.

FIGURE 1.11. Single reinforced section when the compression failure is reached.

as the steel remains in the elastic range. The steel stress may be determined in

terms of the neutral axis depth considering the similar triangles of the strain diagram of Fig. 1.11.

(1.10)

(1.11a)

or, since Es = 200 kN/mm2 ,

(1.11b)

For equilibrium, , hence

(1.12)

The above quadratic equation may be solved to find c and, on substituting a = 0.8c, the nominal strength is

(1.13)

1.6.3 Balanced Failure

At a particular steel content, the steel reaches the yield strength and the concrete reaches its extreme fiber compression

strain of 0.003, simultaneously, Fig. 1.12. Then,

(1.14)

where

(1.15)

or, on substituting

= 0.80

(1.16)

FIGURE 1.12. Single reinforced section when the balanced failure is reached.

(1.17)

which results in

(1.18)

where

The type of failure that occurs will depend on whether the steel ratio m (where m=

. Figure 1.13 shows the strain profiles at a section at the flexural strength for three different steel contents. As Fig.

1.13 indicates, if for the section m is less than

is greater than

Next

The use of design equations, as well as design aids and tables, in designing reinforced concrete rectangular sections is presented

next.

1.7.1 Design of Singly Reinforced Sections

Compression failures are dangerous in practice because they occur suddenly, giving little visible warning and are brittle. Tension

failures, however, are preceded by wide cracking of the concrete and have a ductile character. To ensure that all beams have

adequate visible warning if failure is imminent, as well as reasonable ductility at failure, it is necessary to limit the area of tension steel

in singly reinforced sections to a proportion of the balanced area because, as Eq. 1.18 indicates, if the yield strength of the steel is

higher or the concrete strength is lower, a compression failure may occur in a beam that is loaded to the flexural strength.

In design, a dependable (design) strength of

reduction factor. Therefore, the balanced steel ratio

in Eq.1.18 becomes

(1.19)

(1.20)

The Egyptian Code (as compared to the ACI Code which limits the maximum allowable steel ratio mmax to 0.75

the neutral axis depth c in singly reinforced beams not exceed two-thirds that for a balanced failure:

(1.21)

The maximum allowable steel ratio max is thus

(1.22)

) recommends that

(1.23)

(1.24)

where

(1.25)

and

(1.26)

FIGURE 1.14. Single reinforced section when the flexural strength is reached.

For a given concrete strength and steel yield strength, Ru is a function of . This means that Ru cannot be increased beyond the

value Rmax that correspond to max. Therefore, using max,

(1.27)

It should be mentioned that the design strength of a cross section is limited to the value that correspond to Rmax or simply

Therefore, using Rmax,

(1.28)

max

The values of ,

10% is redistributed

and

for all grades of steel are given in Table 1.1. Table 1.2 is used if a fraction of the moments

and

- No moment redistribution.

Type of steel

240/350

280/450

360/520

0.742

0.711

0.657

0.50

0.48

0.44

8.56 10-4 f cu

7.00 10-4 f cu

5.00 10-4 f cu

0.214

0.208

0.194

400/600

450/520

0.633

0.605

0.42

0.40

4.31 10-4 f cu

3.65 10-4 f cu

0.187

0.180

TABLE 1.2. Values of

only and

and

in N/mm2.

Type of steel

0.180

0.38

0.34

0.32

6.85 10-4 f cu

5.58 10-4 f cu

10-4 f cu

3.29 10-4 f cu

0.30

2.74 10-4 f cu

0.142

240/350

0.597

0.40

280/450

360/520

400/600

0.567

0.507

0.477

450/520

0.447

only and

0.173

0.157

0.150

in N/mm2.

In design, the variables in Eq. 1.24 can be b, d and As . It is evident that there is a range of satisfactory sections having the same

strength, and before a solution can be obtained the designer must assume the value for one or more of these variables.

In this case, when b is given or assumed and the effective depth d is unknown, the section may be designed to have a minimum

depth

by putting

. Such a design requires a very high steel content. Unless a very shallow depth is essential, use

of

is not economical and it is better to use a deep section with less steel. Also, the deflections of a beam with the minimum

possible depth may be excessive and may need to be checked.

FIGURE 1.15. Single reinforced section with minimum effective depth and maximum steel.

Design Equations:

As Fig. 1.15 indicates, the depth will be a minimum, d =

, if

(1.29)

and

from

(1.30)

Design Aids:

The ultimate design moment Mu is given by

(1.31a)

Or

(1.31b)

and on substituting

and

. First calculate

from

(1.32)

and

(1.33)

with the known values of

values of

and

and

and

for a range of commonly used steel yield and concrete strengths. Enter Table A.1

to be used.

Example 1.1:

A 250 mm wide, single reinforced rectangular section is to carry an Mu of 200 kNm. Using

design the section for minimum depth.

Solution:

Design Equations:

From Table 1.1, we have

Calculate

\

Calculate

0.208 and

7 10-4 f cu

from

= 480 mm

from

2100 mm2 (Use 7 f 20)

Design Aids:

2

= 25 N/mm2 and

= 0.534

= 196.7

and

Then, calculate

and

as follows:

mm

. Therefore,

Here, both the width b and the effective depth d are known. If d is assumed to be greater than dmin ; therefore, the section is

adequate without compression reinforcement. This implies also that

FIGURE 1.16. Single reinforced section with great effective depth and less steel.

Design Equations:

First calculate

from

If d is greater than

= T, hence from

, therefore, the section is adequate without compression steel. As Fig. 1.16 indicates, for equilibrium, C

and

we have

(1.34)

(1.35)

Design Aids:

The ultimate design moment is given by

Or

and on substituting

and

(1.37)

and

(1.38)

and

for all grades of steel and a range of commonly used concrete strengths. First,

B.5). Traverse vertically to the K1 value, then horizontally to the f cu value, and finally obtain the value of K2 to be used. Calculate

from Eq. 1.38.

Note:

It is also necessary to provide a minimum reinforcement ratio that should always be exceeded. This is recommended because if the

reinforcement ratio is very small, the computed flexural strength as a reinforced concrete section becomes less than the cracking

moment Mcr , and on cracking, failure is sudden and brittle. To prevent this, the Egyptian Code specifies that the area of steel in

beams be not less than the minimum area of steel Asmin that should be provided. The minimum area of steel, according to the

Egyptian Code, equals the least of:

(units are in N and mm)

(1.39)

and

1.30

(1.40)

0.25% bd

(1.41)

(1.42)

and

0.15% bd

In T-shaped and L-shaped sections where the web is in tension, the minimum steel ratio is computed using the web width b.

Example 1.2:

A 250 mm wide, singly reinforced rectangular section is to carry an Mu of 200 kNm. Using

280/450, design the section for an effective depth d of 550 mm.

Solution:

Design Equations:

First calculate

from

\

= 480 mm

from

Design Aids:

First calculate

from

K2 = 210. Calculate

from

540 mm2

1.3

2406 mm2

344 mm2

smin

= 540 mm2

Here,

smax

= 2406 mm2

= 173.0 mm2 (Use 2f 12)

When a beam of shallow depth is used, the flexural design strength obtained that is allowed for the section as singly reinforced

Mumax ( if

and

0) may be insufficient. The design moment capacity may be increased by placing compression steel

and additional tension steel. In addition, to increasing the section strength when its depth is limited, compression steel may be

required in design for the following reasons:

1. Compression steel may be used in design to increase the ductility of the section at the

flexural strength.

2. Compression steel may be used to reduce deflection of beams at the service load. Compression steel also reduces the longterm deflections of beams due to creep. Curvatures due to shrinkage of concrete are also reduced by compression steel.

3.

For the beams of continuous frames under gravity and lateral loading, consideration of

loading reveal that the bending moment can change sign. Such members require reinforcement near both faces to carry the possible

tensile forces and therefore act as doubly reinforced members.

4. Compression steel provides hangers for stirrups.

When designing double reinforced concrete sections, the Egyptian Code specifies that the maximum spacing s between stirrups

should not be greater than 15 times the diameter of the compression steel. This helps to prevent buckling.

Design Equations:

First calculate

from

(1.43)

If d is less than

(1.44)

and

(1.45)

FIGURE 1.17. Double reinforced section when the flexural strength is reached.

(1.46)

which results in

and

. Of course,

(1.47)

If

, we can write

and

(1.48)

Otherwise; if the compression steel is not yielding, the stress in it may be found in terms of cmax, using the strain diagram of Fig. 1.18:

(1.49)

and thus,

(1.50)

FIGURE 1.18. Double reinforced section when the flexural strength is reached.

Design Aids:

With reference to Fig. 1.18, taking the moments of forces about T, Cc and Cs each a time:

(1.51a)

(1.51b)

(1.51c)

and on substituting

and

(1.52)

(1.53)

and

(1.54)

First, calculate K1 from Eq. 1.52. Then, with the known value of

C.1 through C.3). Traverse vertically to the

and f cu values, then horizontally to the K1 value, and finally obtain the values of K2

if:

Table 1.4

Steel

240/350

360/520

450/520

0.20

0.15

0.10

Example 1.3:

A 250 mm wide, single reinforced rectangular section is to carry an Mu of 200 kNm. Using

280/450, design the section for an effective depth of 450 mm.

Solution:

Design Equations:

First calculate

from

= 480 mm

175.5 kNm

and

1968.75 mm2

The difference in moment Mu2 is given by

kNm

which results in

= 251.6 mm2 (

Design Aids:

First, calculate K1 from

which results in K1 = 0.503. Enter Table B.2, the first value of K1 (that corresponds to f cu =

25 N/mm2 ) is 0.534 which is greater than 0.503. This implies that compression steel is required.

Enter Table C.3 (where

2233.4 mm2 (Use 6 f 22)

2010 mm2

Asmin = the least of:

442 mm2

1.3

But not less than

mm2

Here,

For Limit States Design," Third Edition, 2002, Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby.

Back Up Next

The spacing of reinforcement and the concrete cover should be sufficient to make concreting more easier; consequently,

the concrete surrounding the reinforcement can be efficiently vibrated, resulting in a dense concrete cover which provides

suitable protection of the reinforcement against corrosion.

1.8.1 Spacing of Reinforcement

Figure 1.19 shows two reinforced concrete sections. The bars are placed such that the clear spacing s shall be at least

equal to the maximum diameter of the bars, or 25 mm, or 1.50 times maximum size of aggregate, whichever is greatest,

according to the Egyptian Code. Vertical clear spacing between bars, in more than one layer, shall not be less than 25

mm.

FIGURE 1.19 Spacing of steel bars (a) in one row or (b) in two rows.

The specified minimum concrete cover for different structural members, according to their degree of exposure, is given in

the Egyptian Code, Table 4-13. Concrete cover for beams is equal to 25 mm for main bars and 20 mm for stirrups and

that for slabs is equal to 15 mm, when concrete is not exposed to weather or in contact with ground.

1.8.3 Number of Steel Layers and Overall depth of Concrete Section

The general equation for the required width of a concrete section

is as follows:

(1.55)

The total depth t is equal to the effective depth d plus the distance from the centroid of the tension reinforcement to

the extreme tension concrete fibers, which depends on the number of layers of the steel bars. In application to the section

shown in Fig. 1.19a,

(1.56)

(1.57)

for two layers of steel bars, Fig. 1.19b. The overall depth t shall be increased to the nearest 5 cm. If No. 8 (25 mm) or

smaller bars are used, a practical estimate of the overall depth can be made as follows:

t = d + 75 mm, for two layers of steel bars

Example 1.4:

For the cantilever beam shown in Fig. 1.20, if DL = 13.5 kN/m' (including own weight) and LL = 35 kN, it is required

to:

a. Design the beam section for a minimum depth when b = 250 mm.

b. Design the beam section for a minimum depth when b = 120 mm.

c. Design the beam section for an effective depth d = 450 m when b = 250 mm.

d. Design the beam section for an overall depth t = 700 m when b = 120 mm.

Given:

= 25 N/mm2 and

= 280 N/mm2 .

Solution:

The ultimate moment

as specified by the Egyptian Code (where

moments, respectively) is to be:

and

150 kNm.

Part a:

Enter Table A.1 with f cu = 25 N/mm2 and

= 0.534 and

Then, calculate

= 196.7

and

as follows:

414 mm

mm2

For

Steel Bars

6 f 20

4 f 25

5 f 22

9 f 16

2 f 25 + 2 f 22

1884

1960

1960

1800

1740

The area of steel bars must be closest to the required steel area. If 2 f 25 plus 2 f 22 are chosen, As = 1740 mm2 ,

which is 102 mm2 less than the required area of 1842 mm2 . But since the overall depth t may be increased a fraction of

50 mm, the actual effective depth will be a little greater than the calculated dmin , consequently reducing the required As .

The 2 f 25 plus 2 f 22 would have to be placed in one row as 250 mm width is sufficient. Calculating the

required width to place 2 f 25 plus 2 f 22 in one layer:

= 2 (25 + 22) + 3 25 + 2 8 + 2 25 = 235 mm

which is less than b = 250 mm. The overall depth t, is then computed from:

t = d + 0.5f 25 +f str + c

= 414 + 0.5 25 + 8 + 25 = 461.5 mm; say 500 mm

The actual effective depth d = 500 - 50 = 450 mm

which is greater than the calculated d of 414 mm. Because of the small variation, reduction in the required steel area can

be approximated by the ratio of the calculated d to the actual d.

As actually needed is as follows

1693 mm2

which is less than 1740 mm2 (2 f 25 plus 2 f 22) provided, Fig. 1.21.

Part b:

The minimum effective depth that correspond to b = 120 mm equals 597.5 mm. The area of steel As required equals

Asmax or 1276 mm2 . If 4 f 20 is chosen, As = 1256 mm2 , which is 20 mm2 less than 1276 mm2 . If the steel bars are

placed in one row:

= 4 20 + 3 25 + 2 8 + 2 25 = 211 mm

which is greater than b = 120 mm, therefore, the steel bars have to be placed in two rows as 120 mm width is not

sufficient. The overall depth t is thus,

t = 597.5 + 25 + 8 + 20 + 0.5 25 = 663 cm ; say 700 mm

The actual d = 700 - 75 = 625 mm

Part c:

First calculate K1 from:

which results in K1 = 0.581.

K2 = 208. Then,

442 mm2

mm2

1.3

mm2

A

smin

= 442 mm2

Here,

smax

= 1968.75 mm2

Part d:

If steel is assumed to be placed in two layers as 120 mm width is not sufficient.

d = 600 - 75 = 525 mm

First calculate K1 from:

which results in K1 = 0.468.

Enter Table B.2 with K1 = 0.468, the first value of K1 (that correspond to

0.468. This implies that

1416 mm2

319 mm2

Since

Concrete floor slabs and beams are normally tied together by means of stirrups and bent-up bars if any and then are cast

form one mass of concrete. Such a monolithic system will act integrally i.e., it is allowed to assume that part of the slab

acts with the beam and they form what is known as a flanged beam, Fig. 1.23.

The part of the slab acting with the beam is called the flange, and it is indicated in Fig. 1.24a by the area Bt s . The rest of

the section confining the area (t-t s )b is called the stem or web. As Fig. 1.24b indicates, in an I-section there are two

flanges, a compression flange, which is actually effective, and a tension flange, which is ineffective as it lies below the

neutral axis and is thus neglected completely. Therefore, the design of an I-section is similar to that of a T-section.

As Fig. 1.25 indicates, the compressive stresses, in a T-section, are at a maximum value at points adjacent to the beam

and decrease approximately in a parabolic form to zero at a distance x from the face of the beam. Stresses also vary

vertically from a maximum at the top fibers of the flange to a minimum at the lower fibers of the flange.

As a means of simplification, rather than varying with distance from the web, an effective width B of uniform stress may

be assumed. The effective width B is a function of span length of the beam and depends on:

1. Spacing of beams

2. Width of web of beam

3. The ratio of the slab thickness to the total beam depth

4. End conditions of the beam (simply supported or continuous)

5. The way in which the load is applied (distributed load or point load)

6. The ratio of the length of beam between points of zero moment to the width of the web and the distance between

webs.

1. Spacing of beams

2. Width of web of beam

3. The ratio of the slab thickness to the total beam depth

4. End conditions of the beam (simply supported or continuous)

5. The way in which the load is applied (distributed load or point load)

6. The ratio of the length of beam between points of zero moment to the width of the web and the distance between

webs.

The Egyptian Code prescribes that the effective flange width B of a T-section, as in Fig. 1.26, shall be taken as the web

width b plus the effective overhanging flange sides x 1 and x 2 . Thus,

B = b + (x 1 + x 2 )

(1.58)

(1.59a)

or

when t s1 = t s2

(1.59b)

(1.59c)

where L2 is the distance between the points of zero moments. For a simply supported beam, the distance L2 referred to

above is just the span distance between centers of supports. For beams continuos from one end and simply supported from

the other end, the distance L2 may be taken as 0.80 times the span distance between centers of supports. For beams

continuos from both ends, the distance L2 may be taken as 0.70 times the span distance between centers of supports.

t s1 and t s2 are the thicknesses of the right and left slabs and S1 and S2 are the clear distances to the next right and left

beams.

To increase the compression force capacity of isolated rectangular beams, concrete overhanging flange sides are added,

Fig. 1.27. This isolated T-shaped section is most commonly used as prefabricated units. The Egyptian Code specifies

the size of isolated T-sections as:

and

(1.60)

The end beam of a slab-beam girder floor is called a spandrel beam. The beam joins the slab from only one side.

The Egyptian Code specifies that the effective flange width B shall be taken as the web width b plus the effective

overhanging flange width x 1 . Thus,

B = b + x1

(1.61)

(1.62a)

(1.62b)

(1.62c)

The design of inverted L-shaped sections may approximately follow the same procedure of T- and I-shaped

sections but with employing the respective effective width B.

1.10 FLEXURAL DESIGN O F REINFO RCED CO NCRETE FLANGED SECTIO NS

In flanged sections, it can be seen that a large area of the compression flange, forming a part of the slab, is effective in

resisting a great part or all of the compressive force due to bending. If the section is designed on this basis, the depth of

the web will be small; consequently the moment arm yct is small, resulting in a large amount of tension steel which is not

favorable.

Because of the large area of the compression flange, the design of a T-section does not need, in most practical cases,

to consider a doubly reinforced section. But, in case of precast units, when the width of the flange is small and the

effective depth is limited, compression steel may be added.

1.10.1 Effective Depth d

In many cases, the effective depth d can be known based on the flexural design of the section at the support in a

continuous beam, e.g. section 2-2 in Fig. 1.29a. The section at the support is subjected to a negative moment, the slab

being under tension and ignored, and the beam width is that of the web b.

If the effective depth d of section 1-1 in Fig. 1.29b is not known, an approximate effective depth can be obtained by

considering a rectangular section with a reduced width

the web b and less than the effective flange width B. A reasonable choice of

depending on the applied moment and shear requirements. If shear is high or a small amount of

depth is needed; i.e.

approaches . For shallow sections, a higher ratio is used; i.e. the ratio

(1.63)

and

is required, a greater

may approach

(1.64)

Table D.1 gives values for K1min for all grades of steel and a range of commonly used concrete strengths.

1.10.2 Design of T- and I-Sections

As already stated in Section 1.9, the design of an I-section is similar to that of a T-section. When the depth of the

equivalent stress block a lies within the flange; i.e. a t s , the section behaves as a rectangular section with the beam

width equal to the flange width. Otherwise, if a is greater than t s , a T-section design is a must.

T-Section Behaves as a Rectangular Section

If a t s , the section may be designed as a rectangular section of width B, Fig. 1.31.

The design may be commenced by assuming that a t s . Taking moments of forces about the tension steel, we have

(1.65)

solution of the quadratic equation yields a. If a t s as assumed, the tension steel

(1.66)

T-Section Behavior

When the depth of the equivalent stress block is greater than the flange thickness, i.e. a > t s , the section may be designed

using the equations for a doubly reinforced beam, as follows. As Fig. 1.32 indicates, the tension steel As may be

considered to be divided into an area As1 , which resists the compression in the concrete over the web, and an area As2

or Asf , which resists the compression in the concrete in the overhanging of the flange.

(1.67)

or

(4.68)

The ultimate moment of the section is the sum of the two moments Mu1 and Mu2 :

(1.69)

where

(1.70)

and

(1.71)

solving the quadratic equation yields a.

If a amax

This implies that the section is adequate without

(1.72)

or

(1.73)

The total steel used in the T-section is

(1.74)

If a > amax

This implies that

(1.73)

The ultimate moment of the section is the sum of the three moments Mu1 , Mu2 and Mu3 :

(1.75)

where

(1.70)

(1.76)

and

(1.77)

and

(1.78)

The total steel used in the T-section is

(1.79)

If

, then

(1.80)

The Egyptian Code allows another approach to determine As when a > t s . Ignoring the compression in the web part

below the flange as shown in Fig 1.34, the tension steel can be obtained from:

(1.81)

giving

(1.82)

Example 1.5

A T-beam section with B = 1000 mm, b = 250 mm and t s = 100 mm is to have a design flexural strength Mu of 450

kNm. If f cu = 25 N/mm2 and steel 360/520, calculate the required steel area when:

a. d = 550 mm

b. d = 440 mm

c. d = 400 mm

Solution:

Assume a t s . Then,

giving :

Part a: d = 550 mm

solution of the quadratic equation gives a = 79 mm which is less than t s . Therefore, the section will behave as a

rectangular section. For equilibrium, C = T, we have

25.

Part b: d = 440 mm

solution of the quadratic equation gives a = 104 mm which is greater than t s . Therefore, a T-section design is required.

With reference to Fig. 1.32, for equilibrium,

we have

kNm

giving

kNm

, hence from

But cmax = 0.44 d = 0.44 x 440 = 193.6 mm which is greater than c. This implies that the section is adequate

without

kN

we have

Another Solution

For equilibrium, C1 = T1 , we can put

Also, for equilibrium, C2 = T2 , we can put

A =A

sf

A =A

s

s2

s1

= 2675 mm2

+A =A

s2

s1

sf

A

smax

Upon neglecting the compression in the web part below the neutral axis, we have

mm2

Part c: d = 400 mm

solution of the quadratic equation gives a = 118.5 mm which is greater than t s . Therefore, a T-section design is required.

For equilibrium,

, hence from

kN

we have

kNm

giving

kNm

But cmax = 0.44 d = 0.44 x 400 = 176 mm which is less than c. This implies that compression steel is required, Fig.

1.33.

Here, also

kNm

amax = 0.80 cmax = 140 mm

kNm

A =A

s1

smax

=m

max

kNm

Since

which is less than 0.15 for steel 360/520, this implies that

= 255.56 mm2

As = As1 + As2 + As3 = Asmax + Asf +

Upon neglecting the compression in the web part below the neutral axis, we have

mm2

Example 1.6

In a slab-beam floor system, the smallest effective flange width B was found to be 1450 mm, the web width b was 250

mm and the slab thickness was 120 mm, Fig. 1.36a. Design a T-section to resist an ultimate external moment Mu of 240

kNm. Given: f cu = 20 N/mm2 and steel 240/350.

Solution:

Since the effective depth is not given, a reduced flange width is assumed; say

mm.

That is, an equivalent rectangular section, Fig. 1.36b, can be chosen with Br = 580 mm and

which results in d = 380 mm. Assume two rows of steel bars (to be checked later).

t = 380.8 + 75 = 455.8 mm; say t = 500 mm

actual d = 500 - 75 = 425 mm

Proceed as in the previous example to calculate As .

Assume a t s

. Thus,

For equilibrium, T = C, we have

should not be less than 0.10 As , use 3 f 12.

Once b and d are known, the design of a T-section simulates that of a rectangular section when

B, Fig. 1.38a. Otherwise, if a >

, with b equals

as in Fig. 1.38b, the code allows the neglecting of compression in the web part below

and K1 from

(1.67)

Then, with the known value of

vertically to the

value and also to

be used. Then, calculate As from

, determine the design table that corresponds (Tables E.1 through E.5). Traverse

value, then horizontally to the K1 value, and finally obtain the value K2 to

(1.68)

If a >

Example 1.7:

In a slab-beam floor system, the smallest effective flange width B was found to be 1450 mm, the web width b was 250

mm and the slab thickness was 120 mm. Design a T-section to resist an ultimate external moment Mu of 240 kNm.

Given: f cu = 20 N/mm2 and steel 240/350.

Solution:

= 580 mm

= 380 mm

Assume two rows of steel bars (to be checked later)

t = 380 + 75 = 455 mm; say t = 500 mm and therefore, actual d = 500 -75 = 425 mm

and

Enter Table E.1 and obtain K2 = 197.3 and a = 0.40 t s = 48 mm. Then,

Example 1.8:

A T-beam section with B = 1000 mm, b = 250 mm and t s = 100 mm is to have a design flexural strength Mu of 450

kNm. Using f cu = 25 N/mm2 and steel 360/520, calculate the required steel area when d = 550, 440 and 400 mm.

Solution:

a. d = 550 mm

and

25) and

b. d = 440 mm

and

12)

= 368.2 mm2

c. d = 400 mm

and

= 410.7 mm2

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