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# 1.

1 INTRO DUCTIO N
The design of different reinforced concrete sections of beams will be considered in this chapter.
1.2 DESIGN AND ANALYSIS
The main task of a structural engineer is the analysis and design of structures. The two approaches of design and analysis
will be used in this chapter:
Design of a section. This implies that the external ultimate moment is known, and it is required to compute the
dimensions of an adequate concrete section and the amount of steel reinforcement. Concrete strength and yield of steel
used are given.
Analysis of a section. This implies that the dimensions and steel used in the section (in addition to concrete and steel
yield strengths) are given, and it is required to calculate the internal ultimate moment capacity of the section so that it can
be compared with the applied external ultimate moment.
1.3 BASIC ASSUMPTIO NS IN FLEXURE THEO RY
Five basic assumptions are made:
1. Plane sections before bending remain plane after bending.
2. Strain in concrete is the same as in reinforcing bars at the same level, provided that the bond between the steel and
concrete is sufficient to keep them acting together under
the different load stages i.e., no slip can occur between the
two materials.
3. The stress-strain curves for the steel and concrete are known.
4. The tensile strength of concrete may be neglected.
5. At ultimate strength, the maximum strain at the extreme compression fiber is assumed
Egyptian Code.

## equal to 0.003, by the

The assumption of plane sections remaining plane (Bernoulli's principle) means that strains above and below the neutral
axis NA are proportional to the distance from the neutral axis, Fig. 1.1. Tests on reinforced concrete members have
indicated that this assumption is very nearly correct at all stages of loading up to flexural failure, provided good bond
exists between the concrete and steel. This assumption, however, does not hold for deep beams or in regions of high
shear.

## 1.4 BEHAVIO R O F A REINFO RCED CO NCRETE BEAM SECTIO N LO ADED TO FAILURE

To study the behavior of a reinforced concrete beam section under increasing moment, let us examine how strains
and stresses progress at different stages of loading:
1.4.1 Noncracked, Linear Stage
As illustrated in Fig. 1.2, where moments are small, compressive stresses are very low and the maximum tensile stress of
concrete is less than its rupture strength, f ctr . In this stage the entire concrete section is effective, with the steel bars at the
tension side sustaining a strain equal to that of the surrounding concrete (

## ) but the stress in the steel bars is equal

to that in the adjacent concrete multiplied by the modular ratio n. Utilizing the Transformed Area Concept, in which the
steel is transformed into an equivalent concrete area

## FIGURE 1.2. Transformed section for flexure before cracking.

This stage should be considered as the basis for calculating the cracking moment Mcr , which produces tensile stresses
at the bottom fibers equal to the modulus of rupture of concrete, Fig. 1.3. The Egyptian Code recommends the flexural
formula M/Z to compute the flexural strength of the section:

(1.1a)
where

is the moment of inertia of gross concrete section about the centroidal axis, neglecting the reinforcement, yt is

the distance from the centroidal axis of cross section, neglecting steel, to extreme fiber tension and f ctr is the modulus of
rupture of concrete. The Egyptian code (ECCS) suggests an imperical formula relates the modulus of rupture of concrete
to its compressive strength:
N/mm2

(1.1b)

## 1.4.2 Cracked, Linear Stage

When the moment is increased beyond Mcr , the tensile stresses in concrete at the tension zone increased until they were
greater than the modulus of rupture f ctr , and cracks will develop. The neutral axis shifts upward, and cracks extend close
to the level of the shifted neutral axis. Cracked concrete below the neutral axis is assumed to be not effective and the
steel bars resist the entire tensile force. The stress-strain curve for concrete is approximately linear up to 0.40 f cu ; hence if
the concrete stress does not exceed this value, the elastic (straight line) theory formula M/Z may be used to analyze the
"all concrete" area in Fig. 1.4.

## 1.4.3 Cracked, Nonlinear Stage

For moments greater than these producing stage 2, the maximum compressive stress in concrete exceeds 0.40 .
However, concrete in compression has not crushed. Although strains are assumed to remain proportional to the distance
from the neutral axis, stresses are not and, therefore, the flexural formula M/Z of the conventional elastic theory cannot
be used to compute the flexural strength of the section. The Internal Couple Approach, instead, will be used to compute
the section strength. This approach allows two equations for equilibrium, for the analysis and design of structural
members, that are valid for any load and any section. As Fig. 1.5 indicates, the compressive force C should be equal to
the tensile force T, otherwise the section will have a linear displacement plus rotation. Thus,

C=T

(1.2a)

The internal moment is equal to either the tensile force T multiplied by its arm yct

(1.2b)

(1.3)
where

## is the area of steel and

is the steel stress. The resultant internal compressive force is obtained by integrating

the stress block over the area bc. Taking an infinitesimal strip dy of area dA equals b by dy, located at a distance y from
the neutral axis and subject to an assumed uniform compressive stress f and strain X the compressive force C is given
by
(1.4)
This stage may be considered as the basis for calculating the flexural strength of the section at first yield of the tension
steel (known as the yield moment

## ), the strain in the

extreme fiber of the concrete may be appreciably less than 0.003. If the steel reaches the yield strain and the concrete
reaches the extreme fiber compression strain of 0.003, simultaneously, the yield moment occurs and equals the ultimate
moment Mu . Otherwise, if the concrete crushed before the steel yields, the yield moment will never take place.
1.4.4 Ultimate Strength Stage
For the given section, when the moment is further increased, strains increased rapidly until the maximum carrying
capacity of the beam was reached at ultimate moment Mu . The section will reach its ultimate flexural strength when the
concrete reaches an extreme fiber compression strain Xcu of 0.003 and the tensile steel strain Xs cloud have any value
higher or lower than the yield strain

As Fig. 1.6 indicates, the compressive forces C1 and C2 are obtained by integrating the parabolic and rectangular
stress blocks over the rectangular areas A1 and A2 of

and

, respectively.

## The resultant force C is, then, computed from

(1.5)
The position of C is at a distance y from the top fiber where y is computed from

The distance between the resultant internal forces, known as the internal lever arm, is
yct = d - 0.4 c

(1.6)

where d, the distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the steel area, is known as the effective
depth. The ultimate strength Mu is therefore
(1.7)
1.5 EQ UIVALENT RECTANGULAR CO MPRESSIO N STRESS BLO CK
As a means of simplification, the Egyptian Code has suggested the replacement of the actual shape of the concrete
compressive stress block (a second-degree parabola up to 0.002 and a horizontal branch up to 0.003) by an equivalent
rectangular stress block, Fig. 1.7.

## FIGURE 1.7. Actual and equivalent stress distribution at failure.

A concrete stress of

## is assumed uniformly distributed over an equivalent compression zone bounded by

the edges of the cross section and a line parallel to the neutral axis at a distance
from the fiber of maximum
compressive strain, where c is the distance between the top of the compressive section and the neutral axis NA.
For the resultant compressive forces of the actual and equivalent stress blocks of Fig. 1.7, to have the same
magnitude and line of action, the average stress of the equivalent rectangular stress block and its depth are
and
where
strength Mu in Section 1.4.4.

and

## . These values are as already derived when calculating the ultimate

The equivalent rectangular stress block applies, as the Egyptian Code permits, to rectangular, T and trapezoidal
sections, Fig. 1.8.

## FIGURE 1.8. Applicability of equivalent rectangular stress block to some sections.

For sections as shown in Fig. 1.9, stress distribution should be based on the actual stress-strain diagram. The above
procedure, however, can be implemented to obtain the parameters

and

## 1.6 TYPES O F FLEXURAL FAILURE

The types of flexural failure possible (tension, compression and balanced) and the nominal (ideal) strength Mu of the
beam section (a singly reinforced rectangular section) are discussed next.
1.6.1 Tension Failure
If the steel content of the section is small (an under-reinforced concrete section), the steel will reach its yield strength
before the concrete reaches its maximum capacity. The flexural strength of the section is reached when the strain in the
extreme compression fiber of the concrete is approximately 0.003, Fig. 1.10. With further increase in strain, the moment
of resistance reduces, and crushing commences in the compressed region of the concrete. This type of failure, because it
is initiated by yielding of the tension steel, could be referred to as a "primary tension failure," or simply "tension failure."
The section then fails in a "ductile" fashion with adequate visible warning before failure.

FIGURE 1.10. Single reinforced section when the tension failure is reached.

## ; for equilibrium, C = T. Hence from from

and
we have

which results in

(1.8)

The nominal strength Mu (which obtained from theory predicting the failure of the section on assumed section geometry and
specified materials strengths i.e.,

= 1.0), is

(1.9)

## 1.6.2 Compression Failure

If the steel content of the section is large (an over-reinforced concrete section), the concrete may reach its maximum
capacity before the steel yields. Again the flexural strength of the section is reached when the strain in the extreme
compression fiber of the concrete is approximately 0.003, Fig. 1.11. The section then fails suddenly in a "brittle" fashion
if the concrete is not confined and there may be little visible warning of failure.

FIGURE 1.11. Single reinforced section when the compression failure is reached.

## For a compression failure,

as the steel remains in the elastic range. The steel stress may be determined in
terms of the neutral axis depth considering the similar triangles of the strain diagram of Fig. 1.11.

(1.10)

## The steel stress is

(1.11a)
or, since Es = 200 kN/mm2 ,
(1.11b)
For equilibrium, , hence
(1.12)
The above quadratic equation may be solved to find c and, on substituting a = 0.8c, the nominal strength is
(1.13)
1.6.3 Balanced Failure
At a particular steel content, the steel reaches the yield strength and the concrete reaches its extreme fiber compression
strain of 0.003, simultaneously, Fig. 1.12. Then,

(1.14)

where

## = neutral axis depth for a balanced failure. Then

(1.15)

or, on substituting

= 0.80

## , Eq. 1.15 becomes

(1.16)

FIGURE 1.12. Single reinforced section when the balanced failure is reached.

(1.17)
which results in
(1.18)
where

## is the balanced steel ratio.

The type of failure that occurs will depend on whether the steel ratio m (where m=

## ) is less than or greater than

. Figure 1.13 shows the strain profiles at a section at the flexural strength for three different steel contents. As Fig.
1.13 indicates, if for the section m is less than
is greater than

Next

## 1.7 FLEXURAL DESIGN O F REINFO RCED CO NCRETE RECTANGULAR SECTIO NS

The use of design equations, as well as design aids and tables, in designing reinforced concrete rectangular sections is presented
next.
1.7.1 Design of Singly Reinforced Sections
Compression failures are dangerous in practice because they occur suddenly, giving little visible warning and are brittle. Tension
failures, however, are preceded by wide cracking of the concrete and have a ductile character. To ensure that all beams have
adequate visible warning if failure is imminent, as well as reasonable ductility at failure, it is necessary to limit the area of tension steel
in singly reinforced sections to a proportion of the balanced area because, as Eq. 1.18 indicates, if the yield strength of the steel is
higher or the concrete strength is lower, a compression failure may occur in a beam that is loaded to the flexural strength.
In design, a dependable (design) strength of
reduction factor. Therefore, the balanced steel ratio

## characteristic (nominal or ideal) strength is used, where g is the capacity

in Eq.1.18 becomes
(1.19)

## and, since gs = 1.15 and gc = 1.5, we can write

(1.20)

The Egyptian Code (as compared to the ACI Code which limits the maximum allowable steel ratio mmax to 0.75
the neutral axis depth c in singly reinforced beams not exceed two-thirds that for a balanced failure:

(1.21)
The maximum allowable steel ratio max is thus

(1.22)

## , for equilibrium, C = T, we have

) recommends that

(1.23)

## which results in a. The ultimate strength Mu is then given by

(1.24)
where
(1.25)
and
(1.26)

FIGURE 1.14. Single reinforced section when the flexural strength is reached.

For a given concrete strength and steel yield strength, Ru is a function of . This means that Ru cannot be increased beyond the
value Rmax that correspond to max. Therefore, using max,

(1.27)

It should be mentioned that the design strength of a cross section is limited to the value that correspond to Rmax or simply
Therefore, using Rmax,

(1.28)

max

The values of ,
10% is redistributed

## TABLE 1.1. Values of

and

for all grades of steel are given in Table 1.1. Table 1.2 is used if a fraction of the moments

and

- No moment redistribution.

Type of steel
240/350
280/450
360/520

0.742
0.711
0.657

0.50
0.48
0.44

8.56 10-4 f cu
7.00 10-4 f cu
5.00 10-4 f cu

0.214
0.208
0.194

400/600
450/520

0.633
0.605

0.42
0.40

4.31 10-4 f cu
3.65 10-4 f cu

0.187
0.180

## * Apply only to rectangular sections with

TABLE 1.2. Values of

only and

and

in N/mm2.

Type of steel
0.180

0.38
0.34
0.32

6.85 10-4 f cu
5.58 10-4 f cu
10-4 f cu
3.29 10-4 f cu

0.30

2.74 10-4 f cu

0.142

240/350

0.597

0.40

280/450
360/520
400/600

0.567
0.507
0.477

450/520

0.447

## * Apply only to rectangular sections with

only and

0.173
0.157
0.150

in N/mm2.

In design, the variables in Eq. 1.24 can be b, d and As . It is evident that there is a range of satisfactory sections having the same
strength, and before a solution can be obtained the designer must assume the value for one or more of these variables.

## a) Minimum Effective Depth with Maximum Steel

In this case, when b is given or assumed and the effective depth d is unknown, the section may be designed to have a minimum
depth

by putting

. Such a design requires a very high steel content. Unless a very shallow depth is essential, use

of
is not economical and it is better to use a deep section with less steel. Also, the deflections of a beam with the minimum
possible depth may be excessive and may need to be checked.

FIGURE 1.15. Single reinforced section with minimum effective depth and maximum steel.

Design Equations:
As Fig. 1.15 indicates, the depth will be a minimum, d =

, if

## v is the maximum allowed,

(1.29)

and

from
(1.30)

Design Aids:
The ultimate design moment Mu is given by
(1.31a)
Or
(1.31b)
and on substituting
and

## Eqs. 1.31a and 1.31b become

. First calculate

from

(1.32)

and
(1.33)

## Table A.11  gives values for

with the known values of
values of

and

and
and

for a range of commonly used steel yield and concrete strengths. Enter Table A.1

## value and finally obtain the

to be used.

Example 1.1:
A 250 mm wide, single reinforced rectangular section is to carry an Mu of 200 kNm. Using
design the section for minimum depth.

Solution:
Design Equations:
From Table 1.1, we have
Calculate

\
Calculate

0.208 and

7 10-4 f cu

from

= 480 mm
from
2100 mm2 (Use 7 f 20)

Design Aids:
2

= 25 N/mm2 and

= 0.534

= 196.7

and

Then, calculate

and

as follows:

mm

. Therefore,

## b) Great Effective Depth with less Steel

Here, both the width b and the effective depth d are known. If d is assumed to be greater than dmin ; therefore, the section is
adequate without compression reinforcement. This implies also that

## will be less than

FIGURE 1.16. Single reinforced section with great effective depth and less steel.

Design Equations:
First calculate

from

If d is greater than
= T, hence from

, therefore, the section is adequate without compression steel. As Fig. 1.16 indicates, for equilibrium, C

and

we have

(1.34)

(1.35)

## The above quadratic equation may be solved to find

Design Aids:
The ultimate design moment is given by

Or

and on substituting

and

(1.37)
and
(1.38)

## Tables B.1 through B.5 give values for

and

for all grades of steel and a range of commonly used concrete strengths. First,

## , determine the design table that corresponds (Tables B.1 through

B.5). Traverse vertically to the K1 value, then horizontally to the f cu value, and finally obtain the value of K2 to be used. Calculate
from Eq. 1.38.
Note:
It is also necessary to provide a minimum reinforcement ratio that should always be exceeded. This is recommended because if the
reinforcement ratio is very small, the computed flexural strength as a reinforced concrete section becomes less than the cracking
moment Mcr , and on cracking, failure is sudden and brittle. To prevent this, the Egyptian Code specifies that the area of steel in
beams be not less than the minimum area of steel Asmin that should be provided. The minimum area of steel, according to the
Egyptian Code, equals the least of:
(units are in N and mm)

(1.39)

and
1.30

(1.40)

0.25% bd

(1.41)

## (for high grade steel)

(1.42)

and
0.15% bd

In T-shaped and L-shaped sections where the web is in tension, the minimum steel ratio is computed using the web width b.
Example 1.2:
A 250 mm wide, singly reinforced rectangular section is to carry an Mu of 200 kNm. Using
280/450, design the section for an effective depth d of 550 mm.

## = 25 N/mm2 and steel

Solution:
Design Equations:
First calculate

from
\

= 480 mm

from

Design Aids:
First calculate

from

## Assume that d is greater than

K2 = 210. Calculate

from

540 mm2

1.3

2406 mm2

344 mm2

smin

= 540 mm2

Here,

smax

= 2406 mm2

## = 1731.6 mm2 which is greater than Asmin and less than

= 173.0 mm2 (Use 2f 12)

## 1.7.2 Design of Doubly Reinforced Sections

When a beam of shallow depth is used, the flexural design strength obtained that is allowed for the section as singly reinforced
Mumax ( if

and

0) may be insufficient. The design moment capacity may be increased by placing compression steel

and additional tension steel. In addition, to increasing the section strength when its depth is limited, compression steel may be
required in design for the following reasons:
1. Compression steel may be used in design to increase the ductility of the section at the

flexural strength.

2. Compression steel may be used to reduce deflection of beams at the service load. Compression steel also reduces the longterm deflections of beams due to creep. Curvatures due to shrinkage of concrete are also reduced by compression steel.
3.

For the beams of continuous frames under gravity and lateral loading, consideration of

## possible combinations of external

loading reveal that the bending moment can change sign. Such members require reinforcement near both faces to carry the possible
tensile forces and therefore act as doubly reinforced members.
4. Compression steel provides hangers for stirrups.
When designing double reinforced concrete sections, the Egyptian Code specifies that the maximum spacing s between stirrups
should not be greater than 15 times the diameter of the compression steel. This helps to prevent buckling.
Design Equations:
First calculate

from

(1.43)
If d is less than

## , therefore, compression steel is required. As Fig. 1.17 indicates,

(1.44)

and
(1.45)

FIGURE 1.17. Double reinforced section when the flexural strength is reached.

## The difference in moment Mu2 is given by

(1.46)
which results in

and

. Of course,
(1.47)

If

, we can write
and

(1.48)

Otherwise; if the compression steel is not yielding, the stress in it may be found in terms of cmax, using the strain diagram of Fig. 1.18:

(1.49)

and thus,
(1.50)

FIGURE 1.18. Double reinforced section when the flexural strength is reached.

Design Aids:
With reference to Fig. 1.18, taking the moments of forces about T, Cc and Cs each a time:
(1.51a)

(1.51b)

(1.51c)
and on substituting

and

## Equations 1.51a, 1.51b and 1.51c give

(1.52)
(1.53)
and
(1.54)

First, calculate K1 from Eq. 1.52. Then, with the known value of
C.1 through C.3). Traverse vertically to the

## , determine the design table that corresponds (Tables

and f cu values, then horizontally to the K1 value, and finally obtain the values of K2

## from Eq. 1.54. In addition, the Egyptian Code states that

if:
Table 1.4

Steel
240/350
360/520
450/520

0.20
0.15
0.10

Example 1.3:
A 250 mm wide, single reinforced rectangular section is to carry an Mu of 200 kNm. Using
280/450, design the section for an effective depth of 450 mm.
Solution:
Design Equations:
First calculate

from

= 480 mm

## , compression steel is required.

175.5 kNm
and
1968.75 mm2
The difference in moment Mu2 is given by
kNm

which results in
= 251.6 mm2 (

## = 1968.75 + 251.6 = 2220.35 mm2

Design Aids:
First, calculate K1 from

which results in K1 = 0.503. Enter Table B.2, the first value of K1 (that corresponds to f cu =
25 N/mm2 ) is 0.534 which is greater than 0.503. This implies that compression steel is required.
Enter Table C.3 (where

## 0.10) and obtain K2 = 199 and a= 0.10.

2233.4 mm2 (Use 6 f 22)

## 223.34 mm2 (Use 2 f 12)

2010 mm2
Asmin = the least of:

442 mm2

1.3

## = 1.3 x 1968.75 = 2559.4 mm2

But not less than
mm2

Here,

##  1 "Design Aids

For Limit States Design," Third Edition, 2002, Dr. Mohamed E. El-Zoughiby.
Back Up Next

## 1.8 SPACING O F REINFO RCEMENT AND CO NCRETE CO VER

The spacing of reinforcement and the concrete cover should be sufficient to make concreting more easier; consequently,
the concrete surrounding the reinforcement can be efficiently vibrated, resulting in a dense concrete cover which provides
suitable protection of the reinforcement against corrosion.
1.8.1 Spacing of Reinforcement
Figure 1.19 shows two reinforced concrete sections. The bars are placed such that the clear spacing s shall be at least
equal to the maximum diameter of the bars, or 25 mm, or 1.50 times maximum size of aggregate, whichever is greatest,
according to the Egyptian Code. Vertical clear spacing between bars, in more than one layer, shall not be less than 25
mm.

FIGURE 1.19 Spacing of steel bars (a) in one row or (b) in two rows.

## 1.8.2 Concrete Cover

The specified minimum concrete cover for different structural members, according to their degree of exposure, is given in
the Egyptian Code, Table 4-13. Concrete cover for beams is equal to 25 mm for main bars and 20 mm for stirrups and
that for slabs is equal to 15 mm, when concrete is not exposed to weather or in contact with ground.
1.8.3 Number of Steel Layers and Overall depth of Concrete Section
The general equation for the required width of a concrete section

is as follows:

(1.55)
The total depth t is equal to the effective depth d plus the distance from the centroid of the tension reinforcement to
the extreme tension concrete fibers, which depends on the number of layers of the steel bars. In application to the section
shown in Fig. 1.19a,

(1.56)

## for one row of steel bars and

(1.57)

for two layers of steel bars, Fig. 1.19b. The overall depth t shall be increased to the nearest 5 cm. If No. 8 (25 mm) or
smaller bars are used, a practical estimate of the overall depth can be made as follows:

## t = d + 50 mm, for one layer of steel bars

t = d + 75 mm, for two layers of steel bars
Example 1.4:
For the cantilever beam shown in Fig. 1.20, if DL = 13.5 kN/m' (including own weight) and LL = 35 kN, it is required
to:
a. Design the beam section for a minimum depth when b = 250 mm.
b. Design the beam section for a minimum depth when b = 120 mm.
c. Design the beam section for an effective depth d = 450 m when b = 250 mm.
d. Design the beam section for an overall depth t = 700 m when b = 120 mm.
Given:

= 25 N/mm2 and

= 280 N/mm2 .

## FIGURE 1.20 Example 1.4.

Solution:
The ultimate moment
as specified by the Egyptian Code (where
moments, respectively) is to be:

and

## are the dead and live service

150 kNm.

Part a:
Enter Table A.1 with f cu = 25 N/mm2 and

= 0.534 and
Then, calculate

= 196.7
and

as follows:

414 mm

mm2

For

Steel Bars

## Area of steel, mm2

6 f 20
4 f 25
5 f 22
9 f 16
2 f 25 + 2 f 22

1884
1960
1960
1800
1740

The area of steel bars must be closest to the required steel area. If 2 f 25 plus 2 f 22 are chosen, As = 1740 mm2 ,
which is 102 mm2 less than the required area of 1842 mm2 . But since the overall depth t may be increased a fraction of
50 mm, the actual effective depth will be a little greater than the calculated dmin , consequently reducing the required As .
The 2 f 25 plus 2 f 22 would have to be placed in one row as 250 mm width is sufficient. Calculating the
required width to place 2 f 25 plus 2 f 22 in one layer:

## = 2 (f 25 + 22f 22) + 3s + 2f str + 2c

= 2 (25 + 22) + 3 25 + 2 8 + 2 25 = 235 mm
which is less than b = 250 mm. The overall depth t, is then computed from:

t = d + 0.5f 25 +f str + c
= 414 + 0.5 25 + 8 + 25 = 461.5 mm; say 500 mm
The actual effective depth d = 500 - 50 = 450 mm

which is greater than the calculated d of 414 mm. Because of the small variation, reduction in the required steel area can
be approximated by the ratio of the calculated d to the actual d.
As actually needed is as follows
1693 mm2

which is less than 1740 mm2 (2 f 25 plus 2 f 22) provided, Fig. 1.21.

## FIGURE 1.21 Example 1.4, part a.

Part b:

The minimum effective depth that correspond to b = 120 mm equals 597.5 mm. The area of steel As required equals
Asmax or 1276 mm2 . If 4 f 20 is chosen, As = 1256 mm2 , which is 20 mm2 less than 1276 mm2 . If the steel bars are
placed in one row:
= 4 20 + 3 25 + 2 8 + 2 25 = 211 mm

which is greater than b = 120 mm, therefore, the steel bars have to be placed in two rows as 120 mm width is not
sufficient. The overall depth t is thus,
t = 597.5 + 25 + 8 + 20 + 0.5 25 = 663 cm ; say 700 mm
The actual d = 700 - 75 = 625 mm

## FIGURE 1.22 Example 1.4, part b.

Part c:
First calculate K1 from:
which results in K1 = 0.581.

K2 = 208. Then,

442 mm2

mm2

1.3

mm2
A

smin

= 442 mm2

Here,

smax

= 1968.75 mm2

## 163 mm2 (Use 2 f 12)

Part d:
If steel is assumed to be placed in two layers as 120 mm width is not sufficient.
d = 600 - 75 = 525 mm
First calculate K1 from:
which results in K1 = 0.468.

Enter Table B.2 with K1 = 0.468, the first value of K1 (that correspond to
0.468. This implies that

1416 mm2

319 mm2
Since

## 1.9 FLANGED SECTIO NS

Concrete floor slabs and beams are normally tied together by means of stirrups and bent-up bars if any and then are cast
form one mass of concrete. Such a monolithic system will act integrally i.e., it is allowed to assume that part of the slab
acts with the beam and they form what is known as a flanged beam, Fig. 1.23.

## FIGURE 1.23 Slab-beam floor system.

The part of the slab acting with the beam is called the flange, and it is indicated in Fig. 1.24a by the area Bt s . The rest of
the section confining the area (t-t s )b is called the stem or web. As Fig. 1.24b indicates, in an I-section there are two
flanges, a compression flange, which is actually effective, and a tension flange, which is ineffective as it lies below the
neutral axis and is thus neglected completely. Therefore, the design of an I-section is similar to that of a T-section.

## 1.9.1 Effective Flange Width, B

As Fig. 1.25 indicates, the compressive stresses, in a T-section, are at a maximum value at points adjacent to the beam
and decrease approximately in a parabolic form to zero at a distance x from the face of the beam. Stresses also vary
vertically from a maximum at the top fibers of the flange to a minimum at the lower fibers of the flange.

## FIGURE 1.25 Effective flange width, B.

As a means of simplification, rather than varying with distance from the web, an effective width B of uniform stress may
be assumed. The effective width B is a function of span length of the beam and depends on:
1. Spacing of beams
2. Width of web of beam
3. The ratio of the slab thickness to the total beam depth
4. End conditions of the beam (simply supported or continuous)
5. The way in which the load is applied (distributed load or point load)
6. The ratio of the length of beam between points of zero moment to the width of the web and the distance between
webs.
1. Spacing of beams
2. Width of web of beam
3. The ratio of the slab thickness to the total beam depth
4. End conditions of the beam (simply supported or continuous)
5. The way in which the load is applied (distributed load or point load)
6. The ratio of the length of beam between points of zero moment to the width of the web and the distance between
webs.

## T- and I -Shaped Sections

The Egyptian Code prescribes that the effective flange width B of a T-section, as in Fig. 1.26, shall be taken as the web
width b plus the effective overhanging flange sides x 1 and x 2 . Thus,
B = b + (x 1 + x 2 )

(1.58)

## where x 1 + x 2 equal the least of:

(1.59a)
or

when t s1 = t s2

(1.59b)
(1.59c)

where L2 is the distance between the points of zero moments. For a simply supported beam, the distance L2 referred to
above is just the span distance between centers of supports. For beams continuos from one end and simply supported from
the other end, the distance L2 may be taken as 0.80 times the span distance between centers of supports. For beams
continuos from both ends, the distance L2 may be taken as 0.70 times the span distance between centers of supports.
t s1 and t s2 are the thicknesses of the right and left slabs and S1 and S2 are the clear distances to the next right and left
beams.

## Isolated T- Shaped Sections

To increase the compression force capacity of isolated rectangular beams, concrete overhanging flange sides are added,
Fig. 1.27. This isolated T-shaped section is most commonly used as prefabricated units. The Egyptian Code specifies
the size of isolated T-sections as:

and

(1.60)

## Inverted L-Shaped Sections

The end beam of a slab-beam girder floor is called a spandrel beam. The beam joins the slab from only one side.

## FIGURE 1.28 Effective flange width of L-beams.

The Egyptian Code specifies that the effective flange width B shall be taken as the web width b plus the effective
overhanging flange width x 1 . Thus,
B = b + x1

(1.61)

## where x 1 equals the least of:

(1.62a)
(1.62b)
(1.62c)
The design of inverted L-shaped sections may approximately follow the same procedure of T- and I-shaped
sections but with employing the respective effective width B.
1.10 FLEXURAL DESIGN O F REINFO RCED CO NCRETE FLANGED SECTIO NS
In flanged sections, it can be seen that a large area of the compression flange, forming a part of the slab, is effective in
resisting a great part or all of the compressive force due to bending. If the section is designed on this basis, the depth of
the web will be small; consequently the moment arm yct is small, resulting in a large amount of tension steel which is not
favorable.
Because of the large area of the compression flange, the design of a T-section does not need, in most practical cases,
to consider a doubly reinforced section. But, in case of precast units, when the width of the flange is small and the
effective depth is limited, compression steel may be added.
1.10.1 Effective Depth d
In many cases, the effective depth d can be known based on the flexural design of the section at the support in a

continuous beam, e.g. section 2-2 in Fig. 1.29a. The section at the support is subjected to a negative moment, the slab
being under tension and ignored, and the beam width is that of the web b.

## FIGURE 1.29 Slab and beam systems

If the effective depth d of section 1-1 in Fig. 1.29b is not known, an approximate effective depth can be obtained by
considering a rectangular section with a reduced width

## , Fig. 1.30. The reduced width

the web b and less than the effective flange width B. A reasonable choice of

## ratio varies between

depending on the applied moment and shear requirements. If shear is high or a small amount of
depth is needed; i.e.

approaches . For shallow sections, a higher ratio is used; i.e. the ratio

(1.63)

## It is also possible to estimate the effective depth d using

and

is required, a greater
may approach

(1.64)
Table D.1 gives values for K1min for all grades of steel and a range of commonly used concrete strengths.
1.10.2 Design of T- and I-Sections
As already stated in Section 1.9, the design of an I-section is similar to that of a T-section. When the depth of the
equivalent stress block a lies within the flange; i.e. a t s , the section behaves as a rectangular section with the beam
width equal to the flange width. Otherwise, if a is greater than t s , a T-section design is a must.
T-Section Behaves as a Rectangular Section
If a t s , the section may be designed as a rectangular section of width B, Fig. 1.31.

## FIGURE 1.31. Rectangular section behavior.

The design may be commenced by assuming that a t s . Taking moments of forces about the tension steel, we have

(1.65)
solution of the quadratic equation yields a. If a t s as assumed, the tension steel

## can be found using

(1.66)
T-Section Behavior
When the depth of the equivalent stress block is greater than the flange thickness, i.e. a > t s , the section may be designed
using the equations for a doubly reinforced beam, as follows. As Fig. 1.32 indicates, the tension steel As may be
considered to be divided into an area As1 , which resists the compression in the concrete over the web, and an area As2
or Asf , which resists the compression in the concrete in the overhanging of the flange.

## Assuming that the tension steel is yielding, considering equation T2 = C2 , then

(1.67)
or

(4.68)
The ultimate moment of the section is the sum of the two moments Mu1 and Mu2 :
(1.69)
where

(1.70)
and

(1.71)
solving the quadratic equation yields a.

If a amax
This implies that the section is adequate without

## . Considering equation, T1 = C1 , then

(1.72)
or

(1.73)
The total steel used in the T-section is
(1.74)
If a > amax
This implies that

## is necessary, Fig. 1.33. Here also,

(1.73)
The ultimate moment of the section is the sum of the three moments Mu1 , Mu2 and Mu3 :
(1.75)
where

(1.70)

(1.76)

and
(1.77)
and

(1.78)
The total steel used in the T-section is
(1.79)
If

, then
(1.80)

## Egyptian Code Solution

The Egyptian Code allows another approach to determine As when a > t s . Ignoring the compression in the web part
below the flange as shown in Fig 1.34, the tension steel can be obtained from:

(1.81)

giving

(1.82)

## FIGURE 1.34. Design of a T-section.

Example 1.5
A T-beam section with B = 1000 mm, b = 250 mm and t s = 100 mm is to have a design flexural strength Mu of 450
kNm. If f cu = 25 N/mm2 and steel 360/520, calculate the required steel area when:

a. d = 550 mm
b. d = 440 mm
c. d = 400 mm

## FIGURE 1.35. Example 1.5.

Solution:
Assume a t s . Then,

giving :

Part a: d = 550 mm

solution of the quadratic equation gives a = 79 mm which is less than t s . Therefore, the section will behave as a
rectangular section. For equilibrium, C = T, we have

25.

## mm2 ; use 3 12.

Part b: d = 440 mm

solution of the quadratic equation gives a = 104 mm which is greater than t s . Therefore, a T-section design is required.
With reference to Fig. 1.32, for equilibrium,

we have

kNm
giving
kNm

, hence from

## Solving the quadratic equation yields a = 116 mm and c = 145 mm.

But cmax = 0.44 d = 0.44 x 440 = 193.6 mm which is greater than c. This implies that the section is adequate
without

kN
we have

## giving As = 3710 mm2

Another Solution
For equilibrium, C1 = T1 , we can put

## which results in As1 = 1034 mm2

Also, for equilibrium, C2 = T2 , we can put

A =A
sf

A =A
s

s2

s1

= 2675 mm2
+A =A
s2

s1

sf

A

smax

## Egyptian Code Solution

Upon neglecting the compression in the web part below the neutral axis, we have

mm2

Part c: d = 400 mm

solution of the quadratic equation gives a = 118.5 mm which is greater than t s . Therefore, a T-section design is required.
For equilibrium,

, hence from

kN
we have

kNm
giving
kNm

## Solving the quadratic equation yields a = 182 mm and c = 227.5 mm.

But cmax = 0.44 d = 0.44 x 400 = 176 mm which is less than c. This implies that compression steel is required, Fig.
1.33.
Here, also

kNm

## Asf = As2 = 2675 mm2

amax = 0.80 cmax = 140 mm

kNm
A =A
s1

smax

=m

max

## b d = 5 x 10-4 x 25 x 250 x 400 = 1250 mm2

kNm

Since

which is less than 0.15 for steel 360/520, this implies that

= 255.56 mm2
As = As1 + As2 + As3 = Asmax + Asf +

## Egyptian Code Solution

Upon neglecting the compression in the web part below the neutral axis, we have

mm2

## = 0.10 As = 410.7 mm2 or more.

Example 1.6
In a slab-beam floor system, the smallest effective flange width B was found to be 1450 mm, the web width b was 250

mm and the slab thickness was 120 mm, Fig. 1.36a. Design a T-section to resist an ultimate external moment Mu of 240
kNm. Given: f cu = 20 N/mm2 and steel 240/350.

## FIGURE 1.36. Example 1.6.

Solution:
Since the effective depth is not given, a reduced flange width is assumed; say
mm.
That is, an equivalent rectangular section, Fig. 1.36b, can be chosen with Br = 580 mm and

which results in d = 380 mm. Assume two rows of steel bars (to be checked later).
t = 380.8 + 75 = 455.8 mm; say t = 500 mm
actual d = 500 - 75 = 425 mm
Proceed as in the previous example to calculate As .
Assume a t s

. Thus,

## a = 46 mm which is less than t s

For equilibrium, T = C, we have

## mm2 choose 6 f 25 (2950 mm2 )

should not be less than 0.10 As , use 3 f 12.

## 1.11 DESIGN O F T AND I SECTIO NS USING DESIGN AIDS

Once b and d are known, the design of a T-section simulates that of a rectangular section when
B, Fig. 1.38a. Otherwise, if a >

, with b equals

as in Fig. 1.38b, the code allows the neglecting of compression in the web part below

## First calculate the ratio

and K1 from

(1.67)
Then, with the known value of
vertically to the
value and also to
be used. Then, calculate As from

, determine the design table that corresponds (Tables E.1 through E.5). Traverse
value, then horizontally to the K1 value, and finally obtain the value K2 to

(1.68)
If a >

## FIGURE 1.38. Design of T and I sections

Example 1.7:
In a slab-beam floor system, the smallest effective flange width B was found to be 1450 mm, the web width b was 250
mm and the slab thickness was 120 mm. Design a T-section to resist an ultimate external moment Mu of 240 kNm.
Given: f cu = 20 N/mm2 and steel 240/350.
Solution:

= 580 mm

= 380 mm
Assume two rows of steel bars (to be checked later)
t = 380 + 75 = 455 mm; say t = 500 mm and therefore, actual d = 500 -75 = 425 mm

and

## which results in K1 = 1.0446

Enter Table E.1 and obtain K2 = 197.3 and a = 0.40 t s = 48 mm. Then,

## = 286.2 mm2 (Use 3 f 12)

Example 1.8:

A T-beam section with B = 1000 mm, b = 250 mm and t s = 100 mm is to have a design flexural strength Mu of 450
kNm. Using f cu = 25 N/mm2 and steel 360/520, calculate the required steel area when d = 550, 440 and 400 mm.
Solution:
a. d = 550 mm

and

25) and

b. d = 440 mm

and

12)

= 368.2 mm2

c. d = 400 mm

and

= 410.7 mm2
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