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Fixture(tool)
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Afixtureisaworkholdingorsupportdeviceusedinthemanufacturing
industry.[1][2]Fixturesareusedtosecurelylocate(positioninaspecific
locationororientation)andsupportthework,ensuringthatallparts
producedusingthefixturewillmaintainconformityand
interchangeability.Usingafixtureimprovestheeconomyofproduction
byallowingsmoothoperationandquicktransitionfromparttopart,
reducingtherequirementforskilledlaborbysimplifyinghow
workpiecesaremounted,andincreasingconformityacrossaproduction
run.[2]
Afixturediffersfromajiginthatwhenafixtureisused,thetoolmust
moverelativetotheworkpieceajigmovesthepiecewhilethetool
remainsstationary.[3]

Acommontypeoffixture,usedin
materialstensiletesting

Contents
1 Purpose
2 Design
2.1 Location
2.2 Support
3 Typesoffixtures
3.1 Millingfixtures
3.2 Drillingfixtures
4 Seealso
5 Notes
6 References

Purpose
Afixture'sprimarypurposeistocreateasecuremountingpointforaworkpiece,allowingforsupportduring
operationandincreasedaccuracy,precision,reliability,andinterchangeabilityinthefinishedparts.Italso
servestoreduceworkingtimebyallowingquicksetup,andbysmoothingthetransitionfromparttopart.[3]It
frequentlyreducesthecomplexityofaprocess,allowingforunskilledworkerstoperformitandeffectively
transferringtheskillofthetoolmakertotheunskilledworker.[2]Fixturesalsoallowforahigherdegreeof
operatorsafetybyreducingtheconcentrationandeffortrequiredtoholdapiecesteady.[3]
Economicallyspeakingthemostvaluablefunctionofafixtureistoreducelaborcosts.Withoutafixture,
operatingamachineorprocessmayrequiretwoormoreoperatorsusingafixturecaneliminateoneofthe
operatorsbysecuringtheworkpiece.[4]

Design
Fixturesmustalwaysbedesignedwitheconomicsinmindthepurposeofthesedevicesistoreducecosts,and
sotheymustbedesignedinsuchawaythatthecostreductionoutweighsthecostofimplementingthefixture.
Itisusuallybetter,fromaneconomicstandpoint,forafixturetoresultinasmallcostreductionforaprocessin
constantuse,thanforalargecostreductionforaprocessusedonlyoccasionally.[4]
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Mostfixtureshaveasolidcomponent,affixedtothefloorortothebody
ofthemachineandconsideredimmovablerelativetothemotionofthe
machiningbit,andoneormoremovablecomponentsknownasclamps.
Theseclamps(whichmaybeoperatedbymanydifferentmechanical
means)allowworkpiecestobeeasilyplacedinthemachineorremoved,
andyetstaysecureduringoperation.Manyarealsoadjustable,allowing
forworkpiecesofdifferentsizestobeusedfordifferentoperations.
Fixturesmustbedesignedsuchthatthepressureormotionofthe
machiningoperation(usuallyknownasthefeed)isdirectedprimarily
againstthesolidcomponentofthefixture.Thisreducesthelikelihood
thatthefixturewillfail,interruptingtheoperationandpotentially
causingdamagetoinfrastructure,components,oroperators.[5]
Fixturesmayalsobedesignedforverygeneralorsimpleuses.These
multiusefixturestendtobeverysimplethemselves,oftenrelyingon
theprecisionandingenuityoftheoperator,aswellassurfacesand
componentsalreadypresentintheworkshop,toprovidethesame
benefitsofaspeciallydesignedfixture.Examplesincludeworkshop
vises,adjustableclamps,andimproviseddevicessuchasweightsand
furniture.

Thesemodularfixturecomponents
maybebuiltintovarious
arrangementstoaccommodate
differentworkpieces

Eachcomponentofafixtureisdesignedforoneoftwopurposes:
locationorsupport.

Location
Locatingcomponentsensurethegeometricalstabilityoftheworkpiece.
Theymakesurethattheworkpiecerestsinthecorrectpositionand
orientationfortheoperationbyaddressingandimpedingallthedegrees
offreedomtheworkpiecepossesses.[6]

Acommonbenchvisetheleftjawis
theimmovablesurface,andtheright
jawisthemovableclamp

Forlocatingworkpieces,fixturesemploypins(orbuttons),clamps,andsurfaces.Thesecomponentsensurethat
theworkpieceispositionedcorrectly,andremainsinthesamepositionthroughouttheoperation.Surfaces
providesupportforthepiece,pinsallowforpreciselocationatlowsurfaceareaexpense,andclampsallowfor
theworkpiecetoberemovedoritspositionadjusted.Locatingpiecestendtobedesignedandbuilttoverytight
specifications.[7]

Support
Indesigningthelocatingpartsofafixture,onlythedirectionofforcesappliedbytheoperationareconsidered,
andnottheirmagnitude.Locatingpartstechnicallysupporttheworkpiece,butdonottakeintoaccountthe
strengthofforcesappliedbytheprocessandsoareusuallyinadequatetoactuallysecuretheworkpieceduring
operation.Forthispurpose,supportcomponentsareused.[8]
Tosecureworkpiecesandpreventmotionduringoperation,supportcomponentsprimarilyusetwotechniques:
positivestopsandfriction.Apositivestopisanyimmovablecomponent(suchasasolidsurfaceorpin)that,
byitsplacement,physicallyimpedesthemotionoftheworkpiece.Supportcomponentsaremorelikelytobe
adjustablethanlocatingcomponents,andnormallydonotpresstightlyontheworkpieceorprovideabsolute
location.[9]
Supportcomponentsusuallybearthebruntoftheforcesdeliveredduringtheoperation.Toreducethechances
offailure,supportcomponentsareusuallynotalsodesignedasclamps.

Typesoffixtures
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Fixturesareusuallyclassifiedaccordingtothemachineforwhichtheyweredesigned.Themostcommontwo
aremillingfixturesanddrillfixtures.[10]

Millingfixtures
Millingoperationstendtoinvolvelarge,straightcutsthatproducelotsofchipsandinvolvevaryingforce.
Locatingandsupportingareasmustusuallybelargeandverysturdyinordertoaccommodatemilling
operationsstrongclampsarealsoarequirement.Duetothevibrationofthemachine,positivestopsare
preferredoverfrictionforsecuringtheworkpiece.Forhighvolumeautomatedprocesses,millingfixtures
usuallyinvolvehydraulicorpneumaticclamps.[11][12]

Drillingfixtures
Drillingfixturescoverawiderrangeofdifferentdesignsandproceduresthanmillingfixtures.Though
workholdingfordrillsismoreoftenprovidedbyjigs,fixturesarealsousedfordrillingoperations.
Twocommonelementsofdrillingfixturesaretheholeandbushing.Holesareoftendesignedintodrilling
fixtures,toallowspaceforthedrillbititselftocontinuethroughtheworkpiecewithoutdamagingthefixtureor
drill,ortoguidethedrillbittotheappropriatepointontheworkpiece.Bushingsaresimplebearingsleeves
insertedintotheseholestoprotectthemandguidethedrillbit.[13]
Becausedrillstendtoapplyforceinonlyonedirection,supportcomponentsfordrillingfixturesmaybe
simpler.Ifthedrillisalignedpointingdown,thesamesupportcomponentsmaycompensatefortheforcesof
boththedrillandgravityatonce.However,thoughmonodirectional,theforceappliedbydrillstendstobe
concentratedonaverysmallarea.Drillingfixturesmustbedesignedcarefullytopreventtheworkpiecefrom
bendingundertheforceofthedrill.[14]

Seealso
Clamp
Degreesoffreedom(engineering)
Kinematiccoupling
Jig

Notes
1.Colvin&Haas1938,p.1.
2.Henriksen1973,p.1.
3.Colvin&Haas1938,p.3.
4.Colvin&Haas1938,p.4.
5.Colvin&Haas1938,p.5.
6.Henriksen1973,p.18.
7.Henriksen1973,Ch.4.
8.Henriksen1973,p.19.
9.Henriksen1973,Ch.12.
10.Henriksen1973,p.3.
11.Henriksen1973,Ch.19.
12.Colvin&Haas1938,Ch.11.
13.Colvin&Haas1938,Ch.4.
14.Colvin&Haas1938,Ch.10.

References
Colvin,FredH.Haas,LucianL.(1938).JigsandFixtures:AReferenceBook.NewYorkandLondon:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixture_(tool)

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McGrawHillBookCompany.
Henriksen,ErikK.(1973).JigandFixtureDesignManual.NewYork,N.Y.:IndustrialPressInc.
Retrievedfrom"https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fixture_(tool)&oldid=698509713"
Categories: Manufacturing Metalworkingtools Tools Woodworkingjigs
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