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ARCHITECTURAL MODEL OF ROBOT VISION

SYSTEM SMART CARD TECHNOLOGY


KISHOR.B
Mechanical Engineering
Bannari Amman Institute Of Technology
ABSTRACT:
Technological advancement is widening up by the advent of new inventions.
Robot is one such invention to overcome the ever-present challenges of high cost of
labor, third world combination, and consumer demand for higher quality and greater
variety at a lower cost. It is an interdisciplinary field that ranges in scope from the
design of mechanical and electrical components to sensor technology, computer
systems, and artificial intelligence. It is the Science of designing and building robots
suitable for real life applications in manufacturing and other non-manufacturing
environment. In non-manufacturing environment robots act as computer-controlled
camera that allows it to see its environment and respond accordingly is known as its
vision.
In the current scenario, the Robot Vision System is basically used for
inspection purposes in Industries such as gauging, verification of presence of
components, detection of flaws, etc In this paper we have designed an architectural
model of Robot Vision System, by integrating it with Smart Card. Some of the
advanced features of the model are identifying the speeding vehicle, vehicles that are
not in proper lanes, reporting and sending the details of the vehicle to nearby Control
Station along with the particulars of the vehicle are the hallmarks of the designed
system. To avoid the unauthorized use of National Highways, we have introduced a
simple chip incorporated into the Robot Vision System. The main aim of our paper

is to protect valuable human lives. This advanced Smart Card and Robotic
Sensors System helps to avert accidents and damage to public property in future.

1.INTRODUCTION:
1.1 MACHINE VISION SYSTEM:
Machine Vision can be defined as acquisition of image data followed by
processing and interpretation of data by using computer for some useful applications.
The Machine Vision System is generally classified as Two Dimensional and Three
Dimensional System.

Generally, Three Dimensional is more advantageous, but

anyhow Two Dimensional System is much preferred for simple applications. The
general applications of Machine Vision System are dimension measuring, gauging,
verifying presence of components (flaws), and checking flatness of surface.

DIGITIZATION

COMPUTER
PROCESSING
ANALYSIS
PROGRAM

Camera

IMAGE
INTERPRETATION

Decision
and
Actions

Illumination
Object

Fig 1:Functioning of Machine Vision System


1.1.1 IMAGE ACQUISITION AND DIGITIZATION:
Image Acquisition and Digitization is accomplished using a video camera and
a digitizing system to store the image data for subsequent analysis. The camera is
focused on the object of interest or the subject of interest and the image is obtained by
dividing the viewing area into a matrix of discrete picture elements called pixels, in
which each element has a value that is proportional to the light intensity of that
portion of the scene.
The intensity value for each pixel is converted into its equivalent digital value by an
ADC (Analog to Digital Converter).
Two types of Vision System:
1. Binary Vision:
In Binary Vision the light intensity of each pixel is ultimately reduced
to either of two values, black or white, depending on whether the light
intensity exceeds a given threshold level.
2. Gray Scale Vision System:
Gray Scale Vision System is a more sophisticated vision system, which
is capable of distinguishing and sorting different shades of gray in the image
depending on the intensity level. This type of system can determine not only
an objects outline and area characteristics, but also its surface characteristics
such as texture and color. Gray Scale Vision System typically uses 4,6 or 8
bits of memory.
Each set of digitized pixel value is referred to as a frame. Each frame
is stored in a computer memory device called as frame buffer. The process of
reading all the pixel values in a frame is performed with the frequency of

30 times per second.

Types of camera:
The two types of cameras that are used in Machine Vision applications
are:
1. Vidicon Camera:
Vidicon Cameras are operated by focusing the image onto a
photoconductive surface and scanning the surface with an electron beam to
obtain the relative pixel values.
2. Solid State Camera:
Solid State Cameras are operated by focusing the image on to 2
Dimensional array of very small, finely spaced photosensitive elements which
form the matrix of pixels. An electrical charge is generated by each element
according to the intensity of light striking the element.

The charge is

accumulated in a storage device consisting of an array of storage elements


corresponding one to- one with a photosensitive picture element. These
charge values are read sequentially in the data processing and analysis
function of Machine Vision.
ILLUMINATION:
The scene viewed by the vision camera must be well illuminated, and
the illumination must be constant over the time. This almost always requires
the special lighting to be installed for Machine Vision applications rather than
rely on ambient lighting in the surroundings.

Types of Illumination:
1. Front Lighting:
2. Back Lighting:
3. Side Lighting:
4. Structured Lighting using a planar sheet of light:
5. Strobe Lighting:
1.1.2IMAGE PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS:
The second function in the operation of Machine Vision System is
Image Processing and Analysis. The data that must be processed is significant
and the data for each frame must be analyzed within the time required to
complete one scan (1/30 second).

A number of techniques have been

developed for analyzing the image data in Machine Vision System. The two
categories in Image Processing and Analysis are:
1. Segmentation:
Segmentation techniques are intended to define and separate
regions of interest within the image.

Two of the common segmentation

techniques are thresholding and edge detection.


Thresholding involves the conversion of each pixel intensity
level into a binary value, representing either whit or black. This is done by
comparing the intensity value of each pixel with defined threshold value. If
the pixel value is greater than the threshold, it is given the binary bit value of
white, say 1; if less than the defined threshold, then it is given the bit value of
black, say 0.

Edge detection is concerned with determining the location of


boundaries between an object and its surroundings in an image.

This is

accomplished by identifying the contrast in light intensity that exists between


adjacent pixels at the borders of the object.

A number of software for

algorithms has been developed for following the border around the object.

2. Feature Extraction:
Most of the Machine Vision System characterizes an object in
the image by means of the objects features. Some of the features of an object
include the objects area, length, width, diameter, perimeter and center of
gravity. Feature Extraction method are designed to determine these features
based on a area and boundaries of the object
1.1.3INTERPRETATION:
The interpretation function is usually concerned with recognizing the
object, a task termed object recognition or pattern recognition. The objective
in these tasks is to identify the object in the image by comparing it with
predefined models. Two commonly used interpretation techniques are:
1. Template Matching:
Template Matching is the name given to various methods that
attempt to compare one or more features of an image with the corresponding
features of a model or templates stored in computer memory. The most basic
template matching technique is one in which the image is compared, pixel-bypixel, with the corresponding computer model.

2. Feature Weighting:

Feature Weighting is a technique in which several features such


as area, length, perimeter, etc are combined into a single measure by
assigning a weight to each feature according to its relative importance in
identifying the object. The score of the object in the image is compared with
the score of an ideal object residing in computer memory to achieve proper
identification.
1.2SMART CARD TECHNOLOGY:
Smart Card is a technological advancement, which has the potential to
make a significant impact on the quality of human life. It is manufactured
using Semi Conducting and Magnetic Materials.
There are two types of Smart Cards namely Contact Smart Cards for
which a Smart Card reader is required, and the Contact-less Smart Cards,
which can be waved in front of Sensors and used accordingly. This type of
Smart Card is very useful for Mass Transit and applications where large
number of movement of people happen very quickly and frequently. The main
application of these Smart Cards are data carrier, identification and financial.

2.PROPOSED MODEL OF ROBOT VISION USING SMART CARD


TECHONOLOGY
2.1 OVERVIEW
After a study regarding the accidents in National Highways, it was found the
main cause behind these were due to over speeding of vehicles and change of lanes
during the course of travel. In addition to this we have introduced a chip card, which
will prevent the unauthorized usage of National Highways. In order to avert these we
have designed a paper, which would be valuable.

Gray Scale Vision


Speed
Check
(Encoders)

Solid State
Camera

Regn.
Check

Ok

Image
Check

Safe
Travel

Fault
Strobe Lighting

Information to
Control Room

ACCM

Object

Fig 2:Configuration of proposed model


ACCM: AUTOMATED CARD CHECKING MACHINE
REGN. CHECK: REGISTRATION NUMBER CHECK UP

SPEED CHECK: DONE USING OPTICAL ENCODERS

2.2PROCESSES INVOLVED:
2.2.1.SMART CARDS FOR TOLL COLLECTION:
Several states in India have a system of Tax called octroi which is tax
collected for goods or entry. This introduces a tremendous amount of paper
work and also lack of transparency. By usage of Automated Fare Collection
System (prepaid Smart Card) will assist in reducing paper work and also will
ensure complete transparency at the toll. A contact less Smart Card with
electronically pre-loaded money is used to pay the exact fare by flashing the
card to contact less Smart Card reader. The Card communicates with the
reader through Radio Frequency. This method gives a significant benefit to
the Highways Department.
The procedure is that the highway user should buy the Smart Card in
advance to his usage of the National Highway. The highway user is expected
to insert the Smart Card in the Automated Card checking System and if the
required conditions were satisfied, the user would be permitted to enter the
National Highway.

2.2.2 ROBOT VISION SYSTEM:


The Robotic Sensors have the capability of identifying the vehicle to a
distance of 50 meters on either side and accordingly the Robotic Sensors are
placed.

2.2.3IMAGE ACQUISITION AND DIGITIZATION::


Video Camera: SOLID STATE CAMERA
Vision System: GRAY SCALE VISION SYSTEM
1. The basic idea of using a Gray Scale Vision System is to exactly get
the image of the vehicle and the Registration Number of the vehicle so as to be
compared with the images already stored in the host computer.
2. If the Registration Number of the vehicle that is traced is not present
in the sorted list of Registration Numbers then this indicates an unauthorized
usage of the highway for which the highway user is to be fined.
Illumination: STROBE LIGHTING
In Strobe Lighting, a short pulse of high -intensity illuminates the scene
light, which causes a moving object to appear stationery. The pulse of light

can last 5-500 microseconds. This is sufficient time for camera to capture the
image although the camera actuation must be synchronized with that of the
strobe light.

2.2.4 IMAGE PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS:


Thresholding:
Thresholding is one of the Segmentation techniques. This technique is
very useful in getting the image of the approaching vehicle with the
Registration Number in white or black.
2.2.5 INTERPRETATION:
Technique used: TEMPLATE MATCHING
The images of most commonly used models of vehicles are
stored in the host computer.

The image of the approaching vehicle is

compared with the images in the host computer. And if the images of the
vehicle dont match, then it indicates the improper usage of lanes. Then
immediately the particulars about the vehicle are stored and informed
immediately to nearby Control Station.
SPEED CHECK
The speed of the vehicles is calculated using the Velocity Sensors.
The velocity Sensor used in this system is Encoders.
ENCODERS
Encoders

are

non-contact

type

position

sensors.

Unlike

potentiometers, which give analog signals, encoders give digital signals


directly. They basically consist of a photo transmitter (light source), photo
receiver (photo cell).

Types of Encoders:
1. Incremental Encoders:
2. Absolute Encoders:

*ROBOTIC SENSOR SYSTEM FOR CHECKING UNAUTHORISED ENTRY

Regn.No
Model

Host Computer
(Control System)

way

card

Card

card
ACCM

OPTICAL
ENCODER
(speed
check)

ADVANTAGES OF OUR PROPOSED SYSTEM:


ADVANTAGES OF VISION SYSTEM:

1. In current scenario, a system exists in United States of America,


that identifies the over speeding vehicles and automatically spikes
appears within a certain distance both in front and at back of the
vehicle, which may lead to traffic jam in the Highway till officials
from the Control Station comes and clears it, and it also causes
damage to the vehicle.
But in Robot Vision System, no damage is caused to vehicle but it
identifies the vehicle uniquely using the Registration Number and
they are ultimately fined.
2. When accidents occur in National Highways, the clear picture of
the
Accident can be got, and the culprit can be held with then help of
Registration Number.
3. Unauthorized use of National Highway could be averted.
ADVATANGES OF AUTOMATED FARE COLLECTION SYSTEM
(Using SMART CARD)
1. This improves the operational efficiency.
2. Minimization of Revenue leakage.
3. Increased Cash flow due to advance collection.
4. Highway user gets better service.

CONCLUSION

This system if implemented in National Highways would be very helpful in


reducing the number of accidents. In future this system would be forced to be
implemented as the usage of vehicles is on a constant increase. So we recommend this
paper to the Highways Department. The modified version of system can also be
introduced in the Railways, as it will be useful in averting the collusions between the
trains due to improper signaling.
REFERENCES
Robotics by William P Groover.
Robotics and Automation Engineering by S.R. Deb