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Power System Dynamics

Prof. M L Kothari
Department of Electrical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi
Lecture - 16
Modelling of Excitation Systems
Friends, in this lecture we shall discuss about modeling of excitation systems.
(Refer Slide Time: 01:07)

While talking about the modeling we will study non reciprocal per unit system then we will talk
about the modeling of excitation system components because any excitation system has several
components therefore first we will discuss about modeling of the components of the excitation
system one by one. The components which we will be model, we will start with the separately
excited dc exciter, self-exciter, dc exciter, ac exciters and rectifiers as we know that in the ac
excitation system the output of the ac exciter is rectified and supplied to the field winding of
synchronous generator and therefore there is necessary to model the three phase rectifiers which
are commonly used.
The other components which require to be model are the amplifiers, excitation system stabilizing
circuit, wind up and non-wind up limits. As we will see that there exist certain limits that the
output of say AVR cannot actually certain limit like this therefore, we will have certain limits
which are imposed and they are two different categories of limits wind up and non-wind up
limits. Then to implement the under excitation limit and the over excitation limit you will have
gaiting functions and terminal voltage traducer. Over the years a variety of excitation system

models have been developed. We will confine our discussion to a few typical excitation system
models which have been documented by IEEE in the standards published by IEEE.
(Refer Slide Time: 02:20)

(Refer Slide Time: 03:31)

We will discuss the excitation models type DC1A exciter model, type AC1A exciter model, type
ST1A exciter model, type ST A exciter model. These are the 4 models which we will discuss
however, number of models are available in the IEEE standards. The over the years the IEEE has
developed the excitation system models for power system stability studies. The 4 important

references references which cover the excitation system models are the first report that is first
IEEE committee report.
(Refer Slide Time: 04:20)

(Refer Slide Time: 05:45)

This was published in the year 1968 and the IEEE transaction on power apparatus systems then
subsequently subsequently the the models were upgraded taking care of the new developments
which have taken place then the next IEEE committee report was published in the year 1981 and
when you look into the this IEEE committee report, you will see that they have 3 different

models for DC excitation systems, 4 different models for ac excitation systems and 3 different
models for static excitation systems. Therefore, in all they have discussed 10 different models
excitation systems. Now these different models were needed to cope up with the variety of
excitation systems manufactured by different manufacturers and existing in the power system
today.
Recently in 1996 another, you know a committee report came in where they have discussed
specifically the digital based excitation systems because today the excitation systems have micro
process based controls and with this digital controls right there was a necessity to model the
excitation systems and give standard excitation system models. Then one very comprehensive
standard which is IEEE standard 425.5 published in 1992, it discusses in detail the different
models which have been developed the material which we will be presenting here is drawn from
these 4 references.
Now here when we talk about the excitation system models, we have to develop the per unit
system for excitation systems. We have developed earlier the per unit system for synchronous
generator models and while developing the synchronous generator model in order to simplify the
synchronous generator equations, we had made we had made certain assumptions and the model
developed is normally known as the reciprocal model right.
Now if we use this reciprocal model there are some problems particularly if we use the reciprocal
model then then the per unit values of the exciter output voltage becomes very low. The typical
value is which is mentioned is that it may be as low as .001 per unit, if we use the same same per
unit system and therefore the another per unit system is proposed for the modeling the excitation
systems and that is now called as non-reciprocal per unit system.
(Refer Slide Time: 08:11)

(Refer Slide Time: 08:32)

In this non-reciprocal per unit system the the definition goes like this 1 per unit exciter output
voltage is required to produce rated synchronous machine armature terminal voltage on air gap
line as the definition goes that one per unit exciter output voltage is required to produce produce
the rated terminal voltages of the synchronous machine on the air gap line not on that saturation
curve but on the air gap line. Now here we define the one per unit exciter output current is the
corresponding current corresponding current which flows in the field winding of the synchronous
generator that is when you apply certain voltage at the terminal of the synchronous generator
which produces the the rated voltage at the terminal of the synchronous generator right.
Then at that time whatsoever is the current which flows in the field winding, we call that current
as 1 per unit I will just take the example suppose you have a synchronous generator whose
terminal voltage is say 11KV okay now to produce the 11 KV voltage on the air gap line if you
require say 600 volts to be applied to the synchronous generator field winding right then 600
volts will be considered as 1 per unit volts per unit voltage of the excitation system.
Similarly, suppose at that 600 volts applied the field current comes out to be say 200 amperes
right then this 200 ampere will be considered as 1 per unit field current or 1 per unit excitation
current excitation system current. Okay now with this definition, now there is a necessity to
establish the relationship between the reciprocal per unit system with the non-reciprocal per unit
system. We know that the excitation system is is interfaced with the synchronous generator both
at the field winding as well as at the synchronous machine terminals that is for controlling the
output of the excitation system, the input control signals are derived from the terminals of the
synchronous generator that is you change the terminal voltage you use actually the load
compensator and obtain a voltage VC, okay this is obtained from the terminally synchronous
generator.

Similarly you may sense the speed of the synchronous generator, okay or you sense the power
output of the synchronous generator all these things right real power, reactive power all these
quantities are fed to the AVR of the excitation system right. Therefore, so far the input to the
excitation system is concerned is obtained from terminal of synchronous generator while the
output of the excitation system is fed to the field winding of the synchronous generator therefore,
excitation system is interfaced interfaced at if with the field winding of the synchronous
generator and the terminal of the synchronous generator right and therefore we have to have the
the arrangements. So that these 2 different forms of per unit systems are properly interfaced.
(Refer Slide Time: 12:42)

Now in order to achieve this interfacing we first look at the basic open circuit equations that is
even the synchronous generator is open circuited right. We have the equations that ed, ed is equal
to 0 and eq equal to psi d which is equal to Lad into ifd. Now this equation these two equations are
the basic stator winding equations in terms of dq axis components okay.
Now we we know also that under open circuit condition this voltage or this quadrature axis
component is also equal to the terminal voltage of the synchronous generator. This was already
established, okay therefore now if I plot a characteristic relating eq or et as a function of ifd that is
the field current right then the characteristic will look like this. This is open circuit characteristic
of the synchronous generator. On this axis we have marked the field current in per unit i fd. Now
this ifd when I use this symbol this is actually the symbol used in the reciprocal system of per
units or per unit reciprocal system and we represent the per unit terminal voltage on the y axis.
Now this is the open circuit characteristic if you draw a transient to the characteristic passing
through origin, okay that is the initial portion then this is your air gap line right.
The slope of this air gap line slope of this air gap line is the mutual inductance unsaturated Ladu
that is the mutual inductance unsaturated that is the slope of this characteristic right. Therefore

now to produce on this axis I have put this ah current in per unit of i fd that is reciprocal system
and for producing 1 per unit voltage here, the current required will be current required will be
that is ifd required will be equal to that is to produce et equal to 1 that is seem same as eq right
therefore, ifd required will be 1 upon Lad and since we are considering here the air gap line we are
considering the unsaturated value of mutual inductance and therefore the the current required to
produce 1 per unit terminal voltage in reciprocal system of units right is one upon Ladu.
(Refer Slide Time: 13:47)

(Refer Slide Time: 16:19)

Now this current will be denoted as 1 per unit in the non-reciprocal system of units that is same
quantity. Okay will be said as 1 per unit okay therefore, using this information we can establish
relationship between the between the ah non-reciprocal per unit system and reciprocal per unit
system because we have seen actually that the ifd required to produce one per unit terminal
voltage is one upon Ladu right and since this should be equal to 1 per unit in the non-reciprocal
system and therefore the relationship which is established between established between the nonreciprocal system of unit.
(Refer Slide Time: 16:49)

(Refer Slide Time: 17:02)

We call the current in non-reciprocal we will denote by ifd capital. Okay in the reciprocal system
we have been using this symbol ifd therefore, the ifd will be equal to Ladu ifd this you can check
yourself that the relationship between between the reciprocal per unit system of field of the field
current and non- reciprocal per unit system of the field current they are related by this quantity
Ladu.
(Refer Slide Time: 17:42)

Okay, that is similarly when we talk about the field voltage okay the efd the field voltage efd is
equal to Rafd ifd okay and I replace this ifd by one upon Ladu. So that the efd efd if applied it
becomes Rfd upon Ladu in per unit right and this is denoted as 1 per unit, so far actually the nonreciprocal per unit system is concerned and hence the relationships which we establish are like
this that a non-reciprocal per unit system, the field voltage efd is equal to Ladu divided by Rfd efd in
the reciprocal system of unit therefore, these two equations that is equation 16.5 and 16.6 relate
relate the field current and field voltage in reciprocal system of per unit reciprocal system of
units to non-reciprocal per unit systems.
Okay now here I have shown in the form of block diagram, exciter model non-reciprocal per unit
system right. The we have a exciter model now the quantities will be Efd and Ifd. Okay
synchronous machine model reciprocal per unit system the quantities at the terminals of the field
winding are efd and ifd , okay the relationship between these 2 quantities that is efd is equal to Rfd
upon Ladu Efd and ifd is equal to Ifd upon Ladu right therefore whenever we develop the complete
model of the system right considering the synchronous generator and the excitation system right
the excitation system first will be modelled considering the non-reciprocal per unit system and
then it will be interfaced with the synchronous machine reciprocal per unit system using these
relations right.

(Refer Slide Time: 18:57)

(Refer Slide Time: 20:24)

Now now, we will devote our time for discussing the models of 3 basic component of the
excitation system that is separately excited dc exciter, self excited dc exciter, ac exciters and
rectifiers. Now as I have told you earlier that although the dc excitation systems right have have
been superseded by ac excitation systems or static excitation systems but still in the power
systems existing today there are number of dc excitation systems operating number one, second
point is that the when we develop the basic model for separately excited dc exciter the model for

ac exciters is also similar to that similar to that with some modifications. Okay therefore, we let
us start with developing the model for separately excited dc exciter.
(Refer Slide Time: 21:37)

Okay, and in order to develop the model for the separately excited dc exciter. You look at the dc
exciter this is the this is the armature of the dc exciter. Okay it is a dc exciter is a its field
winding okay, this is the field winding. We represent the field winding by a resistance Ref and
inductance Lef that is this field winding of the dc exciter right has resistance and inductance right.
Now the field winding is generally very highly inductive right and therefore, the inductance
plays very significant role in the modeling of excitation system.
Okay therefore we will start like this. Let us say that the voltage applied to the applied to the
terminal of the field winding is Eef and the current flowing is Ief okay. Now here the output
voltage of the exciter right we call this is as a Ex this is denoted by the symbol Ex okay. Now this
Ex is related to Iex okay and the relationship is a non-linear relationship. We all know actually
that I you plot the open circuit characteristic of a dc generator or separately excited dc generator
it comes out to be a non-linear characteristic saturation exist in the system. Further when this dc
exciter is loaded loaded right due to armature reaction the voltage at the excited terminals will
further drop right therefore, while modeling the dc exciter we may have to account for two
things, one is the loading effect another is the saturation effect and in fact while modeling the dc
exciter, we combine both the effects okay.

(Refer Slide Time: 24:00)

Now the basic equation for the field circuit is written as the Efd this will be slight a mistake is
there Efe. We will denote the symbol by Eef a mistake here. You make it Eef Eef is equal to Ref
into Ief plus d psi by dt where psi is the flux linkage which can be written as Lef into Ief this is the
basic circuit equation of the field winding of dc exciter.
(Refer Slide Time: 24:51)

The output voltage of the exciter is proportional to field flux linkage psi and Kx is the
proportionality constant that is output voltage at the terminal of the synchronous generator output

of the exciter dc exciter not synchronous generator is directly related to the flux linkage of the
field winding and is directly proportional okay.
Now this constant Kx depends upon the speed of the exciter it also depends upon the design of
the exciter and other parameters. Now here this is a most important point to understand about
modeling of dc exciter or separately excited dc exciter
(Refer Slide Time: 25:46)

If you plot the open circuit characteristic relating the Ex to Ief right then this open circuit
characteristic is shown here. Okay and the when we draw the transient to this we get air gap line
right and the slope of this air gap line, if you find out the slope of this air gap line right then it is
because this is a steady state characteristic, this is a steady state characteristic what will be the
slope of this? Resistance resistance of the field winding okay and since the we are considering
the air gap line we will consider this resistance as Rg shown here. Now if suppose for a certain
output Exo right, if I try to find out what will be the field current required under the open circuit
condition then the field current will be equal to the field current required corresponding to the air
gap line plus some additional current to account for the saturation.
Now in order to account for the loading effect right what we do is that we plot another saturation
characteristic and that characteristic is shown here. This saturation characteristic is the constant
resistance load saturation curve. You have to understand very carefully what we mean by the
constant resistance load saturation curve. Now this can be explained like this you have your dc
generator armature across this you put a resistance, okay and this is the field winding call this
current as Ief.

Okay and run this machine as rated speed and now if you plot the characteristic relating the
terminal voltage Ex with respect to Ief. This characteristic will take care of two aspects saturation
as well as the ah armature reaction effect and this characteristic is called, this characteristic is
called constant resistance load saturation curve.
(Refer Slide Time: 27:53)

(Refer Slide Time: 29:39)

Okay now for a given value of Ex the field current which is required will be now written as the
field current corresponding to the air gap line plus this additional term delta Ief this delta Ief this is

additional quantity right this takes care of saturation as well as the loading effect and therefore,
now we can say that for any operating condition any operating condition the Ief will be equal to
Ex divided by Rg plus delta Ief delta Ief.
(Refer Slide Time: 30:03)

This additional current which is required to account for the saturation and the loading effect right
is function of is function of the voltage Ex which is produced and a non-linear function of Ex that
is if you, if I try to quantify what is the value of Ief required then we can easily see here actually
in this graph that this Ief is different for different values of Ex right. Therefore, we can say that
the Ief required is is equal to the voltage Ex into a non-linear function Se Ex and this Se Ex is
called the saturation function which is dependent on the voltage Ex.
In fact this has to be obtained graphically this value whenever you want you can say develop the
model for a given dc exciter this has to be obtained experimentally. Now what we do is we have
developed basic equation starting from the field circuit equation that is Eef is equal to Ref into Ief
plus plus d psi by dt, where where psi is the flux linkage.
Now what we do is that in this expression in this the first basic expression, in this equation that is
Eef equal to Ref Ief d psi by dt, you substitute the value of Ief substitute the value of psi okay and
we will get after making this substitution an equation of this form that is E ef is equal to Ref upon
Rg Ex plus Ref into Se Ex into Ex plus 1 by Kx dEx by dt that is when we have obtained this
equation, we have made use of the subsequent relations which were derived earlier.

(Refer Slide Time: 31:45)

(Refer Slide Time: 33:24)

Now in this equation, we can see is here that the field current is eliminated there is no field
current term does not appear directly. Okay and there is no flux linkages also everything is
expressed in terms of the saturation function the field resistance of field winding and this
constant Kx. Okay now this equation is converted into per unit system of equations therefore,
what we need is the base voltage for this that is Ief, we require base voltage and the base voltage
is chosen like this that is Ex base is same as the Efd base that is the field voltage which we apply
right that base value is the base for Ex and Ief base is same as Efd base divided by Rg that is the

base value of the field current as we already seen that this voltage divided by the by the air by the
air gap by the slope of the air gap line that is resistance Rg and the resistance base is equal to Rg
itself. Okay now when you when you convert this equation into per unit system of equations that
is you divide that you divide this equation by Efd base the throughout and then you can write
down the equation in the form Eef bar bar is stands for per unit and this conversion is right. Now
it is actually the non-reciprocal per unit system.
(Refer Slide Time: 34:29)

(Refer Slide Time: 34:57)

Okay now when writing this equation, okay some new terms are introduced here which are
defined as follows that is Se bar Ex bar is defined here as Se bar Ex bar is defined as delta Ief bar
divided by Ex bar is a straight forward you know definitions which you can derive and I will
suggest you to derive these things yourself okay.
(Refer Slide Time: 35:36)

Now here here again I am showing the constant resistance load saturation curve of the dc exciter
now on this axis now instead putting putting the field current in reciprocal per unit system I am
put this is field current in non-reciprocal per unit system right PU Ief and this is per unit Ex. Okay
therefore, now you can see in this equation that for any value of Ex right the field current
required will be so much right. Now I call this quantity as A and the field current required
corresponding to the air gap line that is the, if we neglect the saturation and loading effect field
current required is denoted by B okay then this saturation function which we have defined can be
written as simply A minus B divided by B.
Okay and by the basic definition of Kx the Kx can be expressed again in terms of the per unit
output voltage of the exciter and the per unit field current. Okay now here we have a term that is
Kx is equal to Rg divided by Lef Ex bar Ief bar. Okay therefore what we do is that we define
another ah term which we call as Lfu is equal to Lef Iefo Exo bar that is for a given operating
condition right you can denote this term as Lfu that is this Lef Ief divided by Ex, you can call this
term as Lfu.

(Refer Slide Time: 36:35)

(Refer Slide Time: 37:32)

Now if you denote this term by Lfu then our equation will reduce in a standard form that is Eef bar
equal to Ke Ex bar Se Ex bar Ex plus Te d Ex bar upon dt that is you can see this equation here that
you have all per unit voltages, saturation function which we as I have told you that can be
computed from the constant load resistance ah saturation curve okay.
Now once we have come to this level we can write this expression in the form of a transfer
function model because when I say that I want to develop the excitation system model then we

can express this model this is now the excitation system model of a dc exciter. Okay now this
can be put in a compact form in the transfer function model that is what you do is that you take
the Laplace transform of all these quantities right and when you express this in the transfer
function model form it looks like this.
(Refer Slide Time: 38:03)

(Refer Slide Time: 39:30)

We have seen you just um look at this equation if you look at this equation what is to be done is
at one summing point you have the term Ke Ex to this Ke Ex, you add this term these are the two

algebraic terms, okay you add these two terms subtract from Ief that is Eef okay and when this
whole quantity is integrated you will get Ex right. Therefore this model come something like this
in the form here is Ex therefore you this is the gain KE therefore output from this block will be KE
into Ex output from this block will be a saturation quantity that is Vx which is Ex into Se Ex okay
these two are added and subtracted from Eef.
(Refer Slide Time: 41:12)

(Refer Slide Time: 41:48)

Now whatsoever comes is multiplied by this transfer function you get the Ex therefore the
transfer function model of a separately excited dc exciter is given here these quantities all these
quantities are expressed KE of TE KE and the saturation function right they can be easily
computed from the relations which have been derived. For example Ke is equal to Ref by Rg TE is
equal to Lfu by Rg and SE Ex bar is equal to Se bar Ex bar Ref by Rg right. Therefore these
quantities are all known to us and these are obtained from the parameters of the dc exciter and
the constant resistance saturation curve.
Now this block diagram which I have just shown can be further simplified and put in the form of
a first order transfer function because here we have seen actually it is a first order transfer
function therefore, the whole thing can be simplified and you can make this model as a small
perturbation model is only small change in the field voltage applied to the exciter and small
change in the output voltage delta Ex right can be written in the form of K upon 1 plus s times T
because we are whenever we represent any system right we always try to develop a model with
input output quantities okay and the the transfer function models are always always linear
models non-linear models actually we do not have anything like transfer functions okay.
Now the model which I have developed here will be applicable for one operating condition for
once you take one particular operating condition and take small perturbations around that then a
small perturbation model is put in the form of a transfer function model right these quantities K
and ST are given by these equations.
(Refer Slide Time: 43:08)

Here, K is equal to 1 upon BEX SE EFDo plus KE, I will just explain this term Bx separately and T
is expressed as TE divided by BEX SE EFDo plus KE, where the SE Ex of the saturation curve you
know this is the non-linear saturation ah function this is modelled by this exponential function a
constant AEX e to the power BEX EFDo at any operating condition at any operating condition right

we can find out the value of SE E Exo either graphically or if you have modelled this saturation
function by this this exponential function where these terms will be known to you right then that
is why actually the the time the constant K and this T are expressed in terms of the the
parameters of saturation function and all other parameters like KE is there TE is there right. Now
next point is that we will develop the model for a self-excited dc exciter okay.
(Refer Slide Time: 43:19)

(Refer Slide Time: 44:42)

(Refer Slide Time: 44:47)

(Refer Slide Time: 46:21)

Now the self-excited dc exciter will like this you have synchronous I am sorry, the armature of
the dc exciter, this is the field winding of the dc exciter. We will have some regulating rheostat in
series with this field winding right and the output of the AVR, output of the AVR will be
connected in series with the field circuit and put across the armature that is in case suppose if it is
not a regulated one right then we will connect this field winding directly across the armature but
here what we do is that in series with the field winding we connect the output of the regulator
right. So that here here we can write the Eef equal to VR plus ExVR plus Ex that is in case it was a

separately excited exciter Eef will be as same as VR but now Eef is going to VR plus Exn. Now with
this change this is the only change with this change one can develop the complete model of the
self-excited dc exciter the that is in the equation which we had derived earlier that is 16.22 we
substituted substituting equation 16.22 in equation 16.13 right that is wherever we had this Eef
we are putting VR plus Ex other things are same because that is at the only change actually in the
circuit.
(Refer Slide Time: 47:08)

(Refer Slide Time: 47:32)

Okay when this model is simplified simplified you will find actually that the same model which
we develop for separately excited dc exciter is applicable except the definition of KE now
becomes Ref divided by Rg minus one this is only difference other things are exactly same that is
this model see this model this was the model developed for a separately separately excited dc
exciter right therefore, the KE which was defined is now modified for a self-excited dc exciter
and the value of KE comes out to be Ref by Rg minus 1 and other definitions are same.
(Refer Slide Time: 48:12)

Okay now with these definitions, okay we have completed the model for dc excitation system
that is self-excited as well as and what we see here is that it comes out to be a first order model
the model is a first order model. Okay now when we go for ac excitation system, ac excitation
system the in ac excitation system we have the main source of field power is ac generator, an
alternator. The output of this alternator is rectified with the help of 3 phase full wave bridge
rectifier now this 3 phase full wave bridge rectifier may be controlled or uncontrolled.
Okay now to in order to develop this model model ah we account for the demagnetizing effect or
the armature reaction effect separately in the case dc exciter. We have accounted for the armature
reaction and the saturation together while in the ac exciter the practice is to separately account
for armature reaction and and the characteristic of the ac exciter which is plotted under no load
condition there is open circuit characteristic plotted under no load condition and the open circuit
characteristic right because open circuit characteristic always under no load condition right. The
open circuit characteristic is used here and the saturation is defined making use of the open
circuit characteristic that is you plot open circuit characteristic on this axis I am putting the per
unit exciter field current and it is the per unit VE. Now this VE is is not the voltage which is
applied to the field winding of the synchronous generator but VE is the output of the exciter okay
and the saturation function which is required here in this model the saturation function is
obtained from the open circuit characteristic. Okay now to account for the armature reaction

effect we have one more block here where this the actual field current Ifd is multiplied with the
multiplying factor KD which is called demagnetizing factor and that is KD into Ifd is added at
this point therefore.
(Refer Slide Time: 49:31)

(Refer Slide Time: 51:50)

If we see the complete model the difference between the dc exciter and ac exciter is one is this
term that is we are putting additional term to account for the demagnetizing effect, second is that
this saturation function is obtained from OCC right and third thing is that the output here is the

terminal voltage of the exciter not the voltage applied to the field winding because this voltage
which is the output of the exciter is rectified and fed to the field winding therefore there is a
rectifier in between, this is all main difference between the dc exciter and ac exciter.
(Refer Slide Time: 51:56)

Now as I have told you that the this is saturation is obtained by this formula AB minus B. The
output of the rectifier is denoted by Efd that is a function Fex a multiplying factor Fex into VE, this
is very important this Fex is very complex function and as we will see actually that we have to
model the rectifier characteristic. The 3 phase rectifiers 3 phase rectifiers when they see the
system there will be the the input impedance is purely purely inductive in nature input
impedance is purely reactive in nature and this impedance has the effect of delaying the
commutation commutation and when the there is some delay in the commutation commutation
means the change of current from one valve to the another valve right and this affects the output
voltage now for modeling the 3phase rectifiers we always define 3 different modes, mode 1
mode 2, mode 3.These 3 modes are depending upon what is the load current, how much current
it is supplying right, it is very non-linear characteristic.
Therefore to obtain the characteristic of the rectifier or this is rectifier regulation model what is
done is the output of this ac exciter is multiplied with the multiplying factor which is obtained
through this loop that is you have VE multiplied some term you get Efd, this multiplying factor as
I have just now told you is Fe Fex, Fex is the multiplying factor. Now this Fex is obtained obtained
from Ief Ifd there is a field current flowing in this field winding of the synchronous generator and
the output voltage that is you obtained a non-linear obtain function IN equal to Kc Ifd by VE that is
uh using this terminal voltage which is available what is the field current which is supplying we
obtain a current IN and this Fex function is a non-linear function of IN that is Fex is equal to a
function of IN.

(Refer Slide Time: 53:28)

(Refer Slide Time: 54:46)

Now here here in mode one mode one f IN is equal to 1.0 minus .577 IN where, IN is less than
.433, this is in the mode 1 whether operating in mode 2, f IN is equal to square root of .75 minus
IN square where IN is greater than .433 and less than .75 and we are operating in mode 3 this
function f IN is equal to 1.732 into 1 minus IN where, IN is free than greater than .75 and less than
one that is this non-linear function, okay is different for different modes and they are they can be
computed using these expressions.

(Refer Slide Time: 55:04)

(Refer Slide Time: 55:12)

(Refer Slide Time: 55:43)

While IN is computed knowing knowing this Ifd and VE and this factor Kc which is the
commutation commutation reactance Kc is the, this Kc stands for a constant which depends
commutation reactance right. Now with this I conclude my presentation saying actually that we
have developed the non-reciprocal per unit system for excitation system and we have developed
the models of the dc excitations, dc exciter that is self-excited and separately excited and ac
exciter right. We will continue the discussion on modeling in our next lecture. Thank you!