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KEY COMPONENTS OF A WATER

DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

Dr. S. Sarkar

Objective:
1. To carry the potable water at the adequate residual pressure and sufficient
quantity to the consuming points.
2. While supplying water, to ensure to preserve the water quality until it is supplied
to the consuming points.
Water Distribution system normally accounts for 60 to 70% of the total costs
of a water supply project.
An ideal water distribution system should always be pressurized and supply water
continuously. Intermittent water supply would result in
Chances of contamination from the outside polluted water
Consumers always feel a sense of uncertainty in the supply and tends to waste
more water due to unnecessary storage.
Inadequate availability of fire fighting water
Promotes unhygienic practices due to perceived shortage of water
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Piping Network

Networks consist of storage reservoirs, main and branch pipes, pumping stations,
booster pumping stations, valves, joints and other fittings and service connections
Provide redundancy via grids and loops

System Pattern
A grid type of water distribution network where the dead end are kept to minimum is
always preferred over other types of network. The basic philosophy shall be that as much
as possible, any one point in the network should be fed from at least two different
directions. The network shall have following attributes:

Systems should be made redundant by interconnecting pipes into loops.


Valves should be placed to allow repairs with minimal disruption to surrounding
Fire hydrants should be installed at locations convenient for the fire department

Mode of Supply
The mode of supply can be either gravity-based, or through pumping or may be
combination of both the systems.
Location of Service Reservoirs
Service reservoirs are important for maintaining and regulating pressures in the system as
well as for meeting fluctuating demands. Its location as well as height are important
considerations for achieving the effectiveness as well as economy in the pipe-sizing.
Depending upon the mode of supplying water there may be central reservoir or peripheral
reservoirs or combination thereof.
Peak Factor
Per capita water demand is an average demand per person per day over a year.
However, the demand varies seasonally as well as within a day. Design shall proceed
taking in consideration the peak demand that needs to be supplied. The peak demand is
a factor (peak factor) multiplied with the average demand. The peak factor is calculated
as follows:
Design population
less than 50000
50,000 to 2,00,000
>2,00,000
Small water system

Peak factor
3
2.5
2.0
3.0

Tree System

Grid-iron System

Combined System
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Service Connections

Ferrules
It is a right angled sleeve made of non-ferrous
metal mostly of brass or gun metal. It is joined
to the opening drilled in the water main with
the plug. A tee branch connection off the main
is used to connect the service pipe leading to
domestic connection.

Kinds of Pipe

Ductile iron
Plastic (HDPE/PVC)
Concrete
Steel
Residential (copper or plastic)

Joints

Compression
Mechanical

Flanged

Soldered
Solvent
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Storage reservoirs
Useful for:
Meeting the fluctuating demand
Maintaining the required pressure uniformly
throughout the network

Valves

Gate/Butterfly
Check (flow in one direction)
Automatic control valves
Pressure-Reducing Valves
Altitude valve
Solenoid
Air-release valves

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Gate Valve

Butterfly Valve

On-Off Purposes

Flow Control Purposes


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Swing Check Valve

Lift Check Valve

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Pressure Reducing Valve

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Solenoid Valves
Helps to regulate flow based on
electrical signal input from outside

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Air-release Valves

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Vacuum Breaker Valve

FLOW

NO FLOW

Column separation during power failure


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