This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Introduction

Scientist Nikolas Tesla invented the threephase induction motor. It is used as electric motor and workhorse in the industry. It is named as induction motor because rotor receives power from the stator by induction phenomenon. It runs at constant speed and requires less maintenance. It is a self-starting device.

Construction

**Two main components:
**

1. 2.

The stationary part called stator. The rotating part called rotor.

There is a small clearance between stator and rotor called air gap. It ranges from 0.4mm to 4mm.

Stator

**It is the outer part of an induction motor.
**

It consists of steel frame that encloses a hollow cylindrical core made up of thin laminations of silicon steel. It provides suitable slots in its inner periphery for winding purposes.

Fig:6.2

It is wound for a definite number of poles. The windings are geometrically spaced. A three-phase AC supply is connected to stator.

Rotor

It is the inner part of the motor, which moves during running. Rotor receives energy from the stator by a process of induction.

Types: Squirrel cage rotor Phase-wound rotor / wound rotor

1.

2.

Induction Motors

**Figure 7.9 Rotor of a large induction motor. (Courtesy Siemens).
**

11/28/2008 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 7

**Squirrel cage rotor
**

**It consists of a highly laminated cylindrical core having parallel slots on its outer surface.
**

Thick copper bars are placed on each slot and metal rings (end rings) short these bars. It is used for low and medium starting torque motor.

Rotor bars (slightly skewed)

End ring

Fig: 6.3

Skew angle The slots in the squirrel cage rotor are not always parallel to the shaft. These are twisted through an angle called skew angle.

Wound rotor

This is used for high starting torque. It consists of a laminated cylindrical core and carries a three-phase double layer distributed winding. The resistances can be varied by suitable switchgear and finally short-circuited when motor runs at rated speed.

Fig 6.4

Stator and rotor are made up of thick wafers of silicon steel that are put together with a varnish coating as insulation Both are cut out of same sheet to save silicon steel

13

Working Principle

The three-phase stator winding of an induction motor is energized by a threephase supply. This produces a constant magnitude magnetic field which rotates at synchronous speed around the stator. This rotating field crosses the air gap and cuts the stationary rotor conductors.

Fig: 6.5

As a result, an emf will be induced in the rotor conductors by transformer action. Due to this voltage, current will flow through the rotor conductors.

The current carrying conductors placed in the magnetic field experience a force that helps to rotate the induction motor.

If the load torque is less than the starting torque, the motor will rotate continuously.

**Rotating Field of a 3-phase Induction Motor
**

In a stator, the 3-phase windings (aa’, bb’, cc’) are placed 120° part from each other. A rotating magnetic field of constant magnitude is produced when a 3-phase voltage is applied to the stator winding. This rotating field is produced by the contributions of space-displaced currents.

Fig:6.6

The fluxes are, φa = φm sin wt φb = φm sin (wt - 120°) φc = φm sin (wt - 240°)

**The sinusoidal waveforms are,
**

Fig:6.7

At point 1, angle φ = wt = 0° φa = φm sin wt = 0 φb = φm sin (wt-120°) = -0.86 φm φc = φm sin (wt-240°) = 0.86 φm

The resultant vector is, φr = 2 * 0.86φm * cos30° = 1.5 φm

The phase angle for resultant flux is 90°.

Fig:6.8

**Synchronous Speed and Slip Speed
**

The speed at which the revolving flux rotates in between the stator and rotor free space is called the synchronous speed Ns. Ns = 120 f / P The slip speed is the difference between the synchronous speed, Ns, and the speed of the rotor, Nl. It is called relative speed, Nr. Nr = N s - Nl

The slip is the ratio of the slip speed to the synchronous speed.

s = Nr / Ns = (Ns – Nl) / Ns

Nl = Ns (1-s)

Speed = 0 Speed = Ns

means means

slip = 1 slip = 0

**Rotor Circuit Frequency
**

The rotor frequency will be, fr = (P * Nr) / 120 fr = (P * (Ns - Nl)) / 120 fr = (P * s Ns) / 120 = (s * P Ns) / 120 At s=1(under blocked rotor condition), fr = fBR fBR = PNs / 120 fr = s * fBR

Example 6.1

The full load speed of 3-phase, 230 V, 4-pole, 50 Hz induction motor is 1445 rpm. Determine the (i) Synchronous speed (ii) Slip (iii) Rotor frequency

Practice Problem 6.1

A 3-phase, 440 V, 8-pole, 60 Hz induction motor has a rotor speed of 690 rpm. Determine the (i) Synchronous speed (ii) Slip (iii) Rotor frequency

Rotor Voltage

According to working principle, three-phase induction motor is comparable with three phase transformer. The expression of rotor voltage is, Er = 4.44 frNφm

At s=1, Er = EBR EBR = 4.44 fBRNφm Er = sEBR

Example 6.2

A 4-pole, 50Hz 3-phase induction motor is operating at 1450rpm. Under blocked rotor condition, the voltage is found 120V. Determine the synchronous speed , rotor frequency and rotor voltage.

Practice Problem 6.2

A 6-pole, 60Hz 3-phase induction motor is operating at 1100rpm. Under blocked rotor condition, the voltage is found 120V. Determine the synchronous speed , rotor frequency and rotor voltage.

Rotor Torque

In 3-phase induction motor torque is proportional to the product of rotor current, flux and power factor, T α φI2cosφ2

But E2 α φ so equation becomes

T = k1E2I2cosφ2

For constant E2

T = k2I2cosφ2

Starting Torque

**The expression is, Tst = k2I2cosφ2 Tst = k2R2 2 2 R 2 + X2
**

Condition for Maximum starting torque is R2 = X2

Starting Current

The starting current can be reduced in two ways Reduced stator voltage External Resistance in Rotor, Ist = Io (Vs / Vo) Where o subscript represents original/rated values

Example 6.3

The original starting torque of a 4-pole, 230V, 3-phase induction motor is 230N-m and the starting current at rated voltage is 560A. A reduced 3-phase voltage of 150V is applied to the motor terminals. Find the value of starting torque and current.

Practice Problem 6.3

The original starting torque of a 6-pole, 208V, 3-phase induction motor is 180N-m and the starting current at rated voltage is 300A. A reduced 3-phase voltage of 108V is applied to the motor terminals. Find the value of starting torque and current.

Running Torque

**The initial expression, Tr α ErIrcosφ2 The final expression, Tr = krsR2 2 2 R2 + (s X2)
**

Condition for Maximum starting torque is R2

= X2

The maximum torque, Tm α 1 / (2 X2)

**Relationships between Different Torque
**

a = R 2 / X2 For starting and maximum torque, Tst = 2a 2 Tm 1 + a For full load/running and maximum torque, Tf = 2as 2 2 Tm s + a

Example 6.4

1. 2.

The full load slip of a 50Hz, 8-pole induction motor is 3%. The rotor resistance and standstill reactance per phase are 0.01ohm and 0.1ohm respectively. Find the Speed at which maximum torque occurs. Ratio of maximum torque to full load torque.

Practice Problem 6.4

1. 2.

The full load slip of a 60Hz, 4-pole induction motor is 4%. The rotor resistance and standstill reactance per phase are 0.03ohm and 0.4ohm respectively. Find the Speed at which maximum torque occurs. Ratio of maximum torque to full load torque.

- Microprocessor vs Microcontroller
- 21619494-Discrete-Math
- Digital Principles and Logic Design
- Lessons in Electronic Circuits, Volume VI - Experiments, 4th Edition
- Lessons in Electronic Circuits, Volume v - Reference, 4th Edition
- Lessons in Electronic Circuits, Volume IV - Digital, 4th Edition
- Lessons in Electronic Circuits, Volume III - Semiconductors, 4th Edition
- Lessons in Electronic Circuits, Volume II - AC, 4th Edition
- Lessons in Electronic Circuits, Volume I - DC, 4th Edition
- Electronics - Theory and Design of Electrical and Electronic Circuits
- Digital Electronics
- Theory and Design of Electrical and Electronic Circuits
- Induction Motors Part 2
- Control Systems Engineering Solution Manual (Nise-2004)
- Theory and Design of Electrical and Electronic Circuits
- Synchronous Machines
- Digital Logic and Design (Notes)
- Digital Logic and Design (BOOLEAN ALGEBRA)
- Digital Logic and Design (BASIC GATES)
- Digital Logic and Design
- Difference between synchronous & induction motors
- Alternators
- Principles of Communication Systems by Taub & Schilling
- Data Structures and Problem Solving Using C++ - Mark Weiss

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot useful- Lessons in Electronic Circuits, Volume III - Semiconductors, 4th Editionby Insane Clown Prince
- Theory and Design of Electrical and Electronic Circuitsby Insane Clown Prince
- ABB_handbook_protection_and_control_devicesby newnse2008
- Lessons in Electronic Circuits, Volume IV - Digital, 4th Editionby Insane Clown Prince

- Digital Logic and Design (BOOLEAN ALGEBRA)
- Induction Motors Part 2
- steam trap performance[1]
- Electrical Measuring and Test Instrument
- Digital Logic and Design (BASIC GATES)
- Vertical and Horizontal Blladder Tanks
- Workshop
- Johnson Controls Extended Archetecture Guide
- JCI General Catalogue
- Difference between synchronous & induction motors
- DC & AC Machines and Speed Control
- Lessons in Electronic Circuits, Volume v - Reference, 4th Edition
- Lessons in Electronic Circuits, Volume III - Semiconductors, 4th Edition
- Theory and Design of Electrical and Electronic Circuits
- ABB_handbook_protection_and_control_devices
- Lessons in Electronic Circuits, Volume IV - Digital, 4th Edition
- Control Systems Engineering Solution Manual (Nise-2004)
- Alternators
- Lessons in Electronic Circuits VI
- Lecture Notes in Discrete Mathematics
- Digital Principles and Logic Design
- Digital Electronics
- Electronics - Theory and Design of Electrical and Electronic Circuits
- Title1
- Introduction
- Induction Motors Notes
- Induction Motor
- ElecMech-2-2
- 02 Presentation 1
- 02 Presentation 1
- Induction Motors Part1

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd