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Shearing

The purpose of shearing is to cut the pile on the fabric surface.


In this way it improves the fabric appearance, as well as its behavior during wear(by
reducing the surface abrasion effects and the pilling tendency.)
There are two techniques for cutting the pile:

Shearing- Mechanical cutting operation


Singeing- The pile is burnt with an open frame

Before shearing all impurities must be removed from the fabric, this process is
termed as burling executed with the help of a burling iron.
As a preparation process for shearing, a treatment on a brushing steaming machine
is often performed. This serves to remove any remaining impurities on the fabric,
dampens the fabric, and causes relaxation in the fabric.
Shearing Machine
A shearing machine consists of the following componentsBed
It holds the fabric in position. There are two configurations, namely triangular and
hollow ones. In the former one, conditions are ideal for a thorough shearing.
A fixed blade
A series of helicoidal blades
BrushesThere are generally three kinds of brushes:

The rear one simply cleans the back of the fabric.


The second one lifts the pile in a regular and orderly manner to prepare it to
the action of the blade.
The third one lays the pile down again after cutting.

Singeing
When a completely clean surface is required, the pile is burnt by exposing the fabric
to the action of a flame.
Whenever possible, it is carried out on grey fabrics, because they need to be
washed to get rid of by-products of combustion.

Pressing

The aim of pressing is to give the fabric a smoother and brighter surface, with some
degree of permanence, this is done by subjecting the fabric to a strong compression
against a polished and heated surface.
There are three types of pressing machinery

Paper Press
Rotary Press
Contipress

Paper Press
It operates batch wise and requires very long times, and has therefore now almost
totally fallen into disuse. Now a days, it is typically reserved for very high priced
articles, which are hand made.
In paper pressing, up to 20-30 pieces of fabric are folded, and a glazed cardboard is
inserted in each fold. From time to time, an electrically heated cardboard is inserted
between two normal ones at a temperature between 40-80 degree centigrade. A
typical pressing cycle can last for 24 hours.
Rotary Press
To continuously press wool fabrics, special mould presses with a bed, are in use.
Fabric goes on at a moderate speed (10-20m/min), between a rotating cylinder and
a fixed hollow bed. Both of them are heated (120-130 degree centigrade) and
pressed against each other with a strong hydraulic force (up to 20000kgw).
A modern rotary press is equipped at the inlet with a humidifying zone and at the
outlet with a cooling and conditioning zone, it helps the fabric to regain the moisture
and thus improves dimensional stability.
Contipress
It consists of treating the fabric with steam first and then causing it to be
accompanied by a belt, which strongly presses it (up to 6kgw/cm^2) against a
heated cylinder. Temperatures of about 135 degree centigrade can be achieved.
Steaming and Decasting
At the end of the finishing cycle, the fabric is subjected to treatments with steam,
whose purpose is to give it the desired had, and to stabilize as far as possible its
hand and dimensions.
There are two types of such treatments

Steaming Where the fabric is unrestrained and can therefore relax and
change its dimension.
Decasting Where the fabric is under tension.

Steaming

. The fabric is passed through an atmosphere or mist of hot steam rising from an
open through.

Decasting
This finishing process is another shrinking process which gives the fabric stability. It
is done by winding the fabric under tension on a perforated cylinder through which
steam is passed.
Factors influencing the decasting process

Basic physical variables- Time, temperature, fabric, moisture content


Mechanical pressure
The size of the cylinder
Other operational conditions- The type of wrapper, the direction of the
steam flow, the final thermal shock