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Motor(2)
Equivalent Circuit
The voltage and current induced in the rotor
circuit of an induction motor is essentially a
transformer action.
Transformer model of an Induction motor:
Like transformer, there is a certain resistance
and selfinductance in the primary (stator)
and secondary (rotor) windings, which can be
represented in the equivalent circuit.
Fig: 6.9
The stator voltage is,
V1 = (R1 + jX1) I1 + Io Zo
Rotor circuit model
A voltage will be induced in the rotor circuit
when the voltage is applied to the stator
windings.
Fig:6.10,6.11
2
2 2
R 1
R R 1
s s
 
= + ÷

\ .
Thevenin equivalent circuit
For simplifying the computations stator side
parameters can be replaced by thevenin
parameters.
Fig:6.13
Power Relationships
The electrical power reaches from stator to
rotor through an air gap. Most of the air gap
power is converted into mechanical power
and rest of the power is wasted as rotor
copper loss.
The air gap power,
Pag = PMech + Prcu
The rotor copper loss,
Prcu = 3I2 R2
The air gap consumed by variable resistance,
Pag = 3I2 R2 / s = Prcu / s
The mechanical power,
PMech = (1 – s) Pag = [(1 – s) / s]* Prcu
2
2
Rotor input,
Pag = (2πNsT) / 60 = kT
kT = 3I2 R2 / s
If the rotor resistance is constant, generally
T α I / s
2
2
Example 6.5
The rotor input of a 3phase, 4pole, 440V,
50Hz induction motor is 1.5kW. The copper
loss of the rotor circuit is 250W. Determine
the
1. Slip
2. Shaft speed
3. Synchronous speed
4. Mechanical power developed
Practice Problem 6.5
The rotor speed of a 3phase, 415V, 60Hz,
30kW induction motor is 1745rpm. The
friction and windage losses of the induction
motor are 550W. Determine the
1. Mechanical power developed
2. Rotor copper loss
3. Air gap power
4. Slip
Power Stages in an Induction Motor
The electrical power applied to the stator of
an induction motor is converted into
mechanical power at the shaft of the motor.
During this conversion various losses are
encountered.
Fig: 6.14
Fig :6.15
Example 6.6
The rotor speed of a 3phase, 6pole, 50Hz,
45kW induction motor is 900rpm. Total stator
losses are measured 2kW. The friction and
windage losses of the induction motor are
1.5kW each. Determine the
1. Shaft or output power
2. Rotor copper loss
3. Motor efficiency
4. Slip
Practice Problem 6.6
A 3phase, 415V, 6pole, delta connection,
50Hz induction motor consumes power
72kW with a line current of 71A and runs at
a slip of 2%. The stator iron loss is 1.5kW,
friction and windage loss is 2kW. If the stator
resistance per phase is 0.12ohm, determine
the
1. Rotor input power
2. Rotor Cu loss
3. Shaft power
4. Motor efficiency
Torqueslip Characteristics
It is the curve that is obtained with the
variation of slip for a particular value of rotor
resistance.
The torque under running condition,
T = k1sR2
R2 + (sX2)
2 2
F 6.16
The torqueslip characteristics can be
explained in following ways:
The torque is zero for zero value of the slip.
Hence, the torqueslip curve will start from
the origin.
When the motor attains normal speed, slip
is very small so that sX2 is negligible as
compared to R2.
The equation of torque becomes,
T α s / R2
If R2 is constant,
T α s
At low values, torqueslip curve is a straight
line.
As the slip increases torque also increases
and it will be maximum at the following
value of the slip.
s = R2 / X2
This maximum torque of an induction motor is
called pullout torque or breakdown torque.
If the slip increases more i.e. beyond the
value corresponding to maximum torque, the
term sX2 increases sharply. Therefore, R2
may be neglected as compared to sX2 .
T α s / (sX2)
If X2 is constant,
T α 1/s
Here, torque is inversely proportional to the
slip.
2
Linear Induction Motor
The linear induction motor is obtained if the
induction motor is cut and laid in flat position.
This is designed for high force and long
stroke applications.
It is used in the door sliding system, curtain
puller etc.
LIM provides endtoend positioning with hard
stop when connected across the supply.
The secondary winding of LIM is called a
reaction plate.
When 3phase voltage is applied to the
primary winding, a traveling magnetic field is
created in the air gap.
This magnetic field induces a current in the
reaction plate which in turn creates its own
magnetic field.
The interaction of the two magnetic fields
generates the high force and direct linear
motion.
Fig:6.17