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Cells are small units, a chemical factory, housing thousands of chemical reactions.

Cells use oxygen in reactions that release energy from fuel molecules. In cellular
respiration, the chemical energy stored in organic molecules is converted to a form that
the cell can use to perform work. In this Topic 2, Enzymology Essential(Chapter 5: The
Working Cell), chemical reactions either release energy (exergonic reactions) or require
an input of energy and store energy (endergonic reactions)
Endergonic reaction. Endergonic reaction are chemical reactions are occurring all
around you and inside you. Even as you watch this lesson your stomach is using acid to
break down food molecules for digestion; and outside your window, trees and flowers are
undergoing photosynthesis, the process plants use to convert sunlight into usable energy.
All chemical reactions involve energy. Endergonic reaction is a reaction that requires
energy to be absorbed in order for it to take place. These reactions are not spontaneous.
They require work or an input of force - often in the form of energy - to get started.
Sometimes the initial energy required to get the reaction started is all the energy that is
required, while other times the reaction continues to absorb energy throughout the entire

Beside that, there still have exergonic reaction. John William (2012) said that
exergonic reactions are chemical reactions that release energy in the form of heat.
Typically, this energy is released when bonds are broken. More specifically, in humans,
these reactions are called catabolic, which means that the molecules are being broken

down into smaller components. By breaking these bonds, systems (such as the human
body or the car example above) can receive the energy need to perform their functions.

Out of the nutshell, Adenosine triphosphate as known as ATP is consists of

nitrogenous base adenine, five-carbon sugar ribose sugar, and phosphate group.ATP acts
as an important role for cellular work.
During a chemical reaction that breaks one of ATP's bonds, the phosphate group is
transferred from ATP to another molecule. Specific enzymes enable this transfer to occur.
The molecule that accepts the phosphate undergoes a change, driving the work. Your cells
perform three main types of work: chemical work, mechanical work, and transport work .
An example of chemical work is building large molecules such as proteins. ATP provides
the energy for the dehydration synthesis reaction that links amino acids together. An
example of mechanical work is the contraction of a muscle. In your muscle cells, ATP
transfers phosphate groups to certain proteins. These proteins change shape, starting a
chain of events which cause muscle cells to contract. Again, the transfer of a phosphate
group from ATP causes the receiving membrane protein to change shape, enabling ions to
pass through.

In order of cellular work, ATP is renewable source of energy. ATP is continuously

converted to ADP as your cells do work. Fortunately, ATP is "recyclable." For example,
ATP can be restored from ADP by adding a third phosphate group (Figure 7-11). Like
compressing a spring, adding the phosphate group requires energy. The source of this
energy is the organic molecules from food. Thus, ATP operates in a cycle within your
cells. Work consumes ATP, which is then regenerated from ADP and phosphate.The ATP
cycle churns at an astonishing pace. A working muscle cell recycles all of its ATP
molecules about once each minute. That's 10 million ATP molecules spent and
regenerated per second! The next concept focuses on how your cells keep pace with this
incredible demand for ATP.

Enzymes. Enzymes are "biological catalysts." "Biological" means the substance in

question is produced or is derived from some living organism. "Catalyst" denotes a
substance that has the ability to increase the rate of a chemical reaction, and is not
changed or destroyed by the chemical reaction that it accelerates. Generally speaking,
catalysts are specific in nature as to the type of reaction they can catalyze. Enzymes, as a
subclass of catalysts, are very specific in nature. Each enzyme can act to catalyze only
very select chemical reactions and only with very select substances. An enzyme has been
described as a "key" which can "unlock" complex compounds. An enzyme, as the key,
must have a certain structure or multi-dimensional shape that matches a specific section
of the "substrate" (a substrate is the compound or substance which undergoes the change).
Once these two components come together, certain chemical bonds within the substrate
molecule change much as a lock is released, and just like the key in this illustration, the
enzyme is free to execute its duty once again.


EA without



Reaction with

Progress of the reaction

EA with
in energy
(the same)

In order to get the most effective enzyme activity, temperature affects the motion.
As usual, enzymes works the most at 3540C. The increasing of temperature causes
molecules to vibrate more violently. Weak bonds like H-bonds, hydrophobic interactions
will break first before the stronger bonds for example ionic bonds. Enzyme can be said to
be denatured when its loses all catalytic activities and is completely denatured.