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What is the usage of scrambling code in WCDMA for both downlink and
Ans:-There is only one frequency in Downlink. SC is used to separate cells. In uplink
it is used to differentiate terminals.
2:-What is the usage of Channelization code in downlink and uplink?
Ans:-Uplink separation of physical data (DPDCH) and control channel (DPCCH)from
same terminal.Downlink separation of downlink connections to different users
within one cell.
3:-What is the minimum and maximum SF in Downlink and uplink for FDD
Ans:-Minimum of 4 and maximum of 512 chips in downlink,Minimum of 4 and
maximum of 256 chips in uplink
4:-What is channelization code?
Ans:-Channelization codes are orthogonal codes used to spread the signal and
hence provides channel separation, that is, channelization codes are used to
separate channels from a cell.
5:-What is scrambling code? How many scrambling codes there are?
Ans:-Scrambling codes are used to separate cells and UEs from each other, that is,
each cell or UE should have a unique scrambling code. There are 512 scrambling
codes on the downlink and millions on the uplink
6:-How many types of handovers are there in UMTS?
Ans:-Soft/Softer Handover,Inter Frequency Handover,Inter RAT Handover,Core
Network Hard Handover,Service based handover to GSM,HSDPA Mobility
7:-What does the acronym UMTS stand for?
Ans:-Universal Mobile Telephone System.
8:-What is the Modulation scheme is used in UMTS for voice service in
Downlink and uplink?
Ans:-QPSK in downlink and HPSK (Hybrid Phase shift keying) in uplink.
9:-Simple link budget: with a 30dBm CPICH and a -100dBm UE sensitivity,
ignoring anything in between, what is the maximum path loss?
Ans:-30 (100) = 30 + 100 = 130dB.
10:-What is the relationship of SF and data rate?
Ans:-They are inversely proportional. Lower the SF higher the data rate.
11:-What is the relationship between SF and power required?
Ans:-The lower the SF, the more power required.
12:-What is the relationship with SF and coverage area of different
Ans:-They are directly proportional. Lower SF will have less coverage area.
For example Coverage area decreases with increased throughput. If we
compare12.2 Kb/s and 384 Kb/s coverage area.12.2 kb/s coverage area will be
bigger then384 Kb/s coverage area.
13:-How many numbers of SC codes available in Downlink and Uplink?
Ans:-Downlink 512, Uplink several millions.

14:-What is the family of codes used for Chanelization in WCDMA?

Ans:-Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor.(OVSF)
15:-What is Significance of Eb/No? On what factors it is dependent? who
provides Eb/No? What is typical Eb/No for AMR 12.2 for Node B and MS?
Ans:-Eb_No is related to QOS of a service which in terms related to bit error rate.
Technically it is the minimum signal to noise needed by infrastructure equipment
despreading it signal. This is a value used to compare different infrastructure
vendors. Eb_No changes with the service type. Typically Eb_No for AMR 12.2 is ~ 4
db for node B and 8 dB for MS. It is infrastructure vendor (NSN) provides the Eb_No
for Node B.
The Eb/N0 value is the value that needs to be reached for insuring the targeted
service quality. This is the ratio between the energy per bit for the related service
over the noise spectral efficiency over the whole spreading band.
The spread signal is characterized by the ratio of the energy per chip over the
spectral noise density Ec/N0.
16:-What is typical pole capacity for CS-12.2, PS-64, PS-128 and PS-384?
Ans:-With same assumptions as above:
CS-12.2k: 120.6 (UL), 64.1 (DL).
PS-64k: 34.8 (UL), 12.8(DL).
PS-128k: 16.2 (UL), 8.4 (DL).
PS-384k: 16.2 (UL), 2.8 (DL).
PS-384k has only 128k on the uplink, therefore the uplink capacity is the same for
17:-What is Eb/No requirement for HSDPA?
ANs:-The Eb/No requirement for HSDPA varies with user bit rate (data rate),
typically 2 for
768kbps and 5 for 2Mbps.
18:-Why is Eb/No requirement lower for PS than for CS?
Ans:-PS has a better error correction capability and can utilize retransmission,
therefore it can afford to a lower Eb/No. CS is real-time and cannot tolerate delay
so it needs a higher Eb/No to maintain a stronger RF link.
19:-What is Eb/No?
Ans:-By definition Eb/No is energy bit over noise density, i.e. is the ratio of the
energy per information bit to the power spectral density (of interference and noise)
after dispreading. Eb/No = Processing Gain + SIR For example, if Eb/No is 5dB and
processing gain is 25dB then the SIR should be -20dB or better.
20:-What type of Channel Coding is used for Voice and Data services?
Ans:-Voice Convolution Coding
Data Turbo coding
21:-Why 3G is named as NODE-B?

Ans:-Node-B is a term used in UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications

System )to denote the BTS (base transceiver station). In contrast with GSM base
stations, Node B uses WCDMA as air transport technology. As in all cellular
systems, such as UMTS and GSM, Node B contains radio frequency transmitter and
the receiver used to communicate directly with the mobiles, which move freely
around it. In this type of cellular networks the mobiles cannot communicate
directly with each other but have to communicate with the BTS.
22:-How many time Inner Loop Power Control happens and what type of
fading it compensates?
Ans:-1500Hz and compensates Fast Fading.
23:-What effect is there on signal by spreading and dispreading?
Ans:-Spreading will increase the bandwidth of a as signal. A signal of 10 Kb/swill
become 40 Kb/s after spreading and will become 10 Kb/s after despreading.The
processing gain term expresses the gain achieved by spreading a narrow
bandsignal over a wideband spectrum.
This gain is the ratio between the spreading chip rate and the actual service bit
ratemeasured at the RLC level
24:-What are the processing gains for CS and PS services? for umts
Ans:-CS12.2: 25dB PS-64: 18dB PS-128: 15dB PS-384: 10dB HSDPA: 2dB
25:-What are the Eb/No targets in your design?
Ans:-The Eb/No targets are dependent on the service:
On the uplink, typically CS is 5 to 6dB and PS is 3 to 4dB PS is about 2dB lower.
On the downlink, typically CS has 6 to 7dB and PS is 5 to 6dB PS is about 1dB
26:-What is a chip rate of WCDMA System? How much is the bandwidth
required for WCDMA?
Ans:-3840 Kc/s. FDD 5 MHZ of paired band. TDD 5 MHz only.
27:-What are the symbol rates (bits per symbol) for BPSK, QPSK, 8PSK
and 16QAM?
Ans:-BPSK: 1.
QPSK: 2.
8PSK: 3.
16QAM: 4.
28:-Is UMTS an uplink-limited or downlink-limited system?

Ans:-A UMTS system could be either uplink-limited or downlink-limited depending

on the loading. In a lightly loaded system, the UE transmit power sets a coverage
limitation therefore it is uplink-limited. In a heavily loaded system, the NodeB
transmit power limits the number of UEs it can serve therefore it is downlinklimited.
29:-what are the major components in calculating maximum path loss,
starting from NodeB?
Ans:-FOR Downlink

NodeB CPICH transmit power.

Jumper and feeder connector loss.
Antenna gain.
Over-the-air loss.
Building / vehicle penetration loss.
Body loss.
30:-Cell Reselection is valid in both Idle and in which Sate in Connected
Ans:-In CELL FACH mode .
31:-What FIXED SF is used for HSDPA?
Ans:-SF 16, maximum of 5 codes.