You are on page 1of 8

INTRODUCTION

First and foremost the issue for reviewing this journal is to see the Conversation Analysis
in Education and Applied Linguistic. I have chosen a journal written by Olcay Sert and Paul
Seedhouse which is in 2011 and the journal entitled Introduction: Conversational Analysis in
Applied Linguistic for the Novitas Royal, Research on Youth and Language. This journal has
fifteen pages and it is about how conversational analysis can be used and applied in the aspects
of educational wise and the advantages for the learners from the application through the aspects.
As we can see that educational is very important to all citizens it does not matter how old are
you. The teacher must play an important role to achieve the objectives and goals. There are four
main points that have been discussed in the journal, which are Language Learning and
Teaching, Classroom Interaction, Material Development and Language Proficiency
Assessment.
Briefly about language learning and teaching, it is actually focus on how the students can
enhance their learning to an extent which they will be able to communicate to each other fluently
where the teacher is the one who initiates the development of the students by applying those
analysis and theory on conversational. Classroom interaction focuses on the environment in the
classroom; it is between the teacher and the students during the teaching and learning process. It
is also can lead to positive and negative environment so the teacher must choose which one is the
best for the students. Next is the material development, it is about the material that teacher brings
in the classroom and how conversational analysis can develop better materials for students when
learning a specific language. The teacher should create or develop the interesting material
especially when teaching languages. The material development will encourage the students to
focus on that subject give ideas to them on how the language works. The last main point is
language proficiency assessment; it is about a formal type of assessment where they include the
conversational analysis that will help it to be wide and universal. In this journal, each sub-topic
has been organized and it is easy for the readers to read because it is very straight forward and
easy to understand. However, many researchers have been conducted the similar research before
Olcay Set and Paul Seedhouse this is as prove that all the information are not from other
unreliable resources.

SUMMARY
There are several points that have been discussed in this journal. The points that have
been discussed are about what changes that will bring to teaching and learning process of ESL
classroom towards the students. It is focuses on information that have been written by the author
and the main focus is to enhance the speaking skill which regarding to conversational analysis.
The authors have mentioned that the main focus for this journal is to enhance the speaking skill
as it related to conversational analysis.
The first discussion is about the Language Learning and Teaching. Researchers have
been done towards the emergence of the conversational analysis (CA) in the language teaching
and learning, they also mentioned that the lesson can be combined by the theory. The researchers
are Cook, Mondada, Markee Young and Miller, Hellerman, Brouwer and Wagner, Jenks and
Seedhouse. There are two different merge which are the conversational analysis inspired
approach and the conversational analysis informed approach. The theory has said will be related
to the subject matter of the Second Language Acquisition and Interactional Competence. As the
author Olcay Set and Paul Seddhouses perspective there are many points of view of other
researchers that have been conducting the similar research that connect to both Conversational
Analysis and the Second Language Acquisition. In this case it shows that there are many
examples that have been conducted to see the better side of combining both Conversational
Analysis and also the theories where language does not have limit to classroom used and context
only, but it has stated that language can be used inside the classroom and also outside of the
classroom as the context has been twisted with the combined theories stated above. The benefit
that we get from here is it can help the students to learn better in the particular language and it
will encourage the students to learn the language better. Move on to the second point which
regarding to Classroom Interaction. Generally classroom interaction is about inside the
classroom which is between teacher and students on how they interact to each other. From the
journal has been mentioned that they want to see the relationship between teacher and students in
the classroom using the second language that they learnt. It is also can be said by the process of
learning in changing the formal speech of teaching and learning. Meaning here is how the
teacher and students use informal and formal speech in the classroom, it is depending on the

situation. For instance, if it is an oral test so the teacher and students need to use formal speech
but if having a group activity both teacher and students will use informal speech to each other. So
it is really depending on the situation in the classroom. Back to the journal it has been mentioned
that learning process can be developed through the communication between student and other
students. The results are not frightening and the formal speech sometimes stop at some points
when no stimulus from two sides, but they are concern on the students language proficiency of
the language. It shows that teachers are using different methodologies in the classroom. The
conversation in ESL classroom is more on students to teacher and to students instead of teacher
to student and student. The researchers that supporting the point of view of the author are
Morton, Kaanta, Jacnick, Lee, Koshik Hellerman, Skidmore and Murakmi and there are few
more. Next would be the third point which is Material Development, this point is focusing on
the assist of the Conversational Analysis. Few authors said that our nowadays materials such as
textbooks and exercise books are incomplete and it is not authentic which means it is outdated
already. These materials are losing the components of content that we must have in a real life
conversation or situation. It should be updated as the generations became advance year to year.
The students will feel threatened because they would not be able to use the language in the
textbook outside the classroom, how can they use it? It is too outdated and schema for them to
use in a real life situation. The students will feel uncomfortable; therefor the students would not
practice the language. It is bad for the learners to master the language. The emergence of
Conversational Analysis, the authors advised to teachers to provide different type of materials
inside the classroom. Materials that more realistic and authentic for the usage of conversational
context. For example the teacher can bring in videos, song and movies for students to learn the
language. Using these materials will help the students more on achieve the fluency of speaking
and reading. As we know that using authentic materials also will arose the students interest to
learn and to practice the language inside and outside the classroom. Teachers can bring these
materials to classroom since several authors have mentioned that the textbook is not complete.
The textbook is not updated and sometimes it is absurd to use for certain level of proficiency
students. In the journal has been suggested that we need to standardize the teachers; syllabus and
materials used in the classroom because it is kind of hard to find the songs, videos, movie and
recorded audio that related to the topic learning. All of the materials should be provided in a form
of DVD so that, it would be easier for the teacher to use it. Few researchers that wrote this

journal are Bernsten, Seedhouse, Peres Basanta, Bowles, Brown and Lewis, Moreno Jaen, Wong,
Mori and Sert. The final point is Language Proficiency Assessment. It is regarding to the
Conversational Analysis that has been combined with the Language Proficiency Assessment to
make sure that the reliability and the validity of the examinations or any test that involving
languages. They want to ensure that the students know the differences between formal
conversation and informal conversation as I have mentioned in the first point. These points are
related to each other. The emergence of the Conversational Analysis, in this component
encourages the changes that researchers try to apply and practice. The teacher plays an important
role where they need to be knowledgeable in conversational analysis. For instance they must
know how these terms work such as turn taking, lexical cohesion, adjacency pair and many
more. If the teacher has that knowledge regarding to conversational analysis, it is easy for
teachers to face the problem and know how to solve the problems easily during the learning
process in ESL classroom. By acknowledge of the terms mentioned above, the students will able
to differentiate the selected sentences depending on the topics given in oral test or speaking test.
When the students know the terms such as turn taking, lexical cohesion and few more they will
be able to face the test easily. Meaning they will know when should they take the turn taking and
when there are lexical cohesions sentences. It will be easy for them to organize the particular
term.

CRITIQUES
This journal written by Olcay Set and Paul Seedhouse is very useful and helpful for
language teachers in improving their lesson in ESL classroom. It will help the students to
improve their second language without the emergence of the Conversational Analysis in applied
linguistics. As the sub topics have mentioned and explained above they are the vital core of
education and plays and very important in teaching and learning process in language classroom
especially in ESL classroom. There are few critiques that I can make in positive and negative
critiques. For the negative is the geographical is unclear. For the positive critiques are the journal
provide information from other resources, the information given from the journal is very useful
for teaching and learning process and the journal is very organized.
Starting with negative critique which is the geographical is unclear. This will lead to
confusion among the readers from different states regarding he information provided from the
journal. My concern is whether the teacher in other states can apply those methods in their
school. In the journal itself it has been mentioned which is Germany. The readers who reading
this journal must have thought about can they use this method in their school. The journal did not
specifically mention about which states can be used or perhaps all schools can use the method
suggested above. Moreover the reader also will be thinking whether the information is suitable or
not to be used in their educational settings. For instance, the author should mention about which
sociocultural is suitable, which language proficiency of students is suitable and many more. The
author should also mention whether the journal is friendly reading or not. Instead the author did
not mention all this which make the journal look not that complete. However this problem can be
fixed and the author can do better in the future, the author should always think broadly when
writing a journal.
Move on to the positive critique that I have found from the journal which is this journal is
considering other researchers opinion instead of just focusing on one researcher. By doing that
the reader has a variety of information and the reader also can refer to the author suggested
above. So the journal becomes complete and solid because the best researchers are combining
the information together. This will help the teacher who does not acknowledge about this issue.
After they read this journal they will acknowledge about the importance of knowing this issue in
education system and also know the ways on how to prevent these problems that occur in the

classroom. The second positive critique that I found is the journal provides useful information for
teachers who are teaching English as a Second Language. The reason I said so is because the
authors giving ideas to teachers on how to make the classroom look more authentic and realistic.
For instance the journal has mentioned about the teacher should bring authentic materials such as
video, movie, audio recording and many more to encourage the students to practice the language
inside and outside the classroom. And the teacher will improvised from the suggested method
mentioned above then the learning will be meaningful for the students. As we know that
nowadays students are becoming advance day by day so we cannot stick on the textbook which
they did not publish a new one according to the level proficiency of the students. The last
strength for this journal is it is very organized. The reason I said so is because the points given
are in order. It is easy for the reader to read without getting into confusion. The reader will easily
understand what the author is trying to convey to the reader because it is straight forward, there
is no ambiguous in the sentences. It shows that each point has explanation and also clear
examples. Example that shows the journal is organized is it had introduction which explaining
about the author, the objective of the journal and the main points that they wanted to discuss.
Next is the content, which the author explained on each of the main point. Afterwards is the
conclusion which the author concludes the entire main issues in the journal. Lastly is reference
which the author mentioned all the researchers name, year and title. So it is very organized. It
shows that this journal gives a lot of information for ESL classroom and teachers.

CONCLUSION
I conclude with my opinion on the journal it is totally legit and related to the
Conversational Analysis and the Applied Linguistics which are Language Learning and
Teaching, Classroom Interaction, Material Development and Language Proficiency Assessment.
These points are very important because teachers play an important role in the classroom.
Meaning the teacher is the one who is going to decide whether the class can be dull or colorful.
For instance, the class can be cheerful if the teacher brings colorful materials and authentic
materials to classroom. And the class can be dull if the teacher brings textbooks and exercise
books only. And the students do the same thing over and over again which is read from the
textbook. The classroom must be realistic so that the students can practice without feeling
intimidating. This journal is relevant and legit for all educators because the way of teaching must
be in a right way if the educators did not see this as important thing then it will be a major
problem. With the inclusion of Conversational Analysis, it provides opportunities to students to
get involve more in a lesson and the students will become active in learning in the classroom.
Teacher and students can give opinions to each other rather than teacher centered. Nowadays
classroom must be students centered so that they students will be more active. This is also
because the new generation is more advanced than the previous generation. Lastly is the
recommendation that can be say regarding to the journal is the author should show more the
steps on making authentic materials and how does it work. By showing this in details the
educators will get the actual idea. This is because some of the educators are not creative and they
are more visual compared to the creative ones. The creative educators can improvise the idea
given easily without need to be explained to them in details. If the author could provide the
recommendation mentioned this will make the lesson as a whole and will develop more creative
and fresh educators.

REFERENCES
(Seedhouse, 2011)

Seedhouse. (2011). Introduction: Conversational Analysis in Applied Linguistics. 114.