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DOI 10.4010/2016.

1613
ISSN 2321 3361 2016 IJESC
`

Research Article

Volume 6 Issue No. 6

Experimental Investigation and Analysis of Incoloy 825 Alloy


Process parameter using Taguchi Method
S.Syed Abuthahir 1, Dr.T.Parameshwaran Pillai2, Dr.T.Senthil Kumar3, Dr.B.Kumaraguru4
PG Scholar1, Assistant Professor2, 4, Associate Professor and Dean3
Department of Mechanical Engineering
BIT Campus, Anna University Tiruchirappalli, India
Abstract:
One of the important Non-Traditional machining process for machining the hard metals & Alloys is Electric Discharge Machining
process (EDM). In this process, the Incoloy 825 is experimentally investigated with various input parameters. Though there are
many parameters which will influence the machining efficiency, there are some significant parameters such as Pulse On Time,
Pulse OFF Time, Gap Voltage, Current and Dielectric used will contribute the optimised parameters for obtain the better Metal
Removal Rate [MRR], minimum Surface Roughness [Ra] with Electrode Wear Rate [EWR]. Here the material Incoloy 825 is
selected with copper electrode and parameters are optimized using Taguchi Method.
Keywords: EDM Machine, Incoloy 825, Taguchi Design, Metal Removal Rate[MRR], Surface Roughness[Ra] & Electrode
Wear Rate[EWR]
traditional process. The Electrical Discharge Machining process
I. INTRODUCTION
is employed widely for making tools, dies and other precision
The history of EDM Machining Techniques goes as far back parts.
as the 1770s when it was discovered by an English Scientist.
EDM has been replacing drilling, milling, grinding and other
However, Electrical Discharge Machining was not fully taken traditional machining operations and is now a well established
advantage of until 1943 when Russian scientists learned how machining option in many manufacturing industries throughout
the erosive effects of the technique could be controlled and the world. And is capable of machining geometrically complex
used for machining purposes.
or hard material components, that are precise and difficult-toWhen it was originally observed by Joseph Priestly in 1770, machine such as heat treated tool steels, composites, super
EDM Machining was very imprecise and riddled with failures. alloys, ceramics, carbides, heat resistant steels etc. being widely
Commercially developed in the mid 1970s, wire EDM began to used in die and mould making industries, aerospace,
be a viable technique that helped shape the metal working aeronautics and nuclear industries. Electric Discharge
industry we see today. In the mid 1980s.The EDM techniques Machining has also made its presence felt in the new fields such
were transferred to a machine tool. This migration made EDM as sports, medical and surgical, instruments, optical, including
more widely available and appealing over traditional machining automotive R&D areas.
processes.
The new concept of manufacturing uses un-conventional
EDM is a Thermoelectric Process in which heat energy of a
energy sources like sound, light, mechanical, chemical, spark is used to remove material from the work piece. The work
electrical, electrons and ions. With the industrial and piece and tool should make of electrically conductive materials.
technological growth, development of harder and difficult to Whenever sparking takes place between two electrical contacts
machine materials, which find wide application in aerospace, a small amount of material is removed from each of the
nuclear engineering and other industries owing to their high contacts. This fact of realized and attempts were made to
strength to weight ratio, hardness and heat resistance qualities harness and control the spark energy to employ it for useful
has been witnessed. New developments in the field of material purpose, say for machining of metals.
science have led to new engineering metallic materials,
composite materials and high tech ceramics having good
mechanical properties and thermal characteristics as well as
sufficient electrical conductivity so that they can readily be
machined by spark erosion. Non-traditional machining has
grown out of the need to machine these exotic materials. The
machining processes are non-traditional in the sense that they
do not employ traditional tools for metal removal and instead
they directly use other forms of energy. The problems of high
complexity in shape, size and higher demand for product
accuracy and surface finish can be solved through nontraditional methods. Currently, non-traditional processes
possess virtually unlimited capabilities except for volumetric
Due to the increased use of hard metals and alloys for
material removal rates, for which great advances have been various purposes, it is important to develop the better method
made in the past few years to increase the material removal for machining them. Electrical Discharge Machine (EDM) is
rates. As removal rate increases, the cost effectiveness of the better method for machining such hard metal and alloys
operations also increase, stimulating ever greater uses of non- with required aesthetic characteristics. Further producing
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complex shapes in Super Alloys is difficult in any of the


methods is difficult other than EDM. The material INCOLOY
825 is chosen which have main role in acid piping, baffle plates
etc.

these low residual stresses, although material that hasn't been


stress-relieved can distort in the machining process.
Due to the inherent properties of the process, wire EDM can
easily machine complex parts and precision components out of
hard conductive materials.

1.1 NEED FOR OPTIMIZATION


The correct selection of manufacturing conditions is one of
the most important aspects in majority of manufacturing
process. It is a capable of machining geometrically complex or
hard material components, which are precise and difficult-tomachine such as Heat Treated tool steels, Composites, Super
alloys, Ceramics, Carbides, Heat resistant steels etc.
1.2 TYPES OF EDM
Basically, there are two different types of EDM
Die-Sinking
Wire-cut
Figure1.2 Spark EDM & Wire EDM

Die-sinking EDM
In the Sinker EDM Machining process, two metal parts
submerged in an insulating liquid are connected to a source of
current which is switched on and off automatically depending
on the parameters set on the controller. When the current is
switched on, an electric tension is created between the two
metal parts. If the two parts are brought together to within a
fraction of an inch, the electrical tension is discharged and a
spark jumps across. Where it strikes, the metal is heated up so
much that it melts. Sinker EDM, also called cavity type EDM
or volume EDM consists of an electrode and work piece
submerged in an insulating liquid such as, more typically, oil or,
less frequently, other dielectric fluids. The electrode and work
piece are connected to a suitable power supply. The power
supply generates an electrical potential between the two parts.
As the electrode approaches the work piece, dielectric
breakdown occurs in the fluid, forming a plasma channel, and a
small spark jumps.
These sparks usually strike one at a time because it is
very unlikely that different locations in the inter-electrode space
have the identical local electrical characteristics which would
enable a spark to occur simultaneously in all such locations.
These sparks happen in huge numbers at seemingly random
locations between the electrode and the workpiece. As the base
metal is eroded, and the spark gap subsequently increased, the
electrode is lowered automatically by the machine so that the
process can continue uninterrupted. Several hundred thousand
sparks occur per second, with the actual duty cycle carefully
controlled by the setup parameters.

1.3 CHARACTERISTICS OF EDM


Controlled erosion (melting
Mechanism of process

and evaporation) through a


series of electric spark

Spark gap

0.010- 0.500 mm

Spark frequency

200 500 kH

Peak voltage across the gap

30- 250 V

Metal removal rate (max.)

5000 mm3/min

Specific power consumption

2-10 W/mm3/min
EDM oil, Kerosene liquid

Dielectric fluid

paraffin, silicon oil,


deionised water etc.

Tool material

Copper, Brass, graphite, AgW alloys, Cu-W alloys.

MRR/TWR

0.1-10

Materials that can be

All conducting metals and

machined

alloys.

Wire-cut EDM
Wire EDM Machining (also known as Spark EDM) is
an electro thermal production process in which a thin singlestrand metal wire (usually brass) in conjunction with de-ionized
water (used to conduct electricity) allows the wire to cut
through metal by the use of heat from electrical sparks. a thin
single-strand metal wire, usually brass, is fed through the work
piece, submerged in a tank of dielectric fluid, typically deionized water. Wire-cut EDM is typically used to cut plates as
thick as 300mm and to make punches, tools, and dies from hard
metals that are difficult to machine with other methods.
Wire-cutting EDM is commonly used when low
residual stresses are desired, because it does not require high
cutting forces for removal of material. If the energy/power per
pulse is relatively low (as in finishing operations), little change
in the mechanical properties of a material is expected due to
International Journal of Engineering Science and Computing, June 2016

Shapes

Micro holes, Narrow Slots,


Blind cavities
High specific energy

Limitations

consumption, Non
conducting materials cant be
machined by

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1.4 TOOL & WORK PIECE MATERIALS


Tool Material
Tool material should be such that it would not undergo much
tool wear when it is impinged by positive ions. Thus the
localized temperature rise has to be less by tailoring or properly
choosing its properties or even when temperature increases,
there would be less melting. Further, the tool should be easily
workable as intricate shaped geometric features are machined in
EDM.
Thus the basic characteristics of electrode materials are:
1. High electrical conductivity electrons are cold emitted
more easily and there is less bulk electrical heating.
2. High thermal conductivity for the same heat load, the local
temperature rise would be less due to faster heat conducted to
the bulk of the tool and thus less tool wear.
3. Higher density for the same heat load and same tool wear
by weight there would be less volume removal or tool wear and
thus less dimensional loss or inaccuracy.
4. High melting point high melting point leads to less tool
wear due to less tool material melting for the same heat load.
5. Easy manufacturability.
6. Cost cheap.
The followings are the different electrode materials which are
used commonly in the industry:
1. Graphite
2. Copper
3. Tellurium Copper 99% Cu + 0.5% Tellurium
The tool material selected for the project is Copper of diameter
of 16 mm
Work piece Material

Duration of each spark is very short. The entire cycle time is


usually few micro-seconds (s).The frequency of sparking may
be as high as high as thousands of sparks per second. The area
over which a spark is effective is also very small. However,
temperature of the area under the spark is very high .As a result,
the spark energy is capable of partly melting and vaporising
material from localized area on both the electrodes.
It results in the intense electrical field at the location where
surface irregularity provides the narrowest gap. Negatively
charged particles break loose from the cathode surface and
move towards the anode surface under the influence of the
electric field forces. During this movement in the IEG, the
electrons collide with the neutral molecules of the dielectric. In
this process, electrons are also detached from these neutral
molecules of the dielectric resulting in still more ionization.
The Ionization soon becomes so intense that a very narrow
channel of continuous conductivity is established. In this
channel, there is a continuous flow of considerable number of
electrons towards the anode and that of ions towards the
cathode.
Their K.E is converted into heat energy, hence heating of
anode due to the offensive of electrons and heating of cathode
due to the bombardment of ions takes place. Thus it ends up in
the momentary current impulse resulting in a discharge which
may be an arc or spark. The spark energy raises the localised
energy of the tool and workpiece to such a high value that it
results in melting, or as well as vaporization of the material
from the surface of both the electrodes at the point of spark
contact.
Movement of the tool towards the work piece is controlled
by a servomechanism. The sparking takes place over the entire
surface of the work piece hence the replica of the tool is
produced on the work piece. Particles eroded from the
electrode are known as Debris. Analysis of the debris has
revealed that it is the mixture of irregular shaped particles as
well as hallows spherical particles. Usually the amount of
material eroded from the tool surface is much smaller than that
from the work piece surface very small gap between the two
electrodes is to be maintained to have the spark to occur. For
this purpose, a tool driven by the servo system is continuously
moved towards the work piece.

It is capable of machining geometrically complex or hard


material components, that are precise and difficult-to-machine
such as Heat Treated Tool Steels, Composites, Super alloys,
Ceramics, Carbides, Heat Resistant Steels etc., This experiment 1.8 SIGNIFICANCE OF PROCESS VARIABLES
is carried out using INCOLOY 825, which is a NickelChromium alloy with the additions of Molybdenum, Copper
The process parameters as stated before, they contribute
and Tungsten
more to the output response, the knowledge of these is highly
required.
1.5 WORKING PRINCIPLE OF EDM
Spark On-time (Pulse time or Ton): The duration of time (s)
In the EDM process the tool is generally made as cathode the current is allowed to flow per cycle. Material removal is
and work piece is made as anode. A Relaxation circuit is used directly proportional to the amount of energy applied during
to produce the very high voltage between the tool and the this on-time. This energy is really controlled by the peak
electrode. A spark is produced between two electrodes (tool and current and the length of the on-time.
workpiece) and its location is determined by the narrowest gap Spark Off-time (pulse off time or Toff): The duration of
between the two.
time (s) between the sparks (that is to say, on-time). This time
allows the molten material to solidify and to be wash out of the
arc gap. This parameter is to affect the speed and the stability of
the cut. Thus, if the off-time is too short, it will cause sparks to
be unstable.
Arc gap (or gap): The Arc gap is distance between the
electrode and workpiece during the process of EDM. It may be
called as spark gap. Spark gap can be maintained by servo
system.
Discharge current (current Ip): Current is measured in amp
Allowed to per cycle. Discharge current is directly proportional
Figure 1.5 Working of Electrical Discharge Machine
to the Material removal rate.
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Voltage (V): It is a potential that can be measure by volt it is


also effect to the material removal rate and allowed to per cycle.
Voltage is given by in this experiment is 50 V.
Diameter of electrode (D): The copper electrode is used here
with the diameter of 16 mm diameter.
Over cut It is a clearance per side between the electrode and
the workpiece after the marching operation.

In the case of Tool wear rate the most important factor is


discharge current, then pulse on time and after that diameter of
the tool.
Optimization of Electrical Discharge Machining process
Parameters using Taguchi Method with RENE 80 (Nickel-super
alloy) and aluminium tool by Chandramouli et.al [8] shows
that

2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW


Azizul Bin Mohammed et.al [1] Presented a mathematical
modelling in EDM with High Strength low alloy steels (HSLA).
This experiment is done using the cylindrical Copper
electrode .They stated that discharge current & the interaction
between the duty factor & discharge current and Pulse on time
& duty factor contributed significantly to reduce the surface
roughness. Also they stated that Pulse on time of 10s, Duty
factor of 7s and discharge current of 6A yielded the minimum
surface roughness.

The Surface Roughness is increasing with increase in


current and pulse on time but decreasing with increase in pulse
off time.
TWR (tool wear rate) is increasing linearly with increasing
in the current.
MRR is increasing with increase in the current

Shahul Backer et.al [9] optimized the MRR and TWR on


EDM by using Taguchi method and ANOVA in OHNS EN- 31
and shows
Current is the most significant machining parameter for
MRR & TWR in EDM
Based on minimum number of Trials conducted to arrive at the
optimum cutting parameters, Taguchis method seems to be an
efficient methodology to find the optimum machining
parameter.

Murat kayak et.al [2] evaluates the effect of discharge energy


density on wear rate and surface roughness in EDM with AISI
1040 Steel and copper electrode. They have concluded the
following results.
Increasing in energy density induces to increases in MRR
Increasing in discharge area decreases the energy applied and
decreases the EWR
Discharge energy density can be assumed that is significant 3.1 EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
criterion in determining the outcomes such as MRR, EWR and
surface qualities in EDM. Optimization of Electrical Discharge
For this experiment the whole work can be down by Electric
Machining with respect to tool wear rate in mild steel by
Discharge Machine of Die- sinking type with servo head
Constant gap and Positive polarity for electrode was used to
Shivendra Tiwari [3] shows that decrease in Pulse on time conduct the experiments. Kerosene is used as Dielectric. The
increases the tool wear rate.
pulsed discharge current was applied in various steps in positive
mode.
Gostimirovic et.al [4] evaluates the electrical pulse parameters
The EDM consists of following major parts,
with Magnesium- vanadium tool steel and electrode as
Tungsten and concluded the following results
Dielectric Reservoir, pump and circulation system.
Power generator and control unit.
The machining performance of EDM depends on the electrical
Working tank with work holding device.
pulse parameter. Their influence is interconnected and depends
X-Y table accommodating the working table.
on the rest of the machining conditions.
Tool holder and Servo system.
The increase of electrical pulse parameter increases the tool
wear ratio. It is evident that discharge current has a more
pronounced influence on tool wear.
Anoop Kumar Singh et.al [5] reviews about the EDM in super
alloys and stated that the use of electrode material in the
machining process of super alloys was limited to only few
where as there is a scope for using powder metallurgy and
composite electrodes for better finish in material transfer.
Harmanpreet et.al [6] had reviewed the parameters of EDM
and observed that TAGUCHI METHOD is widely used and
most effective technique for the optimization of machining
parameters.
3.2 SELECTION OF WORKPIECE & TOOL
Shailesh Kumar Dewangan [7] has undergone Experimental
investigation of machining parameters for EDM using UIt is capable of machining of hard material component such as
Shaped copper electrode with AISI P20 Plastic mould steel and
heat treated tool steels, composites, super alloys, ceramics,
concluded the following results.
carbides, heat resistant steels etc. The higher carbon grades are
typically used for such applications as stamping dies, metal
cutting tools, etc. Here INCOLOY 825 is used which is nickelMRR increased with Discharge Current (Ip).As the pulse
chromium alloy of very high strength. This is selected as it has
duration extended, the MRR decreases monotonically.
many applications in Acid Piping and Power Plants.
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3.3.1 EVALUATION OF MRR

Unit

Symbol

Machining
Parameter

In this project the COPPER Electrode is use and in the simple method of ensuring good performance in the design stage of
cylindrical profile. This is selected to study the tool wear easily products or processes.
at the edges.
The levels of experiment parameters Discharge current (Ip),
3.3 MECHANISM OF METAL REMOVAL RATE [MRR]
Spark ON Time (Ton), and Spark off Time (Toff) are shown in
Table with design matrix.
The mechanism of material removal of EDM process is most
widely established principle is the conversion of electrical
Levels
energy it into thermal energy. During the process of machining
the sparks are produced between work piece and tool .Thus
each spark produces a tiny crater and crater formation in the
L-1
L-2
L-3
material along the cutting path by melting and vaporization,
thus eroding the work piece to the shape of the tool.
Discharge
Ip
A
6
14
20
It is well-known and elucidated by many EDM researchers
Current
that Material Removal Mechanism (MRM) is the process of
Pulse Off
transformation of material elements between the work-piece
Toff
s
9
6
3
Time
and electrode. The transformation are transported in solid,
liquid or gaseous state, and then alloyed with the contacting
Pulse On
Ton
s
40
60
85
surface by undergoing a solid, liquid or gaseous phase reaction.
Time
4.2 EXPERIMENTAL PROCESS

The material MRR is expressed as the ratio of the difference


INCOLOY 825 material particulate was using Copper tool
of weight of the workpiece before and after machining to the with 16mm diameter. And the die sinking type of EDM
machining time and density of the material.
machine is used. Commercial grade kerosene was used as
MRR = (Wi-Wf)/T*(1/)
dielectric fluid. External Jet flushing was used to flush away the
eroded materials from the sparking zone. In this experiment
Whereas
INTER ELECTRODE GAP (IEG) is kept constant as 0.2. For a
Wi = Weight of workpiece before machining.
three factor are tackled with a total number of 09 experiments
Wf = Weight of workpiece after machining.
performed on die sinking EDM. The calculation of material
T = Machining time
removal rate and tool wear rate by using electronic balance
= Density of INCOLOY 825 = 8.14 gm/cm3
weight machine. This machine capacity is 300 gram and
accuracy is 0.001 gram.
3.4 MECHANISM OF SURFACE ROUGHNESS
5. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
During the machining process due to the high intermediate In this chapter discuss the most influenced factors which affect
voltage and discharge density the crater is formed in both the the MRR, SR & TWR by the input parameters discussed above.
workpiece and electrode. This crater contributes to the surface
Input Parameters
Output Parameters
finish and its value is usually ranges in micron meter. The
evaluation of surface finish by the SURFCORDER gives the
value for the each component.
Pulse
Sl. Curre
Pulse
Material
Surface
OFF
nt
ON
Removal
No
3.4.1 MECHANISM OF TOOL WEAR
Time
Roughness
Time
(Ip)
Rate
TWR is expressed as the ratio of the difference of weight of
(Toff)
(Ra) m
(Ton) s
(mm3/min)
A
the tool before and after machining to the machining time.
s
That can be explaining these equations.
1
6
40
9
25.7169
4.783
.
Whereas
Wi = Weight of the tool before machining.
2
6
60
9
26.6081
5.461
Wf = Weight of the tool after machining.
T = Machining time
3
6
85
9
22.1351
4.807
= Density of Copper = 8.94 gm/cm3
4
14
40
6
48.5573
2.818
4.1 TAGUCHI DESIGN

14

60

57.9481

5.536

Dr. Genichi Taguchi is regarded as the foremost proponent of


robust parameter design, which is an engineering method for
product or process design that focuses on minimizing variation
and/or sensitivity to noise. When used properly, Taguchi
designs provide a powerful and efficient method for designing
products that operate consistently and optimally over a variety
of conditions. Taguchi proposed several approaches to
experimental designs that are sometimes called "Taguchi
Methods." These methods utilize two-, three-, four-, five-, and
mixed-level fractional factorial designs. Taguchi refers to
experimental design as "off-line quality control" because it is a

14

85

55.6385

10.537

20

40

61.180

13.881

20

60

70.4011

14.680

International Journal of Engineering Science and Computing, June 2016

9
20
85
3
74.2296
9.753
5.1 CALCULATION OF MATERIAL REMOVAL RATE
The formula for the material removal rate is
MRR=(Wi-Wf)/T*(1/)
Initial weight of the component (Wi)
=450 gms
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Final weight of the component (Wf)


=360 gms
Weight of metal removed assuming constant
density throughout the metal
= 450-360 = 90 gms.
For a single component the weight of metal removed
= 90/9 = 10 gms.
Density of INCOLOY 825 ( ) is 8.14 g/cm3
Volume of metal removed for single hole
= 10/8.14
= 1.2285 cm3

Higher values of the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) identify control


factor settings that minimize the effects of the noise factors.
The signal-to-noise ratio measures how the response varies
relative to the nominal or target value under different noise
conditions.

Ru
n

Input
Curre
nt
Ip
A

Puls
e
ON
Tim
e
s

Pulse
OFF
time
s

S/N
(MRR)

S/N
(SR)

MEAN
OF S/N

40

28.2043

- 13.5940

7.3051

60

28.5002

- 14.7454

6.8774

85

26.9016

- 13.6374

6.6321

14

40

33.7250

- 8.9988

12.3631

14

60

35.2607

- 14.863

10.1988

14

85

34.9075

- 20.4543

7.2305

20

40

35.7321

- 22.8484

6.4418

20

60

36.9515

- 23.3342

6.7556

20

85

37.4115

- 19.7827

8.8144

5.2 TOOL WEAR CALCULATION


The Copper Electrode is used as a tool. Carbon deposition is
seen at the edges around the tool, up to the depth of surface.
This Carbon deposition is due to the high pulse duration.
Carbon deposition reduces the tool wear as it prevents the
electrode from direct contact with dielectric. But reducing
the pulse time reduces the MRR which is not required.
Weight of electrode before machining (Wi)= 180 gms
Weight after machining
(Wf)=178.5 gms
Tool Wear rate formula is
TWR=(Wi-Wf)/T*(1/)
Total Machining time = 272.10 min
Tool Wear Rate
= 180-178.57/8.96
= 159.582 mm3.
= 159.582/272.1
TWR = 0.586 mm3/min.
5.3 RESPONSE TABLE

The Response Table contains a row for the average signal to


5.4 INFLUENCE ON METAL REMOVAL RATE (MRR)
noise ratio for each factor level. The response table for MRR
and SR are shown along with the input factors. In Taguchi
designs, a measure of robustness used to identify control The S/N ratios for MRR are calculated as given in Equation.
factors that reduce variability in a product or process by Taguchi method is used to analysis the result of response of
minimizing the effects of uncontrollable factors (noise machining parameter for larger is better criteria.
factors). Control factors are those design and process
Larger is better: S/N Ratio
parameters that can be controlled.

Noise factors cannot be controlled during production or product


use, but can be controlled during experimentation. In a Taguchi
Where the S/N ratios calculated from observed values, yi
designed experiment, the results that identify optimal control
represents the experimentally observed value of the ith
factor settings that make the process or product robust, or
experiment and n=1 is the repeated number of each experiment
Input
Pulse Pulse
in L-9 is conducted.
Surface
Current
ON
OFF
MRR
Run
Roughness
Ip
Time
time mm3/min
(m)
A
s
s
1
2
3
4
5

6
6
6
14
14

40
60
85
40
60

9
9
9
6
6

25.7169
26.6081
22.1351
48.5573
57.9481

4.783
5.461
4.807
2.818
5.536

14

85

55.6385

10.537

20

40

61.180

13.881

20

60

70.4011

14.680

9
20
85
3
74.2296
resistant to variation from the noise factors.

9.753

International Journal of Engineering Science and Computing, June 2016

Figure 5.4 Line plot for Ip vs mean of MRR


5.5 INFLUENCES ON SURFACE ROUGHNESS (SR)
The S/N ratios for SR are calculated as given in Equation.
Taguchi method is used to analysis the result of response of
machining parameter for smaller is better criteria.
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Smaller is better: S/N Ratio

efficient methodology to find the optimum machining


parameter.
REFERENCES

Where the S/N ratios calculated from observed values, yi


represents the experimentally observed value of the ith [1] Azizul Bin Mohamad, V.K Saini Optimization of EDM
experiment and n=1 is the repeated number of each experiment Process Parameters Using Taguchi method International
Conference on application and design in Mechanical
in L-9 is conducted
Engineering,27-28 feb 2012
[2] Murat Kiyak, Bilal Ensari, Effects on Discharge energy
density on wear rate and Surface Roughness in EDM (ADU
MANAF TECHNOL 2015)
79.513-518 DOI:10.1007/S00170-015-6840-9
[3] Shivendra Tiwari Optimization of EDM International
Journal of Science and Research (IJSETR) Apr 2013
[4] Teepu Sultan, Anish kumar Material Removal rate,
Electrode wear rate, and surface roughness evaluation in die
sinking method International Journal of manufacturing
Engineering volume 2014 ID 259129
Figure 5.5 Line plot for Ip vs Mean of SR
5.6 RESULT
According to the Taguchi method the higher S/N ratio value
gives the optimum results. From the Response Table the mean
S/N value of 4th run (12.3631) gives the optimum results and
the accompanied input values of current 14 Amps(level 2),Pulse
on time 40 s (level 1),Pulse off time 6 s ( level 2) .
From the calculations of main effects for each level of factors,
the main effects values are presented in table 5.4 for MRR and
in Table 5.5 for SR. The main effect values and interactions are
plotted for current, Pulse on time, Pulse off Time respectively.
The main effects plot shows the influence of each level of
factors on the machining performance. The levels having the
major contribution are selected from the plot and are the
optimized levels for the particular factor.

[5] Anoop kumar singh, Sanjeev kumar Electric Discharge


machining of Super alloys IJRMET May Oct ISSN -22495762
[6] Harmanpreet,Bipendeep Optimization EDM Process
parameter using Taguchi method International Journal of
Research in Engineering and Technology PISSN-2321-7308
ISSN-2319-1163
[7] Gositimirovic, P.Kovac Effect Electrical pulse Parameters
on machining performance in EDM Indian journal of
Engineering & material science volume-18 dec 2012
[8] Chandramouli, Srinivas Balraj Optimization of EDM
Process Using Taguchi Method International Journal of
Advanced mechanical Engineering 2014 ISSN-2250-3234

[9] Shahul Backer,Cijo Mathews Optimization of MRR &


TWR on EDM by using Taguchi Method and Anova
Thus, by utilizing experiment results and computed values of International research of Innovative research and advanced
the S/N ratios, average effect response value and average S/N engineering (ijirae) 2014 ISSN-2349-2163 Sep 2014
response ratios are calculated for MRR and SR.
[10] Reza Teimouri & Hamid Baseri Study of Tool wear and
Overcut in EDM Processs with rotary tool and magnetic field
5.7 CONCLUSION
Hindawi Publishing corporation volume 2012 (ID 895918)
On the basis of experimental results, Calculated S/N Ratio,
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), the following conclusions are
made for EDM of INCOLOY 825
Current is the most significant machining parameter for MRR
and SR in EDM of INCOLOY 825
Based on the analysis of mean of S/N ratio the optimum
machining performance is obtained at input current of 14 amps
(level 2), Pulse ON Time of 40 s (level 1), Pulse OFF Time of
6 s (level 2).
The MRR show increasing fashion with increase in the Input
current.
The Surface Roughness (SR) is greatly influenced by the
current and then pulse time.
Regardless of category of the performance characteristics, a
greater S/N ratio value corresponds to a better performance.
Based on minimum number of trials conducted to arrive at the
optimum cutting parameters, Taguchis method seems to be an
International Journal of Engineering Science and Computing, June 2016

6751

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