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Family Medicine Shelf Review

HEPATITIS
Hep A:
vaccination indications: MSM, IVDUs, persons working with Hep A virus or infected primates,
chronic liver disease, persons that receive clotting factor concentrates. (these days all kids are
vaccinated)
Most commonly reported hepatitis virus; always acute; fecal-oral
Early fecal shedding and less infectious once jaundiced
Hepatitis B:
likelihood of transmission with the level of HBV DNA in the serum
treat infant of a Hep B+ mom with Hep B Ig within 12 hrs of birth + vaccination (prevents
90% of infection)
all mothers should be screened for hepatitis B surface antigen
If Hep status of mother is unknown, give baby vaccine and test mom; if mom is +, give baby Ig
within 7 days.
adult at risk for Hep B, immunize for Hep B if not immunized
sexually active persons with > 1 partner in the last 6 mo, persons seeking evaluation/treatment
for a STD, current/recent IVDU, MSM, health care and public safety workers exposed to blood
or body fluids, ESRD, HIV, chronic liver disease.
immunizations for an adult: 1 injection at time 0, another 1 - 2 mo later, a 3rd injection 4 - 6 mo
after the 2nd
IgM anti-HBc __early infection.
HBeAg ____replication.
anti-HBs ___exposure with immunity, recovery phase, or vaccination.
HBsAg ____either chronic infection or early infection.
Hep C:
screen for HCV infection in persons at high risk for infection AND one-time screening for
HCV infection to adults born between 1945 and 1965
H. Influenzae
Vaccines against Hib are 95% - 100% effective in preventing invasive Hib disease.
vaccine doesnt rate of otitis media, as most cases are caused by non-typeable H influ.
should not be administered before 6 wks, as immune tolerance to the antigen may be
induced.
Varicella
immunization recommended for adults who have not had evidence of infection or
immunization.
US-born before 1980 are considered immune, with the exception of health care workers and
pregnant women.
2 doses of vaccine are required, 4 - 8 wks apart, regardless of age; should not be given before
12 mo
testing is not necessary in those with uncertain immunity; vaccine is well-tolerated in those
already immune
Non-immune pregnant women or immunocompromised should not receive the vaccine until
after delivery

household contacts of immunocompetent pregnant women do not need to delay vaccination.


Rarely (1%), people receiving the vaccine may develop infection; the case is mild, and is
not contagious.
Tdap:
tetanus-diphtheria 5-component acellular pertussis (Tdap) is recommended for adults 19 - 64 to
replace the next booster dose of tetanus
Tdap should be given to pts 65 yrs and older
should be administered regardless of the interval since the most recent Td-containing vaccine.
Td booster every 10 yrs
Clean, minor wound + vaccination within 10 yrs _do nothing
Potentially contaminated wound + >5 yrs since vaccination_give booster
High risk wound + unimmunized>5 yrs _give tetanus Ig + vaccination
MMR
People born before 1957 do not need to be vaccinated with MMR; considered immune
Contraindicated in neomycin allergy
Live attenuated vaccine; not for pregnant or immunocomp. patients
Wait 3 mo if blood or Ig products given
Rubella
mild self-limited illness, but during pregnancy can result in fetal death or congenital defects
If a woman is rubella non-immune, vaccination should not occur if pregnant or planning
pregnancy in next 4 wks
vaccine is contraindicated in pregnancy; inadvertent vaccination is not an indication for
therapeutic abortion.
If the patient is currently pregnant and non-immune, she should be vaccinated early in the
postpartum period
Meningitis
Meningitis vaccination is indicated for those with functional asplenia or travelers to
endemic areas; college students and military recruits are at risk
2 doses of MCV4 are recommended for adolescents 11 through 18 years of age: the
first dose at 11 or 12 years of age, with a booster dose at age 16.
Pneumococcus
PPSV23: adult vaccination indications: chronic diseases, functional asplenia, residents of
long-term care facilities.
pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination if >65 yrs or <65 with chronic medical conditions; 5
yr revaccination in pts w/CKD, liver disease, immunodeficiency, asplenia
PCV13: for infants and toddlers at 2, 4, 6, and 12 to 15 months
Influenza
Vaccination is 30% - 90% effective in preventing influenza or complications from influenza.
vaccination is recommended annually for kids 6 mo and older; minimum age for vaccination
with the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) is 6 months

minimum age for the live, attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is 2 yrs
Do not give to immune-compromised or those around them
administer 2 doses (separated by 4 wks) to children 6 mo - 8 yrs who are receiving the
seasonal vaccine for the first time, or who were vaccinated for the 1st time during the previous
influenza season, but only received 1 dose
Intranasal influenza should only be used in healthy adults < 50 and kids > 2 yrs; not for
pregnant or immunocompromised adults
Inactivated is for everyone > 6 mo except those with egg allergies
HPV
Recommended (not required) for all women and men 9-26 yrs
History of genital warts or abnormal Pap are not are not reasons to avoid vaccination.
People sexually active w/many partners should be immunized if they meet criteria
To be most effective, the vaccine should be given before a female becomes sexually active.
It can be administered when a woman is breast-feeding.
It can also be given when a patient is immunocompromised because of a disease or medication.
It is not recommended for use during pregnancy.
Herpes Zoster
vaccination recommended for those 60 or older regardless of having had a prior episode of
herpes zoster
vaccination is not approved for persons younger than 60
Lung Cancer
screening does not improve mortality and is not recommended
Same true for many other cancers and illnesses- for the shelf exam, if you havent heard of
the screening tool, it probably doesnt exist or isnt used
Colorectal Cancer
screen with FOBT, sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy in adults beginning at age 50 and
continuing until age 75
if family history, screen 10 yrs before cancer was found in the family member, or at 50,
whichever is sooner
Recommend against screening > 85 yrs
Breast Cancer
Mammographic screening has been shown to mortality from breast cancer.
Screening before age 50 should be individualized, and take into account risks & preferences
Do not do a mammogram if <30 yrs, do ultrasound
Biopsy all palpable masses in women >40
Persistent mass or bloody fluid after FNA_excisional biopsy
women between the age of 50 - 74 should get screening mammograms every 2 years.
recommend against the performance of BSE for women at average risk for breast cancer.
High risk criteria:
2 first-degree relatives with breast cancer, 1 diagnosed when < age of 50.
3 or more 1st or 2nd relatives w/breast cancer regardless of age at diagnosis.

combination of breast and ovarian cancer among first- and second degree
relatives.
A first-degree relative with bilateral breast cancer.
A combo of 2 or more 1st or 2nd relatives w/ovarian cancer, regardless of age at dx
A first- or second-degree relative with both breast and ovarian cancer at any age.
A male relative with breast cancer.
Ashkenazi Jewish women should be offered testing if any 1st degree on the same
side) are diagnosed with breast or ovarian cancer.
Prostate Cancer
AAFP feels evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against routine screening in men
younger than 75
USPSTF: recommends against routine PSA screening
Cervical Cancer
Screen women age 21-65 via Pap smear cytology every 3 yrs OR every 5 yrs via cytology
+HPV testing starting at 30
Recommend against screening in women under 21
AAFP says screening was low in previously screened women after the age of 65 and USPSTF
recommends against it
ACS recommends discontinuing screening at 70, but also notes that a woman who has had 3 or
more normal, technically satisfactory Pap tests, and no abnormal Pap tests in the last 10 yrs can
safely stop
No screening in hysterectomy with cervix removal if no history of high grade lesion
AAA
one-time screening for AAA by ultrasonography in men aged 65 to 75 who have ever smoked.
GC/Chlamydia
screen for chlamydial infection in all sexually active women ages 24 and younger and in
older women who are at increased risk.
The USPSTF recommends against screening for chlamydial infection in women ages 25
and older, whether or not they are pregnant, if they are not at increased risk.
The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of
benefits and harms of screening for chlamydial infection in men.
Depression
Screen for depression if accurate diagnosis/treatment/followup is available
Pre-op Evaluation
Potential surgical complications:
infectious (wound infections, pneumonia, UTI, bacterial endocarditis, and sepsis)
cardiac (MI, cardiac arrest, pulmonary edema, and complications of CHF) *Most
likely to be lethal
pulmonary (pneumonia, atelectasis, bronchitis, respiratory failure)_baseline CXR not
indicated for surgery pts

thrombosis (peripheral venous thromboembolism, arterial thrombosis)


adverse reactions to anesthesia
gastrointestinal (ulcer disease, ileus, hyperemesis)
psychologic (delirium, exacerbation of existing psychiatric disease).
Low-risk procedures: risk of cardiac death less than 1%, do not require additional cardiac
preoperative testing
breast surgery, cataract surgery, superficial dermatologic surgery, endoscopy.
Moderate-risk procedures: risk of cardiac death between 1% and 5%
carotid endarterectomies, head and neck, intrathoracic and intraperitoneal, orthopedic,
prostate surgeries.
High-risk procedures: risk of cardiac death greater than 5%.
high anticipated blood loss and include aortic or peripheral vascular surgery.
Guidelines for preoperative cardiac evaluation:
If a patient has no known heart disease, look at clinical predictors for heart disease.
Major clinical predictors require coronary artery evaluation prior to surgery, and
include unstable coronary syndromes, decompensated CHF, significant
arrhythmias, or severe valvular disease.
Intermediate clinical predictors: mild angina, a prior MI, compensated CHF, DM, and
renal insufficiency.
look at the patients functional capacity to determine level of preoperative
cardiac testing.
Recent coronary revascularization is a risk for poor perioperative outcomes until 6
mo after revascularization
If surgery is necessary within 6 mo of revascularization, pre-op evaluation of
coronary arteries is necessary
Discontinue NSAIDs/Aspirin 1 wk prior to surgery; stop smoking 8 weeks pre-op

Post-Op Fever
Five Ws: Water (UTI), Wind (pneumonia), Wound (SSI), Walk (DVT), Wonder drugs (drug
fever)
Drug Fever: resolution occurs with discontinuation of suspected drug; B-lactams, sulfa,
heparin, and amphotericin B
Malignant hyperthermia: fever > 104, tachycardia, metabolic acidosis, Ca accumulation in
skeletal muscle leading to rigidity; after exposure to halothane or succinylcholine; give
antipyretics, oxygen, cooling blankets, and Dantrolene IV
UTI risks: BPH, spinal anesthesia, urethral catheter
UTI bugs: E. Coli, Proteus, Klebsiella, Staph Epi, pseudomonas, Candida
Infection is most likely if 3 or more of the following are true:
Pre-op trauma ASA score >2 Onset on the second post-op day
WBC >10,000 BUN >15 Systemic manifestation such as chills and rigors

Fever in first 24 hrs: preexisting infection, bacteremia, intraperitoneal leak, soft tissue
infection, TSS, surgical trauma, meds, blood products, malignant hyperthermia
Soft tissue wound infection often due to beta hemolytic strep or clostridium
1 day 1 week fever: UTI, pneumonia, SSI, catheter-related infection, preexisting infection,
MI, EtOH withdrawal, gout, pancreatitis, PE, DVT
Atelectasis causes 90% of pulmonary complications of surgery
Suspect aspiration pneumonia in the elderly
1-4 weeks: SSI, thrombophlebitis, p. colitis, catheter-related, device-related, abscess,
meds, DT, PE
>1 month: blood transfusion, organ transplant-related, infective endocarditis, SSI, devicerelated, vascular graft, postpericardiotomy syndrome

Travel Medicine
Travelers diarrhea is most common illness; no antibiotic chemoprophylaxis for diarrhea
30% - 70% of travelers.
Next most common: URI, viral syndromes, skin conditions, parasitic infections, malaria,
hepatitis, and other more rare infections.
Heart disease is the most common cause of death while traveling.
most common (~ 25%) is accidents.
Yellow fever is the only legally required immunization (some countries); cholera and typhus
are not required
A single inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) booster is recommended for adult travelers who have
had primary polio immunization, but who will be traveling to an area where polio is endemic.
Hep A is the most common vaccine-preventable illness acquired by travelers, but
vaccination is not required.
Alternative Medicine (+ random facts)
Gingko biloba - dementia
Garlic - prevention of heart disease
St. Johns wort - depression
Saw palmetto - BPH
Bee pollen - energy, studies do not clearly indicate benet.
EtOH guidelines:
nonpregnant women: no > 7/week, and no > 3/one occasion.
Men: no > 14/week and no > 4/one occasion.
patients > 65, no >1 drink/day.
Atropine can decrease secretions and help the death rattle.
Ketorolac may help pain, lorazepam may help restlessness, haloperidol and thorazine may help
agitation and hallucinations, both of which are also symptoms of impending death.

Insect Bites
Rocky Mountain spotted fever: red macules on peripheral extremities that become purpuric
and confluent.
treat with chloramphenicol that continues 2 to 3 days after the pt is afebrile
Lyme disease: slowly spreading annular lesionerythema chronicum migrans
early disseminated: lymphadenopathy, musculoskeletal pain, arthritis, &
pericarditis: treat with IV therapy for 2 to 3 wk
Early localized can be treated with oral abx (amoxicillin or doxycycline) for 14- 21d
Ceftriaxone or cefotaxime and chloramphenicol are options.
Tularemia: pain and ulceration at the bite site; treated with streptomycin intramuscularly.
Brown recluse spider: local pain and itching, then a hemorrhagic bulla with surrounding
erythema and induration.
Black widow: mild prick followed by pain at the bite site.
Head lice: erythematous popular rash and nits on the hair follicles; itching begins ~ 2 to 3
weeks after infestation
Treat: premethrin 1% and lindane; If treatment fails _second-line is 0.5% malathion lotion.
Scabies: Sarcoptes scabiei burrow into intertriginous areas, wrists, or areas where clothing
is tight next to the skin
treat: oral ivermectin
Chigger bites: linear pattern over wrists, ankles, and legs.
Tinea corporis: spread by close person-to-person contact (as in school wrestling).
lesion well-demarcated, annular with central clearing, erythema, scaling of periphery.
scraping and visualizing hyphae with microscopic examination, confirms diagnosis
Bedbugs: infest unclothed areasthe neck, hands, and face.
Fleas: bite the lower extremities; occur in clusters
Animal Bites
Cat Bite: hospitalization unless very superficial and does not appear infected.
amoxicillin/clav if not hospitalized (5 days prevention, 10 days to treat)
Clindamycin + floroquinolone if allergic to penicillin.
Bite wounds on the hands should never be closed primarily.
often produces infection with P multocida.
Local reactions occur as a result of toxic properties of venom, were as severe reactions are
caused by allergic reaction to venom allergens
Stingers should be removed promptly- scrape or brush off; rapid removal is key
Local reactions occur almost immediately and last for a few hours
Treat with ice, antihistamine; give tetanus prophylaxis if not vaccinated
Large local reactions are IgE mediated and develop over 24-48 hrs
Treat with oral steroids and give tetanus prophylaxis
Anaphylaxis: give SQ or IM injection of 0.3-0.5 mL of 1:1000 epinephrine quickly and
repeat in 10-15 minutes if needed; observe in the hospital for 12-24 hrs
Animal Bites: clean local wound with soap and water, irrigate with saline, debridement of
devitalized tissue; tetanus vaccination
moderate-severe wounds from dog/cat/human seen early after injury and without active
infection should receive 3-5 days antibiotic prophylaxis (augmentin) where as
complicated cellulitis should receive antibiotics for 7-14 days

Cats and dogs carry: staph, strep, anaerobs, pasturella


Humans carry: staph, strep, hemophilus, eikenella, anaerobes
COMMON CHRONIC CONDITIONS
Diabetes
screen all > 45 yrs every 3 yrs; start earlier in people with risk factors
risks: family hx in a first-degree relative, HTN, obesity, high-risk ethnic groups,
previous hx of impaired glucose tolerance, abnormal lipids (TG,HDL), hx of GDM or
a birth of a child > 9 lb.
Type I: destruction of insulin producing pancreatic cells; point mutation in HLA DQ with
DR 3, 4
Islet cell Abs are present for years prior to development of overt type I DM
Prone to metabolize fats_ketones_DKA which is characterized by high serum acetone,
hyperglycemia, and anion gap metabolic acidosis
Type II: stronger familial predisposition; associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome,
hyperinsulinemia, HTN, HLD, hyperglycemia, central obesity
Prone to hyperosmolar states because of high blood sugar
Nonketotic hyperosmolar syndrome: blood sugar approaching 1000
Gestational DM: more insulin in 3rd trimester; increased insulin resistance caused by
elevated chorionic somatomammotropin, progesterone, and estrogens
Prone to develop non-pregnancy related DM II
At-risk pop: Native American, AA, Hispanic, S/E Asian, Pacific Islander
Risks: >25, BMI >25, hx of glucose intolerance, history of GDM and DM in a first
degree family member
Screen all women at 24-28 weeks
Treat with careful diet, and insulin when necessary
Diabetes Diagnosis
Diabetic diagnostic criteria:
2 Random glucose > 200 with classic symptoms (polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia,
frequent infections, weight loss) (easy but low specificity)
2 Fasting glucose >125
2 hr plasma glucose >200 after 75 g glucose load (costly and time consuming)
HGA1c is now used as a diagnostic tool
7.0 and above is considered diabetic
5.7-7.0 is considered pre-diabetic
1-hr GTT is used for pregnant women, with 3-hr GTT being used for those that are +
Urinalyses are highly specific, but have low sensitivity; fasting glucose is more
Other tests: fasting lipids, serum creatinine, UA, urine microalbumin:creatinine ratios,
dilated eye exam, regular foot exams, EKG, TSH
Treatment goals: HGA1c <7.0%, fasting blood sugar < 120
2 hr post-prandial sugar <140
BP <130/80
LDL <70 (old recommendation said <100)
immunized with pneumococcal vaccine and annual influenza
Diabetes Management

Lispro/Aspart: rapid acting_15 min onset, 30-90 min peak, 3-5 hr duration
Regular: short acting_30-50 min onset, 60-120 min peak, 5-8 hr duration
NPH: intermediate_1-3 hr onset, 7-15 hr peak, 18-24 hr duration
Glargine/Detemir: long acting_1 hr onset, no peak, 24 hr duration
40% - 50% of daily insulin should be glargine, remaining 50% - 60% is Lispro before
each meal, based on a preprandial glucose
Diet and exercise: key components of DMII treatment; 10% weight loss is a goal for most
Metformin: glucose output during liver gluconeogenesis; improves insulin sensitivity in
liver & muscle; can lower HGA1c 1.5-2%; no potential for hypoglycemia, reduces insulin
levels, potentially helps wt loss, reduces TGs and LDL; popular first line drug
side effects: renal insufficiency (contraindicated if Cr >1.5), hepatic insufficiency, or
CHF; contraindicated in nursing mothers
Sulfonylureas: insulin secreatagogues that stimulate beta cells in the pancreas to secrete
insulin; 2% in HGA1c; tendency to gain weight & lose effectiveness over time; risk for
hypoglycemia
Thiazolidinediones: improve insulin sensitivity in muscle and adipose tissue; decrease
hepatic gluconeogenesis and increased peripheral glucose utilization; decrease in TG and
increase in HDL; metabolized by the liver; may have slight increase in LDL, weight gain,
and slow onset of action; require 12 weeks to become fully effective
good choice for those with insulin insensitivity.
can be used as monotherapy, with insulin or in combination with metformin.
can HbA 1C by 1 - 2 %; can the insulin dosage by 30% - 50%.
Edema is a common side effect, occurring in about 3% to 4 %; Other side effects
include anemia & weight gain.
Meglitinides: short acting secretagogues that increase insulin secretion; taken no more
than 2 hr before meals because of rapid onset
useful if blood sugars vary at mealtime; risk of hypoglycemia; can Hb A 1C by
0.5% -2% and are most valuable if fasting sugar is adequate, but postprandial sugars
are high
should not be used in pts with hepatic dysfunction but safe in renal failure
Diabetes Management & Complications
Alpha glucosidase inhibitors: delay carb absorption by inhibiting alpha glucosidase in the
small intestine which decreases postprandial hyperglycemia; side effects are GI related;
contraindicated in ketoacidosis and hepaTc disorders; can the Hb A 1C by 0.7% to 1%; avoid if
creatinine > 2.0 mg/dL.
GLP-1: gut-derived incretin hormone that stimulates insulin & suppresses glucagon
secretion, delays gastric emptying, and reduces appetite and food intake.
ACE inhibitors are first choice for BP control_indicated for DM pts with systolic BP > 100
mm Hg.
can be used irrespective of creatinine levels, though K should be monitored as
creatinine rises.
Providers do not need to wait to see microalbuminuria prior to initiating therapy.
Statins are drug of choice in treating hyperlipidemia in diabetes.
risk of coronary events and are excellent in LDL.

less effect on the triglyceride levels, but in many patients, the decrease is enough to get
patients to goal.
Niacin will triglycerides, HDL, and LDL, but may insulin resistance
Fibric acid derivatives triglycerides and HDL, but have minimal effects on LDL.
Bile acid resins sequester bile acids in the GI tract. They can triglyceride levels and are
generally not used in diabetics.
Glycemic control is dependent on the total caloric intake, not the type of calorie taken in.
Renal complications:
first indication of renal compromise is an in GFR followed by microalbuminuria.
ACE inhibitors have been shown to ESRD and death by 41% in DM.
Lifestyle changes: glucose control, weight loss, and decreased protein intake can help
Nephrology referral if creatinine is , or macro/macroalbuminuria despite maximal therapy.
Diabetic retinopathy: leading cause of blindness in the United States.
risk with length of Time pt has had DM, and the condition worsens with Hb A 1C levels.
mild background abnormalities _vascular permeability & hemorrhage_Proliferative changes
Lipid Screening
Men:
Screen if >35 if no risk factors
Screen beginning at 20 if CAD risk factors
Women:
Screen if > 45 if no risk factor
Screen beginning at 20 if CAD risk factors
Dyslipidemia
5 factors that determine LDL goal: smoking, HTN, low HDL, age (>45 men, >55 women),
family history of premature CHD (male <55, female <65); high HDL is considered a negative
risk
For pts with known CAD or DM, treatment goal for LDL cholesterol is <70 mg/dL.
For a pt has no known CAD, the 10-year risk for CAD should be estimated using a NCEP risk
calculator
If the 10-year risk > 20% _LDL treatment goal should be <100 mg/dL.
If the risk is between 10% - 20% _LDL treatment goal should be < 130 mg/dL.
If the risk is < 10% _treatment goal should be < 160 mg/dL.
losing weight, a person can expect to HDL by 5 - 10 points.
Smoking cessation increases HDL by 5 to 10 mg/dL, but does not affect LDL,
VLDL, or triglycerides
Adopting an exercise program HDL by up to 15 points.
Eating oat bran and decreasing life stress can LDL, but is not likely to HDL.
TG level is lowest in the fasting state and by an ~ 50 mg/dL postprandially.
As TG level , the total and LDL cholesterol each ; total & LDL cholesterol are when
fasting. HDL varies little
low HDL is the best predictor of an adverse outcome; However, high HDL does not guarantee
immunity from CAD
LDL <100 = optimal 100-129 = near optimal 130-159 = borderline high 160-189 = high
>190 = very high
Total cholesterol: <200 = desirable
200-239= borderline high 240 or greater = high

HDL: <40 = low 60 or greater = high


Dyslipidemia Treatment
Fish oil: beneficial in lowering cholesterol; decreasing secretion of triglycerides by the
liver.
Cholesterol absorption Blocker: Ezetemibe (Zetia):
cholesterol by interfering with the absorption of cholesterol in the gut.
LDL and TGs only modestly. When added to a low-dose statin, LDL as much as
the max statin dose
Side effects: abdominal pain, diarrhea
Contraindications: hepatic insufficiency/active liver disease
Statins:
rosuvastatin is best at lowering LDL (25-50%); mild decrease in TGs
first line therapy to reduce LDL, coronary events, strokes, cardiac death, and
mortality of all causes; must monitor liver enzymes
Decrease LDL; some increase in HDL and some decrease in TG
Side effects = myopathy, myalgia, increased liver enzymes
Contraindicated in liver disease, with other p450 inhibitors, cyclosporine, macrolides,
antifungals
Bile acid sequestrants: cholestyramine, colestipol, colesevelam
Decrease LDL, increase HDL, no change in TG
Side effects = GI distress, constipation, decreased absorption
Contraindicated in dysbetalipoproteinemia or if TG > 400
Nicotinic acids: niacin
Increase HDL, some decrease in LDL and TGs, decreased mortality
Side effects: flushing, hyperglycemia, hyperuricemia, upper GI distress, hepatotoxicity;
NSAIDs block flushing
Contraindications: liver disease, severe gout; caution with DM, PUD
Fibric Acids: Gemfibrozil, fenofibrate, clofibrate
Increase HDL, decrease LDL, decrease TGs
Side effects: dyspepsia, gallstones, myopathy
Contraindications: severe renal disease, severe hepatic disease
HTN
CVD risk double with each increase in blood pressure of 20/10 above 115/75
Diagnose: average of 2 BPs at 2 or more office visits
Normal: <120/<80
Pre-hypertension: 120-139/80-90
Stage I hypertension: 140-159/90-99
Stage II hypertension: >160/100
Initial testing: electrolytes, Ca, Hct, UA, EKG
Treatment goal: <140/90, and <130/80 for those with DM or kidney disease
Lifestyle Modifications: DASH diet (high K and high Ca), no more than 2 EtOH
drinks per day, increased physical activity, weight reduction
Medication: thiazide diuretic is first line therapy in most settings
DM: ACE/ARB, diuretic, CCB, BB
High risk for CAD: ACE, BB, diuretic, CCB

CHF: ACE, ARB, BB, diuretic, aldosterone antagonist


Post-MI: ACE, BB, aldosterone antagonist
CKD: ACE/ARB
CVA prevention: ACE, diuretic
Weight reduction is most beneficial
systolic BP can from up to 20 mm Hg for each 10 lb of weight lost.
A DASH diet can BP between 8 - 14 mm Hg.
Dietary Na reduction, exercise and moderation of EtOH can lower systolic BP < 10 mm Hg.
low-dose diuretics are most effective first-line treatment for preventing CV morbidity &
mortality.
PROGRESS study found that ACEI and diuretic in combo are effective in preventing
recurrent stroke.
Stage 2 hypertension:
2-drug therapy is indicated, most common is thiazide diuretic + ACE inhibitor,
ARB, -blocker, or CCB.
Coarctation of aorta: HTN in arms, but is low or normal in the legs; Femoral pulsations are
weak or absent. Correction should be considered if the gradient is > 20 mm Hg, not based on
level of BP.
renal artery stenosis: ACE-inhibitor renal scan or renal MRA would evaluate this.
British Hypertension Society developed recommendations:
persons < 55 years who are not black start an ACE inhibitor as first-line therapy (A). Blockers (B) can be used in this group, but are no longer considered ideal first-line
therapy.
persons who are > 55 years or black, the first-line therapy is either a CCB (C) or a
diuretic (D).
Obesity
Underweight <18.5 Normal 18.5-24.9 Overweight: 25-29.9
Obesity I: 30-34.9 Obesity II: 35-39.9 Extreme Obesity: >40
Increased body weight is a major risk factor for disease and premature death
Treatment: begin treatment if BMI > 25 or waist-hip ratio >.9 in men or >.85 in women
Dietary restriction, physical activity, behavior therapy: Only 20% of pts will lose 20 lb and
maintain the weight loss for 2 years
<1% of obese pts have a secondary nonpsychiatric cause for their obesity.
Hypothyroidism and Cushing syndrome are important examples that can generally be detected
by history and physical
Appetite suppressants can be amphetamines (carry a significant risk for abuse) or
nonamphetamine.
Medications do not demonstrate maintenance of weight loss once the discontinued.
Orlistat is a GI lipase inhibitor & boasts a 9% average weight loss, but a significant regain
after discontinued.
Phentermine: noradrenergic agonist that allows its users to lose 3 to 4 kg > placebo, but
regain is also common.
Sibutramine: mixed noradrenergic/serotonergic agonist w/5- 8% wt loss, but significant regain
of wt once off
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

procedure can result in up to 50% loss of the initial weight in some studies.
Complications are common and occur with about 40% of the cases and nutritional
deficiency is common
limited to those with a BMI >40 kg/m 2, or >35 kg/m 2 if there are obesity-related
comorbidities present.
Metabolic Syndrome: insulin resistance characterized by abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia,
elevated BP, and impaired fasting glucose
Waist > 102 cm in men, >88 cm in women
Triglycerides >150
HDL <40 in men and <50 in women
BP >130/85
Fasting glucose >110
Osteoporosis
poor acquisition of bone mass or accelerated bone loss.
African Americans are less at risk than Caucasians or Asians.
Obesity is considered to be protective because of estrogen production, as long as the person is
not sedentary.
Hyperthyroidism is a common cause of accelerated bone loss.
Weight-bearing activity is known to bone loss.
Primary osteoporosis
deterioration of bone mass not associated w/other chronic illnesses or problems;
imaging studies are diagnostic
Increased risk with age, tobacco, low body weight, Caucasian or Asian, family hx, low
Ca, sedentary lifestyle
Dexa scan after age 65, or 60 if high risk
Plain radiographs are not sensiTve enough to diagnose osteoporosis unTl total
density has by 50%.
DEXA scanning is most precise and is the test of choice.: T-score <-2.5 = osteoporosis;
-1 to -2.5 = osteopenia
Calcitonin directly inhibits osteoclastic bone resorption, treatment alternative for pts
in whom estrogen replacement therapy is not recommended; produces an analgesic effect
Bisphosphonates bind to the bone surface and inhibit osteoclastic activity.
Vitamin D increases absorption of calcium in the GI tract.
Estrogen and selective estrogen receptor modulators (raloxifene or Evista) block the
activity of cytokines.
Fluoride stimulates osteoblasts, but does not result in the formation of normal bone.
Osteoporosis: supplement 1200 mg Ca and 400-800 IU vit D daily; weight bearing exercise
Treatments: bisphosphonates, alendronate, risedronate, ibandronate, calcitonin, estrogen, PTH,
raloxifene
Anemia
Most common is Fe deficiency (Fe is absorbed in duodenum)
MCV > 80 _macrocytic; MCV < 80 _microcytic
Hemolysis_decreased haptoglobin, increased LDH, increased unconjugated bilirubin
microcytic: Fe deficiency, anemia of chronic disease, thalassemia, sideroblastic anemias.

Iron deciency: RDW would be due to variaTon in cell size.


Sideroblastic anemia: MCV would be normal, high, or low, but the red cells are
dimorphic.
thalassemia: RDW would be normal because the red cells are uniformly small.
B12 def: anemia, pallor, wt loss, fatigue, glossitis, neuro symptoms; usually, treatment is
parenteral
vitamin B 12 replacement weekly for 1 month, often with concurrent administration of folic acid.
Increased methylmalonic acid and homocysteine
Folate Def: increased homocysteine
Sickle Cell: AR trait seen in African, Mediterranean, or Asian heritage.
found before age 6 in 90% of patients, with acute pain crises as most common presentation.
Prophylaxis for pain crises involves ensuring adequate oxygenation and hydration.
Immunize against streptococcal infection; daily prophylaxis with penicillin until age 5.
Chronic analgesics and scheduled transfusions have not been shown to reduce pain crises.
Urinary Incontinence
Symptomatic bacteruria may cause incontinence in the elderly
CCBs_urinary retention.
Diuretics _frequency and urgency, but usually not leakage.
-Blockers _inhibit bladder relaxation and therefore can cause both urinary leakage and
urgency.
Hyperglycemia _secondary incontinence because of polyuria
a-Blockers _urethral sphincter relaxation and can cause urinary leakage
Stool impaction _causative in up to 10% of pts with incontinence; disimpaction may restore
continence.
Urge Incontinence:
most common type of incontinence in the elderly.
detrusor hyperactivity_strong urge followed by an involuntary loss of urine.
anticholinergic medications are the drugs of choice -oxybutynin(Ditropan) and tolterodine
(Detrol)
Functional incontinence:
limitation that does not allow the pt to void in the bathroom (bed rest, paralysis, dementia); not
a urinary tract problem
Stress incontinence
loss of urine associated with intra-abdominal pressure(sneezing, coughing, laughing,
exercising), more common in women
caused by urethral hypermobility resulting in weakness of the pelvic floor musculature (Q tip
test)
Kegel exercises are designed to strengthen the pelvic floor musculature.
Pseudoephedrine has been shown to help stress incontinence,
Overflow incontinence:
overdistention of the bladder; loss of the ability to empty the bladder, usually due to neurogenic
bladder (longstanding
diabetes, alcoholism, disk disease) or because of outlet obstruction (prostatic enlargement).
frequent or constant leakage of small amount, but occasionally a large amount of urine is lost
without warning.

postvoid residual < 50 mL = normal. A postvoid residual > 200 mL = inadequate bladder
emptying
Sexual Dysfunction
In pts with sex drive with no other complaints and no exam ndings, assessment of hormone
status is indicated.
Testosterone levels should be checked in the morning, when they peak.
Free testosterone is a more accurate measure of androgen status, as it measures bioavailable
testosterone.
-if low, workup should continue to get FSH, LH, PRL
-if FSH and LH are low, but PRL normal, diagnosis is pituitary or hypothalamic failure
-if FSH and LH are high, and PRL normal, diagnosis is testicular failure
-if FSH and LH are low and PRL is high, 40% chance of pituitary adenoma_get CT or MRI
The TSH and prolactin levels may be indicated in the presence of other complaints or physical
findings.
TCA & SSRIs _
__
_sexual dysfunction.
Bupropion actually the orgasm threshold and is least likely to cause sexual dysfunction.
Premature ejaculation is the most common sexual dysfunction in men, affecting about 29% of
the general population.
Fluoxetine raises the threshold for orgasm, making it an effective treatment option.
A penile brachial index can be performed to evaluate for significant vascular disease in patients
with ED,
nocturnal penile tumescence evaluation would be done to eliminate psychologic factors that
inhibit arousal
hypoactive sexual desire disorder_Most commonly, this is a result of relationship problems, but
growing evidence does
suggest androgen deficiency may play a role in some women.
Sexual aversion disorder is an extreme aversion to and avoidance of genital contact with a
sexual partner.
Sexual arousal disorder refers to the inability to maintain an adequate physiologic sexual
excitement response.
Dyspareunia refers to genital pain associated with intercourse.
Headache
Red Flag signs:
onset aZer age 50, sudden onset, in severity or frequency, signs of systemic disease, focal
neuro
symptoms (except those consistent with a visual aura), papilledema, or a headache after trauma.
Cluster Headache:
Unilateral and orbital/temporal
Deep, excruciating pain for min-hours; peaks in 10-15 minutes and lasts 2 hrs w/o treatment
Associated with ipsilateral autonomic signs
More common in men
therapy is to provide relief from acute attacks, then to suppress headaches during the
symptomatic period
Nifedipine has been shown to be effective, as has prednisone, indomethacin, and lithium.

The mainstay of abortive treatment is oxygen and triptans


Verapamil, lithium, divalproex, methysergide and prednisone may be used for prophylaxis
SQ or intranasal serotonin antagonists have been more efficacious. IV or IM ergotamine has
been helpful
Tension Headaches:
most common of all headaches encountered in clinical practice.
pericranial muscle tenderness with bilateral bandlike distribution of pain
episodes last from 30 min to several days, and headaches should occur < 15 times per month.
requires at least 2 of the following : Pressure/tightness, Bilateral, Mild to moderate, Not
aggravated by
activity, There is generally no nausea, Either photophobia or phonophobia may be present, but
not both.
trial of NSAIDs may be appropriate, with follow-up if there is no improvement.
Migraine Headache
moderate to severe headache with a pulsating quality
Signs/Symptoms: unilateral location; nausea and/or vomiting; photophobia; phonophobia;
worsening with activity; multiple attacks lasting for 4 hrs to 3 days; absence of history or
physical
exam findings that would cause headache
Common migraine: headache without aura; most frequent
Classic migraine: headache with aura
Need neuroimaging if_rapidly increasing headache frequency, lack of coordination, focal neuro
symptoms, awakened from sleep with headache
Red Flag signs: sudden onset, increasing in severity and frequency, after age 50, risk factors for
HIV
or cancer, systemic illness signs, focal neuro signs, papilledema, post head trauma
Prevention: amitriptyline, propranolol, timolol, divalproex sodium
-blockers are the most studied drug therapy, and are effective.
Verapamil is the only CCB that studies show to have a prophylactic effect.
Abortive/Acute therapy: if attacks are less than 2-4 times/month_Ergotamines and triptans
goal of prophylactic migraine therapy is to reduce the frequency of headache by 50% _use
TCAs
Wheezing
first episode of wheezing _get a chest x-ray.
Acute viral respiratory tract infections cause up to 50% of wheezing episodes in children < 2
years
Risk factors: fall or winter season, history of atopy, daycare, and passive smoke exposure.
Pneumonia causes 33% - 50% of wheezing children, and most are also caused by viruses as
well.
Bronchiolitis causes < 5% of episodes of wheezing, but is important, especially in preterm
infants.
Asthma is common in children, but is not diagnosed after one episode of wheezing.
Wheezing is commonly heard in patients with CHF.
Risk factors include HTN, glucose intolerance, and smoking.
Treatment should begin with diuresis.
GERD

common cause of wheezing in the pediatric population.


gold standard test is a 24-hour pH probe.
Asthma:
In pts with known asthma a CXR is indicated if pt has fever, rhonchi, or sputum to r/o
pneumonia.
Peak flows do not confirm diagnosis of asthma, but are useful to monitor the status of known
lung
disease.
PFTs may be needed, but are usually done in a pulmonary laboratory.
Asthma
genetic component, but the strongest identified predisposing factor for its development is atopy.
Obesity is increasingly being recognized as a risk factor.
most important component in the diagnosis of asthma is history.
Pts typically have recurrent episodes of wheezing, but not all asthma includes wheezing, and
not all wheezing is asthma.
Cough is the only symptom in cough-variant asthma.
CXR is useful to rule-out other causes; PFT is confirmatory, not diagnostic; Provocative testing
for the rare pt in whom the
diagnosis is in question, but should be used cautiously, as life-threatening bronchospasm may
occur.
infections predispose to acute asthma exacerbations; However, use of empiric antibiotics is not
recommended.
Peak flow measurements parallel FEV 1 and are an easy and inexpensive way to monitor
asthma control.
80% - 100% of the pts personal best are in the green zone, and indicate that the patient is
doing well.
50% - 80% of personal best are yellow zone, and are a warning to consider a step-up in
therapy (review of medication
technique, adherence, and environmental control, or use additional medication).
< 50% of the personal best are an indicator that the patient needs immediate medical attention.
Mild intermittent: symptoms < 2x a week, with brief exacerbations, and with night-time
symptoms < 2x a month are classified as
Mild persistent: symptoms > 2x a week but < 1x a day; sometimes affect usual activity. Nighttime symptoms occur > 2x a month
Moderate persistent: daily symptoms & use of short-acting inhaler, with exacerbations that affect
activity and may last for days.
Night-time symptoms occur at least weekly.
Severe persistent: continual symptoms that limit physical activities, with frequent exacerbations
and night-time symptoms.
Treatment:
Inhaled corticosteroids are preferred first-line agents for all pts with persistent asthma.
Long-acting -agonists do not impact airway inflammation and should not be used without a
corticosteroid.
A leukotriene receptor antagonist is a second best choice; improves lung function and rescue
inhaler use

Inhaled corticosteroids and leukotriene antagonists have replaced cromolyn in current asthma
therapy.
COPD
sensitive measure to diagnose COPD is the FEV 1:FVC ratio.
normal if it is 70% or more of the predicted value based on the pts gender, age, and height.
most important intervention in smokers with COPD is to encourage smoking cessation.
only drug therapy shown to improve COPD progression is supplemental O2 in those patients
that are
hypoxemic.
Benefits of O2: longer survival, hospitalizaTons, and be\er quality of life.
Bronchodilators do not alter the course of decline in function, and COPD is not a steroid
responsive
disease.
bonchodilators offer improvement in symptoms, exercise tolerance, and overall health status
most commonly prescribed bronchodilators are anticholinergic ipratripiumbromide and beta
agonists
Ipratropiumis preferred as first-line because of longer duration and absence of
sympathomimetic effects.
Inhaled corticosteroids alone should not be first-line because pts receive more benefit from
bronchodilators.
Theophylline is a fourth-line therapy for pts who do not achieve adequate symptom control
oxygen is not indicated until there is significant evidence of hypoxemia.
Antibiotics can be useful to treat infection & exacerbation, but no evidence exists to support
their use
chronically.
improve outcomes when treating acute exacerbations
azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and amoxicillin-clavulanate were found to be most effective
spirometry is necessary to make the diagnosis, assess the disease severity, and monitor response
to
treatment.
COPD
Asthma: presents earlier; may or may not be associated with smoking; episodic exacerbations
with return to normal
function
COPD: presents midlife or later, long smoking history, slowly progressive; PFTs never return to
normal.
Smoking associated with 90% of COPD cases
Non smoking causes = passive smoking, occupational exposures, alpha-1 antitrypsin
deficiency
Baseline cough with white mucus, worsening dyspnea
Barrel chest, distant heart sounds, lung hyperinflation, flattened diaphragms on xray
CXR is normal until the disease is advanced
Primary diagnosis made by spirometry: FEV1/FVC < 0.7 _fixed obstruction
FEV decreases by at least 50% by the time symptoms are present
Chronic Bronchitis: cough & sputum production on most days for at least 3 mo during at least 2
consecutive yrs

Emphysema: SOB caused by enlargement of respiratory bronchioles and alveoli caused by


destruction of lung tissue
Management of Stable COPD: quit smoking, pneumococcal and influenza vaccination
Stage I: mild FEV1 >80%; give short acting bronchodilator (albuterol and ipratropium)
Stage II: moderate; FEV 1 30-50%; give long acting bronchodilator (salmeterol and
tiotropium)
Stage III: severe: FEV1 30-50%; inhaled steroids reduce the frequency of exacerbations
Stage IV: very severe: FEV1<30% or <50% with hypoxemia (SaO2 <88%; PaO2 <55);
steroids + O2
Management of Acute COPD: most commonly caused by viral/bacterial infections
Keep O2 > 90% or 60 mmHg
Short acting bronchodilators (beta agonist + anticholinergic)
Systemic steroids shorten the course of exacerbation and reduce risk of relapse
If increased sputum or purulent sputum, give antibiotics
Pneumococcus, H. influenze, M. caterrhalis, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas
Cough
>8 wks = chronic
common causes of chronic cough: asthma, postnasal drainage, smoking, and GERD
acute: asthma exacerbation, acute bronchitis, aspiration, irritants (smoke,
pollutants), allergic rhinitis, uncomplicated pneumonia, sinusitis with postnasal
drip, and viral URI.
ACEI, amiodarone, nitrofurantoin cause cough
Centrally acting cough suppresant_codine, dextromethrophan
Chronic Bronchitis:
productive cough for at least 3 mo of the year for at least 2 consecutive years
most common cause of chronic cough in smokers.
Acute bronchitis:
antibiotics are not indicated for uncomplicated acute bronchitis, regardless of duration of the
cough. Antibiotics should be reserved for pts with significant COPD and CHF, those who are
very ill-appearing, or the elderly.
Antibiotics do not alter the course unless initiated early in the illness; antibiotics do prevent
transmission and need for respiratory isolaTon from 4 wks to 1 wk and are therefore
recommended.
first-line is erythromycin x 14 days, or azithromycin x 5 days. Amoxicillin &
amoxicillin/clavulanate not effective.
Pertussis:
Pain
Chronic pain _recurrent or persistent pain lasting > 3 months; affects ~ 15% of the US
population.
Nociceptive pain stems from tissue damage (such as arthritis and/or tumor).
Neuropathic pain is from sustained transmission of pain signals w/o ongoing tissue damage. It
is
described as numbness (hypoesthesia), sensiTvity (hyperesthesia), pins & needles (paresthesia),
or severe from innocuous stimuli (allodynia).
NSAIDs are an excellent first-line medication for mild to moderate pain, especially w/ an
inflammatory component

Celecoxib (COX-2 inhibitor) may have better side effects, but is not first-line except in elderly
or pts
who failed NSAIDs.
Tramadol: centrally acting synthetic opioid agonist that binds to -opioid receptors & inhibits
serotonin & norepinepherine reuptake. It should not be a first-line option.
TCAs like amitriptyline & anticonvulsants like gabapentin may work well in neuropathic pain,
they
are less well-studied in nociceptive pain and therefore are not good first-line agents.
continued escalating opioid doses _worsened analgesic response because NMDA receptors are
upregulated and lead to tolerance, while pain receptors become increasingly more sensitive to
stimuli.
In situations of tolerance, switch from one opioid to another, starting at half the equivalent dose
of
the alternative med.
Fatigue
Mononucleosis: often mistaken for streptococcal pharyngitis.
symptoms of sore throat, fatigue, fever, and adenopathy.
If given ampicillin (and other penicillin derivatives), up to 100% may develop
Fatigue </= 1 month is likely the result of a physical cause (infection,
endocrine imbalances, CV disease, anemia, meds)
fatigue > 3 months is more likely related to psychologic factors
(depression, anxiety, stress, or adjustment reactions).
3 general categories of fatigue: physiologic, physical, and psychologic.
Physiologic fatigue is because of overwork, lack of sleep, or a defined
physical stressor like pregnancy.
Chronic fatigue syndrome & chronic idiopathic fatigue are distinct
diagnoses that require > 6 months of symptoms.
Depression is 1 of the most common diagnoses in pts w/fatigue,
especially when denying weakness/hypersomnolence
rash
Sleep
Propranolol is known to cause nightmares
Hydrochlorothiazide can cause nocturia that inhibits sleep,
Alcohol causes excessive wakefulness, and allows people to fall asleep, but
interferes with the ability to stay asleep.
drugs of choice for transient sleep onset problems are zolpidem (Ambien)
or eszopiclone (Lunesta).
For sleep maintenance problems, zaleplon (Sonata) may be used.
Melatonin has been shown to help with adjustments to the sleep-wake
cycle (ie, jet lag, shift work).
Benadryl can cause excessive somnolence, and may help with sleep onset,
but not maintenance.
Good sleep hygiene:
wake up at a regular hour, exercise daily (not before bed), control sleep
environment, light snack before bed, limit/eliminate EtOH, caffeine & nicotine,
go to bed when sleepy, use bed for sleep & intimacy only, get out of bed if not

asleep in 15-30 min


Acute Conditions
These questions will be similar to your internal
medicine questions, but will focus more on
risk factors/prevention/follow-up
Acute GI conditions
Appendicitis:
Pain from an acute appendicitis usually starts in the periumbilical region before moving to the
RLQ.
Only 22% of elderly patients with appendicitis present with classic symptoms, making the
diagnosis more difficult.
Pancreatitis:
generally settles in the mid-epigastric region with radiation to the back and is associated with
nausea and
vomiting.
Gallstones cause the majority of cases ; EtOH causes ~30% of the cases; 10 - 30% are
idiopathic.
Less common causes: hyperCa, hyperlipidemia, trauma, medications, infections, and
instrumentation (ERCP).
Ransons criteria assess the severity and prognosis of pancreatitis. On admission, 5 criteria are
considered.
age > 55, WBC > 16,000/mm, glucose > 200 mg/dL, LDH > 350 IU/L, AST is > 250 U/L.
6 other criteria reect the development of complicaTons and include a in Hct > 10, BUN > 5
Ca < 8, PaO 2 <
60 mm Hg, base deficit > 4 mEq/L, and a fluid sequestration > 6 L.
These are assessed during the first 48 hours of admission.
Gallstones:
Gallbladder pain is typically in the epigastric or right upper quadrant and radiates to the
scapula.
Cholecystitis:
Sudden cessation of inspiration during deep palpation of RUQ is Murphy sign_suggests acute
cholecystitis
Choledocolithiasis:
ERCP is the gold standard for diagnosis and treatment of choledocholithiasis
usually performed in the setting of an acute cholecystitis with increased liver enzymes,
amylase, or lipase.
Acute GI Conditions
Diverticulitis:
CT abdomen is test of choice
f/u with colonoscopy 6-8 wk after symptoms clear
Meperidine for pian relief
Outpt abx: amox/Clav, TMP-SMX, Cipro
Bleeding generally stops on its own
H. Pylori Gastritis: clarithro/amoxi/metronidazole + PPI
Non H. Pylori Gastritis: H2 blocker/PPI
Dysmotility: metoclopramide

Non-ulcer dyspepsia: avoid food/meals that aggravate


Peptic Ulcer Disease
risk factors: H.pylori, NSAIDs, smoking, personal or family history of PUD
symptoms: epigastric pain improved with food; pain a few hours after eating; gradual onset;
nocturnal symptoms
Infection with H pylori is the leading cause of PUD, with use of NSAIDs the second most
common
H. Pylori: corkscrew shaped gram negative bacillus causing most non-NSAID related ulcers
Associated with gastric cancer
Test for H. Pylori by urea breath test or stool antigen testing
Serologic testing is very sensitive but cannot distinguish between active and treated
infection
For those who test negative for H. Pylori, begin empiric therapy with PPI for 4-8 wks
Treatment: PPI + clarithromycin + amoxicillin
Early endoscopy should be considered for pts with new-onset dyspepsia who are older than 55
yrs
or who have symptoms that may be associated with upper GI malignancy
Alarm symptoms: weight loss, progressive dysphagia, recurrent vomiting, GI bleeding, family
hx of cancer
GERD is midepigastric and generally does not radiate.
Reflux can be appropriately diagnosed by medical history and by evaluating the response to
treatment.
PUD management: CBC, liver enzymes, amylase, lipase, EKG, chest xray, ab U/S, pregnancy
test
Patients older than 50 with blood in the stool should undergo colonoscopy regardless of upper
endoscopic findings
GI Conditions
IBS:
constipation, diarrhea, alternating; lower ab pain, particularly in LLQ, intermittent cramping;
may
have mucus; may feel bloated
Rome Consensus Committee for IBS
symptoms for at least 12 wks (not necessarily consecutive) in the previous 12 months, and
pain that is characterized by 2 of the following 3: (1) relieved by defecation, (2) onset is
associated with a change in stool frequency, or (3) onset is associated with a change in the
form or appearance of stool.
Alarm features: fever, anemia, weight loss, hematochezia, melena, bloody diarrhea, family
history
of colon cancer or IBD
Treat: antispasmodics (dicyclomine, homoscyamine), low dose TCAs, SSRI if depression or
anxiety is
present; increased fiver intake; loperamide to reduce frequency of stools; tegaserod for
constipation; alosetron for diarrhea
Esophagus: Esophageal spasm is often referred higher in the chest.
Renal Calculi: Pain from renal calculi often radiates to the shoulder.
Nausea and Vomiting

Metoclopramide _improve gastric motility; can also cause diarrhea and extrapyramidal
reactions
phenothiazines (Compazine and Phenergan) _cause drowsiness, dry mouth, and dizziness.
Zofran is a serotonin receptor antagonist, and may cause dizziness and headache.
ileus_mild pain, followed by the acute onset of distension, nausea, vomiting, hyperactive bowel
sounds
nausea before eating in AM_pregnancy, uremia, EtOH withdrawal, ICP (meningiTs or spaceoccupying lesions)
nausea after eating_Gastroparesis and pancreatitis
Cholelithiasis_nausea, vomiting, and pain after eating fatty foods; RUQ ultrasound to identify
stones in the gallbladder.
Vestibular disorders_nausea without any clear association with meals or time of day.
Psychogenic vomiting: suspected in pts who are able to maintain adequate nutrition despite
chronic symptoms; seen during
social stress or in pts with a past history of a psychiatric disorder.
Viral gastroenteritis:
Norwalk virus, reoviruses, and adenoviruses are common causes.
Symptoms begin acutely and are associated with typical viral syndrome symptoms.
self-limited, and will resolve within 5 days.
Oral rehydration is indicated as long as there are no signs of severe dehydration.
Pancreatitis
likely due to gallstones or EtOH.
elevated serum amylase and lipase; CBC is likely normal
Elevated ALT is more suggestive of gallstone pancreatitis and is less likely when alcohol or
hypertriglyceridemia
acute onset of significant nausea, vomiting, and epigastric pain.
symptoms occur after eating, and are improved when the patient does not eat.
Pyloric stenosis
weight loss, dehydration, and occasionally a palpable olive mass in the epigastric area.
usually identified before 7 weeks of age.
GI Bleeding
Upper endoscopy is the best diagnostic testing option in the setting of an acute upper GI bleed.
Intussusception:
most common cause of lower GI bleeding in children
caused by the involution of one bowel segment into another bowel segment.
Meckel diverticulum:
most common cause of significant GI bleeding in children.
2% of the population; male-to-female = 2:1; 2 ft from ileocecal valve; 2 in long. 2% of cases
have complications.
Most are asymptomatic, but a common presentation is painless large-volume intestinal
hemorrhage.
noninvasive diagnostic modality is the technetium scan, often called the Meckel scan.
Diverticulosis:
5% - 15% with colonic diverticulosis develop severe diverticular bleeding.
It is unusual to find the source of bleeding during colonoscopy; tagged RBC scan should be the
next step

nd
External Hemorrhoid:
arising distal to the dentate line.
When they thrombose_acute pain and are hard and nodular on physical exam.
excision in the office w/local anesthesia_eliminates pain immediately and eliminates the risk of
reoccurrence
Anal Fissure:
split in the anoderm of the anal canal. It generally occurs after the passage of a hard bowel
movement.
excruciating pain on defecation with blood found on the toilet paper.
After the BM, the patient may complain of an ache or spasm that resolves after a couple of
hours.
2
Lower GI Bleeding
Clinical: weakness, fatigability, pallor, chest pain, dizziness, tachycardia, hypotension,
orthostasis
Diagnostics: colonoscopy, angiography, technetium labeled or RBC scan, NG tube aspiration
Hemorrhoids: most common cause of lower GI bleeding
Dilated veins in the hemorrhoidal plexus; internal above dentate line
Cause: constipation, straining, pregnancy, prolonged sitting (truck drivers)
External_painful, irritable, palpable lump
Internal_bleeding and prolapsed
Treat: high fiber diet, stool softeners, surgery only when necessary
Diverticular disease:
Usually asymptomatic, or may present with painless bleeding that stops spontaneously
If asymptomatic, treat with high fiber diet
Diverticulitis_LLQ pain, fever, nausea, diarrhea, constipation; treat with bowel rest and Abx
IBD:
UC causes continuous inflammation of the large bowel; higher risk for colon cancer
Crohns causes focal inflammation anywhere n the GI tract
Both may have numerous extraintestinal manifestation
Treat: antidiarrheal meds, anti-inflammatory meds, immunosuppressive meds, colectomy
Colon Neoplasms:
Hyperplastic polyps are small, smooth growths of no prognostic significance
Adenomatous polyps are benign growths with malignant potential
Tubular, tubulovillous, villous
Larger polyps have higher risk of bleeding and becoming malignant
All patients >50 yrs with lower GI bleeding must be evaluated for colon cancer
Constipation
< 3 stools/week
Causes: hypothyroid, HyperCa, HypoK, scleroderma, DM, MS, PD, amyloidosis,
pregnancy, IBS, CCBs, carcotics, Anticholinergics, TCAs, diuretics, clonidine
Lab testing only indicated if: alarm symptoms present, medical disorder is likely, or
if no response to treatment.
Alarm symptoms: hematochezia, family hx of colon cancer, family hx of IBD,
positive FOBT, weight loss, or new onset of constipation in people > 50 years.

Bulk-forming agents (psyllium) is well-tolerated for chronic constipation


Osmotics like MgOH work well, but chronic use may cause hypermagnesemia.
Lactulose is another osmotic
Stimulant laxatives like bisacodyl work well in acute settings, but research is not
available to support their routine use
Enemas are usually the treatment of choice for impaction, but not chronic
constipation.
Lubiprostone is beneficial in the treatment of adults with chronic constipation, but
not as a first-line
Diarrhea
Acute diarrhea: an number or consistency of stool lasTng 14 days or less.
Viral infections: 70% - 80% of acute infectious diarrhea; rotavirus is most frequent cause.
Enteric adenoviruses are the second most common type.
Rotavirus: in the winter months, and most cases occur between the 3 months and 2 years.
Norwalk virus: Contaminated water, salads, or shellfish.
Giardiasis: more prevalent in children in daycare centers.
Salmonella: raw or undercooked meat (poultry, eggs) ; dont usually treat
Shigella: give flouroquinolones or Bactrim
E. Coli O157:H7- bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic, HUS, TTP
ETEC: most common cause of travelers diarrhea_1/3
rd
travelers to underdeveloped
countries will get it
treat: fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin);
trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or azithromycin are acceptable alternatives.
adults should eat potatoes, rice, wheat, noodles, crackers, bananas, yogurt, boiled
vegetables, and soup.
Dairy products, alcohol, and caffeine should be avoided.
Acute Gastritis
Priority is to replace lost intravascular volume with IV NS
Viral: low grade fever, headache, N/V, achy
Bacterial: fever, headache, anorexia, fatigue
Rotavirus is most common in kids
Norwalk is most common in adults
bloody_invasive E. Coli, , Shigella, Yersinia, Entamoeba histolytica
leukocytes_salmonella, shigella, yersinia, EHEC and ETEC, C. Diff, campylobacter, E.
Histolytica
Acute diarrhea_less than 2 weeks; Chronic diarrhea_more than 4 weeks
Travelers Diarrhea: enterotoxigenic E. coli
Campers Diarrhea: Giardia
Undercooked chicken_salmonella or shigella
Undercooked hamburger_EHEC
Mayonnaise/canned food_S. aureus (6 hrs), clostridium (8-12 hrs), E. Coli (12-14 hrs),
salmonella
Raw seafood_vibrio, salmonella, or hep A
Daycare_shigella, giardia, rotavirus

Symptoms: usually self limited; exceptions are profuse diarrhea, dehydration, >100.4, blood,
severe ab
pain, duration >48 hrs, children, elderly, immunocompromised
Prevention: hand washing, keep children home from school, pasteurization, refrigeration,
boiling water
Treat: Cipro 500 mg BID for 1-2 days (except in kids or pregnant women); Azithromycin 1
1000mg dose;
Rifaximin for noninvasive strains of E. Coli
Palpitations
Important inquiries: caffeine, diet pills, stress, anemia, MV prolapsed, QT syndrome
Rhythm disorders: sinus bradycardia, sinus tachycardia, WPW, sick sinus syndrome, premature
atrial contractions, SVT,
PVCs, AV block, ventricular tachycardias
Long QT syndrome: autosomal dominant; more common in females; increased risk for
ventricular arrhythmia and
sudden cardiac death; QT >500msec is dangerous
PVC occurring at rest and disappearing with exercise is usually benign
Primary supraventricular rhythm disturbances responds to BBs and CCBs; digoxin can be used
SVT can be treated with carotid sinus massage, valsalva, cold application to face, adenosine
Most pts with a.fib will need warfarin anticoagulation
Psychiatric causes: panic disorder
Structural : cardiomyopathy, ASD, VSD, congenital, MV prolapse, pericarditis, valvular
disease, CHF,
restrictive/hypertrophic/dilated cardiomyopathy
Dilated cardiomyopathy is the most common cause of sudden cardiac death
Noncardiac causes: anemia, electrolyte disturbance, hyperthyroid, hypothyroid, hypoglycemia,
hypovolemia, fever,
pheochromocytoma, pulmonary disease, vasovagal syncope
Medications/drugs: EtOH, caffeine, cocaine, tobacco, ephedra, diuretics, digoxin, beta agonists,
theophylline, phenothiazine
If >50 yrs, always consider coronary artery disease
EKG is appropriate in all pts with palpitations, Holter monitor, Echo, stress test are also helpful
Atrial fibrillation: rapid and irregular heart beat; fluttering
PSVT: rapid and regular; will have normal history, physical, labs, and likely normal ECG;
reassurance/observation
Ventricular premature beats _random, episodic, instantaneous beats, described as a flipflopping sensation.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy_can be associated with atrial fibrillation or ventricular
tachycardia; systolic ejection murmur
(like aortic stenosis) worsening with Valsalva maneuver.
Wolff-Parkinson- White syndrome (preexcitation syndrome) ECG demonstrates a short PR
interval and d-waves.
Chest Pain
Differential: MI, Angina, Percarditis, Aortic Dissection, PE, PNX, PNA, bronchitis,
costochondritis, muscular strain, GERD,
Esophageal spasm, cholelithiasis, anxiety, somatization, herpes zoster

ER studies: CBC, electrolytes, BUN/Cr, PT, PTT, INR, glucose, EKG, CXR, cardiac enzymes,
tropinin T and I Q 6-10 hrs for 3
cycles, O2 sat
MONA- morphine, oxygen, nitroglycerin, aspirin
Morphine: decreases catecholamines which reduces myocardial O2 consumption
O2: may be discontinued after 6 hrs if saturation is normal
Nitroglycerin: give sublingually Q 5 min for 3 doses then advance to IV route
Aspirin: 325 mg to be chewed (clopidogrel if ASA allergy)
B-adrenergic antagonist: reduces myocardial damage and limits infarct size
ASA and heparin reduce risk of subsequent MI and cardiac death in pts with unstable angina
ACEI reduce short term mortality when started within 24 hrs of acute MI; prevents remodeling
Unstable angina + EKG changes _give glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitor
EKG changes in MI: ST wave elevation/depression and/or T wave inversion; Q waves indicate
cardiac pathology (necrosis)
Angina classifications:
Angina with unusually strenuous activity
Angina with more prolonged or slightly vigorous activity
Angina with usual daily activity
Angina at rest
Causes of MI: atherosclerosis and plaque rupture, cocaine induced spasm, aortic dissection,
embolus
MI Clinical Presentation: pressure, squeezing, crushing, smothering, Levine sign, nausea,
vomiting
Angina longer than 20-30 minutes is likely an MI
Secondary Treatment
Reduce or address risk factors: male >40, HTN, smoking, DM, cocaine, hyperlipidemia, LV
hypertrophy, family hx,
chest trauma, postmenopausal, homocystinemia
Aspirin, nitrates and beta blockers have proven long term benefits
Statins decrease incidence of CV events; goal LDL is <70
HTN should be treated to reduce mobidity and mortality
Recommend minimum of 30 min exercise on most days with weight management
Chest Pain
Exercise ECG is most commonly used noninvasive procedure for evaluating whether the chest
pain is due to angina.
Myocardial stress imaging (scintigraphy , echo) is indicated if resting ECG makes an exercise
ECG difficult to interpret
to confirm results of the exercise ECG or to localize the region of ischemia
to distinguish ischemic from infracted myocardium
to assess the completeness of revascularization following an intervention.
The electron beam CT can quantify coronary artery calcification, but is not helpful to evaluate
angina.
Atypical Angina: pain that has the quality and characteristics of angina, or occurs with exertion,
but not both.
chest heaviness not related to exertion or relieved by rest, or it pain with an atypical character
(sharp or

stabbing) but predictably brought on by exercise and relieved by rest.


Anginal equivalent: other symptoms of cardiac ischemia (eg, dyspnea) that is predictably
precipitated by exertion
and relieved by rest.
LV hypertrophy with strain, LBBB and ST-segment baseline abnormalities in the precordial
leads abnormalities
should get a thallium ETT rather than standard exercise treadmill test
Poor prognostic signs in an ETT_failure to complete stage II of a Bruce protocol, failure to
achieve a HR > 120
beats/min (off -blockers), onset of ST depression at a HR < 120 beats/min, ST depression > 2.0
mm, ST depression >
6 min into recovery, poor systolic BP response to exercise, angina or ventricular tachycardia with
exercise and ST
depression in multiple leads.
Nitrates:
Tolerance is the most significant issue to consider when using nitrates for stable angina;
develops rapidly with longacting nitrates
When using a patch, it is important to have intervals of 10 - 12 hrs w/o the patch to retain the
effect.
Headache and fatigue may be important side effects
-blockers:
all are equally effective in treating angina
dose should be adjusted to achieve a heart rate of 50 - 60 beats/min.
D-Dimer
useful in determining the risk for a DVT or PE.
A low result has a high negative predictive
value for the presence of thrombus.
If the result were high, a confirmatory test
would be appropriate.
Pneumonia
infection of lung parenchyma; most common triggering mechanism is upper airway
colonization
Clinical: age, cough with green sputum, fever with chills, exposure, egophany, dullness to
percussion
Diagnosis: CXR is gold standard; cultures have low sensitivity
Absence of infiltrate does not rule out pneumonia
Community Acquired Pneumonia (non hospital pts):
Strep pneumo, H. influenza (esp in COPD pts), and M. Catarrhalis are most common_focal,
lobar infiltrates
Mycoplasma, Chlamydia & legionella cause atypical pneumonia; more in adolescent/young
adult_Bilateral diffuse infiltrates
Hospital Acquired Pneumonia
Risks are intubation, NG tube feeds, lung disease, multisystem failure
Pseudomonas, klebsiella, acinetobacter, gram+ cocci, staph aureus
Abruptly worsening_pneumococcal pneumonia

Diarrhea + pneumonia_legionella_can do urine antigen testing or direct fluorescent antibody


Postinfluenza pneumonia_staph aureus
Right lower lobe consolidation_aspiration pneumonia
Pneumonia Severity Index: assigns pts a risk category based on age, comorbid illness, specific
exam and lab; high risk includes
neoplastic disease, liver/renal disease, CHF, DM; physical bindings include tachypnea, fever,
hypotension, tachycardia, AMS, low pH,
low Na, low Hct, low O2 sat, high glucose, high BUN, pleural effusion on xray
Low risk classes treated as outpatient; high risk as inpatient
Treat: fluoroquinolone or macrolide or beta-lactam for outpatient; IV beta lactam and IV
macrolide for inpatient; get early follow up
with CXR in 5-7 days; treat for 72 hrs in an afebrile patient, but at least 2 weeks if complicated
or atypical pneumonia
Complications: bacteremia, parapneumonic pleural effusion, empyema
Prevention:
Pneumococcal vaccine for all >65, and all other adults with chronic illness
Influenza vaccine
Acute Bronchitis
Inflammation of the tracheobronchial tree often in the
setting of a URI in the winter
Influenza, parainfluenza, adenovirus, rhinovirus,
mycoplasma, Chlamydia
No specific diagnostic criteria, but most have cough
productive of purulent sputum of variable color
Treatment: no antibiotics unless it is pertussis;
bronchodilator therapy, antitussives
Prolonged fever and consolidation_pneumonia
Conjunctivitis and adenopathy_adenoviral infection
CHF
Leading diagnosis among hospitalized pts >65; survival is 3-5 yrs;
First priority is optimize O2 exchange_give O2 NC, dilate pulmonary vessels, decrease
pre/afterload
Lung fluid overload often causes anxiety and distress due to oxygenation struggle_activates
sympathetic
pathways & catecholamine response_worse heart failure w/tachycardia &peripheral vascular
resistance
Suppress these triggers with morphine sulfate which is an anxiolytic and vasodilator
Give diuretics, ACE and BB to decrease preload and afterload and reduce cardiac remodeling
Systolic dysfunction: dilated LV with impaired contractility
Diastolic dysfunction: normal LV, impaired ability to relax, fill, and eject blood
Symptoms: dyspnea on exertion, anxiety, orthopena, PND, cough with pink, frothy sputum
Right sided: venous congestion, N/V, distension, bloating, constipation, ab pain, decreased
appetite,
fluid retention, weight gain, edema, JVD, hepatojugular reflex, hepatic ascites, splenomegaly
Left sided: pulmonary congestion, DOE, PND, orthopnea, wheezing, tachypnea, cough, rales,
S3

gallop, Cheyne-Stokes respiration, pleural effusion, pulmonary edema


Framingham Heart Study:
need 2 major criteria- PND, JVD, rales, cardiomegaly, pulmonary edema, S3, CVP >15,
circulation time
of 25 sec, hepatojugular reflex, wt loss of 4.5 kg over 5 days of treatment.
Minor criteria- ankle edema, nocturnal cough, DOE, hepatomegaly, pleural effusion, decreased
VC,
tachycardia
Elevated BNP and pr-BNP are sensitive and specific; BNP > 500 pg/mL; BNP < 80 pg/mL has
a high (99%)
negative predicative value and helps rule out CHF.
ECHO is the gold standard diagnostic modality
CHF
NYHA functional classification:
Class I: patients have no limitation of activity.
Class II: pts have slight limitations; comfortable at rest; fatigue, palpitation, dyspnea, angina
w/ordinary activity
Class III: patients are also comfortable at rest, but less-than-ordinary activity causes symptoms.
Class IV: patients have symptoms at rest and increased symptoms with even minor activity.
discontinuing alcohol use has been shown to improve function significantly.
ACE inhibitors symptoms, quality of life, hospitalizaTons, & mortality in pts with NYHA
class II - IV
slow progression to heart failure among asymptomatic pts with LV systolic dysfunction.
All pts with heart failure should be prescribed an ACE inhibitor unless they have a
contraindication.
-Blockers are helpful, but not necessarily as a first-line agent.
-Blockers inhibit the adverse effects of sympathetic nervous system activation in heart failure
patients.
bisoprolol, metoprolol, and carvedilol can symptoms, quality of life, and mortality.
Nitrates & hydralazine can be used in pts who do not tolerate ACE inhibitors, as can ARBs.
Some CCBs (nifedipine, diltiazem, and nicardipine) may worsen systolic dysfunction.
metolazone can diuresis in outpatient treatment of HF w/volume overload; Avoid prolonged
therapy
Spironolactone is usually considered for NYHA class III or IV pts or those with a serum K
level < 5.0 mmol/L.
ACE inhibitors and ARBs do not have the same effects on the neurohormonal pathways
involved in CHF
an ARB added to an ACE inhibitor hospitalizaTon in pts with CHF, but does not mortality.
Outpatient treatment: Na restriction, weight reduction, ACE inhibitors are first line (unless
pregnant, hypotensive,
hyperK, renal stenosis/insufficiency), beta blockers (in non-acute setting), diuretics, aldosterone
antagonists can be
used in advanced heart failure, CCBs are contraindicated except for amlodipine, diltiazem, and
verapamil.
Dizziness
Vertigo _rotational sensation, in which the room spins around the patient.

Orthostasis _lightheadedness upon arising, common with orthostatic hypotension.


Presyncope _feeling of impending faint.
Disequilibrium _sensation of unsteadiness or loss of balance; pt often thinks
problem is in the feet
Light-headedness is often vaguely described as a floating sensation.
Dix-Hallpike maneuver is useful to distinguish central from peripheral causes of
vertigo.
peripheral vertigo_latency time for onset of symptoms of vertigo or nystagmus is 3
- 10 sec; symptoms are severe; direction of the nystagmus is fixed; repeating the
maneuver lessens the symptoms.
central vertigo_no latency to onset of symptoms, no lessening of symptoms with
repeat maneuvers, the direction of the nystagmus changes, and the symptoms are of
mild intensity.
antihistamines are first-line therapy_suppress the vestibular end-organ receptors
and inhibit activation of the vagal response. Meclizine (Antivert), 25 mg Q 4-6 hrs and
diphenhydramine (Benadryl), 50 mg orally Q 4 - 6 hrs
ENT
Peripheral vertigo: inflammation, stimulation, destruction of hair cells, BPH,
labrynthitis, vestubular neurotnitis, Menieres, acoustic neuroma
Central vertigo: vascular insufficiency, MS, brain tumor
Acoustic neuroma
unilateral tinnitus and hearing loss; symptoms are constant and slowly progressive.
vertigo, facial weakness, and ataxia can occur.
Vestibular neuronitis
acute onset of severe vertigo lasting several days, with symptoms improving over several
weeks
Benign positional vertigo: dislodged otoliths in semicircular canals
symptoms with position changes only.
Meniere disease: endolymphatic hydrops increase pressure
Tinnitus, hearing loss (low frequency)
attacks of vertigo lasting for several hrs, associated with nausea, vomiting, hearing loss, and
tinnitus
Treat with diuretics and salt restriction
Know the Rhine and weber test
ENT
Temporomandibular joint dysfunction:
common cause of referred otalgia.
First-line therapies: NSAIDs, heat, mechanical soft diet, referral to the dentist if no
improvement in 3-4 weeks.
Otitis Media:
reddened TM, by itself, is not a sufficient finding to diagnose acute otitis media.
middle ear infection seen in kids usually due to URI; fever, ear pain, diminished hearing,
vertigo, tinnitus, red TM
S. pneumo, H. influ, M. catarrhalis
Most resolve spontaneously though if prolonged or recurrent/severe, give amoxicillin
opaque TM (purulent effusion), bulging TM, impaired TM mobility_

__
_When all 3 are present, PPV is near 90%.
Purulent discharge in ear canal may indicate perforation
Effusions may take 3 mo to resolve. Antibiotics not indicated for persistent effusions in the
absence of acute otitis media.
amoxicillin is first-line therapy
External Otitis:
infection of external auditory canal; inflamed, swollen, external ear canal with exudates &
discharge; painful; TM uninvolved
must protect from additional moisture and avoidance of further mechanical injury from
scratching.
Otic drops containing antibiotics and corticosteroids are very effective.
DM pts at risk for invasive external otitis (malignant) with pseudomonas_surgical debridement
and IV antibiotics
persistent otitis externa in an immunocompromised or diabetic should be referred for specialty
evaluation.
Pharyngitis: inflammation or irritation of the pharynx and/or tonsils; the majority is viral
Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, arcanobacterium are common in teens/young adults
GAS causes 15% of adult and 30% of pediatric cases; diagnose with rapid antigen test
If rapid antigen test is negative, do a throat culture (gold standard)
GAS : abrupt onset of sore throat, fever, tonsillar and/or palatal petechiae, tender cervical
adenopathy, absence of cough
Post-strep glomerulonephritis and rheumatic fever are possible complications
Treat with Penicillin for 10 days or cephalosporins if penicillin allergy
Infectious Mono: adenopathy & hepatosplenomegaly, atypical lymphocytes in peripheral
smear, restrict from activity
Epiglottitis: manage airway patency first; tripod position, stridor, drooling, toxic
Eye Conditions
Conjunctivitis
redness, irritation, tearing, discharge, photophobia, or itching; not usually painful
itching and bilateral symptoms are more specific for allergic conjunctivitis
Adenovirus is most common virus (85%)
Supportive treatment; topical antibiotics prevent bacterial superinfection, but no good evidence
that it makes any impact.
topical corticosteroids are contraindicated
Viral conjunctivitis_a palpable preauricular lymph node is characteristic
eye drops for herpetic eye infections (corneal dendrites w/fluorescein staining); also use cold
compresses
Bacterial conjunctivitis_purulent discharge, pain, photophobia, and a gritty sensation of the
eye.
commonly caused by Streptococcus and Staphylococcus; reports of conjuncTviTs caused by
MRSA.
MRSA conjunctivitis is treated with the same drugs used to treat MRSA in other parts of the
body
Scleritis:
injection of the deeper scleral vessels.

vision, deep boring eye pain, surrounding headache; associated w/autoimmune diseases like
RA or Wegeners
Episcleritis: mild irritation, and is not as intense as the syndrome described above.
Corneal abrasion: associated with vision, intense pain, and tearing, but is associated with
trauma.
Acute glaucoma: pain, vision, and redness, but the aected pupil is usually dilated.
Chalzion: sterile inflammation of meibomian gland; painful nodule
Blepharitis: inflammation of eyelids, loss of eyelashes, scaling
Dactrocystitis: occlusion of nasolacrimal duct
Subconjunctival hemorrhage: benign bleeding of small bessels, painless
Conjunctival hyperemia: diffuse erythema of conjunctiva
Iritis: photophobia, sluggish pupil, cloudy cornea, pain, pupillary constriction
Sinusitis
inflammation of the mucosa of the para-nasal sinuses irrespective of the cause.
Predisposing factors: viral URI and allergic rhinitis.
Bacterial: purulent rhinorrhea, purulent secretions in nasal cavity, tooth pain, &
biphasic history (worsening of symptoms after an initial period of improvement)
S.pneumoniae is most common.
Others include H. influenzae, M.catarrhalis, & group A -hemolytic strep
Duration of illness < 7 days may be used as a negative diagnostic criterion.
Sinus pain on palpation, lack of improvement w/decongestants; x-rays are not
diagnostically valuable.
Most with recurrent sinusitis have an underlying physiologic or anatomic
abnormality that contributes to their problem.
In pts clinically diagnosed with acute sinusitis, no significant difference between
antibiotics and placebo use.
In pts with sinusitis confirmed by CT scan, x-ray, or bacteriology, there has been
demonstrated efficacy of antibiotics
amoxicillin is considered the drug of choice in most countries.
Allergic Rhinitis
IgE mediated response to extrinsic protein_Mucus glands increase secretion, vasodilation,
stimulation of sensory nerves
Symptoms: sneezing, itching, rhinorrhea, postnasal drip, congestion, anosmia, headache,
earache, tearing, red eyes,
drowsiness
Exam: allergic shiners, nasal crease, allergic salute, swollen blue/gray turbinates; conjunctivitis,
dennie-morgan liens,
Treat: H1 blockers, nasal decongestant, oral decongestant, intranasal steroids, oral steroids,
cromolyn, LTRAs
Antihistamines: diphenhydramine, chlorpheniramine, hydroxyzine; side effects are dry mouth,
dry eyes, blurred vision,
nd
gen have less SE: loratadine, fexofenadine, cetirizine
Decongestants: constrict blood vessels; pseudoephedrine (a-adrenoreceptor agonest); may
cause tachycardia, tremors,
cobble-stoning

urinary retention; 2
insomnia, rebound hyperemia, worsening of symptoms w/chronic use or discontinuation
Corticosteroid nasal spray: effective long term management; reduce inflammatory mediators
Oral corticosteroids: inhibit cell mediated immunity; long term steroid effects so only use short
term
DesensiTzaTon therapy: test for specic anTgens; inject dilute anTgen & gradually
concentraTon
Anaphylaxis: give aqueous epinephrine 1:1000 in 0.2-0.5 mL dose subQ or IM + IV fluids
Allergens may trigger asthma rapid acting B2 adrenergic agonist albuterol is mainstay
treatment
Mild intermittent: <2/wk,<2/mo; no daily meds other than short acting B rescue inhaler
Mild Persistent: 3-6/wk; 3-4/mo; give low dose inhaled steroid
Moderate persistent: daily; >5/mo; give low/med inhaled steroid + long acting B agonist
Severe persistent: continual/frequent; give high dose inhaled steroid, long acting B agonist;
corticosteroid
tablets/syrup if needed
Sore Throat
Palatal petechiae _either a group A streptococcal infection or infectious mononucleosis.
posterior cervical adenopathy _infectious mononucleosis
Fever, chills, myalgias, and pain with swallowing, anterior adenopathy _viral or bacterial
pharyngitis.
edema swollen uvula _group A hemolytic streptococcal infection.
first-line treatment is amoxicillin. In the penicillin-allergic pt, a first-generation cephalosporin
or
macrolide.
20% of school age kids are carriers of group A -hemolytic Strep_carriers do not need to be
identified or
treated, as they do not develop complications from infection and are not important in the spread
Laryngitis with pharyngitis is generally associated with a viral infection, and only supportive
care is
needed.
Centor Criteria for adults is a method for determining the probability of group A -hemolytic
strep
1 point is given for each of the: tonsillar exudates, tender anterior cervical adenopathy, fever,
lack of
cough
most cost effective approach to pts who have all 4 criteria is to treat with antibiotics w/o
laboratory
testing.
If someone has 3 criteria, the chance of having a strep is 40%-60%, and a person with only 1
has 1%5% chance.
Pharyngitis
RSV, adenovirus, parainfluenza, rhinovirus
Herpangina_tonsilar + palatal ulcerations; coxackie virus
Group A Strep_rheumatic fever, GN, rare in children < 3

Viral: rhinorrhea, cough, low grade fever


Diphtheria_gray membrane, tonsillitis, cervical lymph
Kawasaki_< 5 yrs, strawberry tongue, fever, rash on
hands and feet
Monospot test_positive after 5 days 3 weeks; IgM may
not be + for 2 weeks
Strep pneumo_give 10 days of PNC or 1 IM injection
Skin Rashes and Infections
Acne:
cause is multifactorial: familial factors, follicular keratinization, androgens, and
Propionibacterium acnes.
Contributory factors: certain medications, emotional stress, occlusion/pressure on the skin
Acne is not caused by dirt, chocolate, greasy foods or the presence or absence of any foods in
the diet.
nd
Topical agents are first line; topical retinoid + topical antibiotic 2
line; add oral antibiotic if no improvement in 6 weeks
improvement occurs over a period of 2 - 5 months, and may take even longer for noninflamed
comedones.
Topical retinoids applied in the evening, benzoyl peroxide & topical antibiotics (doxy) should
be applied during the day
Isotretinoin indications: nodular acne, severe acne, moderate recalcitrant acne, resistant to other
therapies
pregnancy must be prevented during its use.
tetracycline & isotretinoin cause pseudotumor cerebri, and should never be used together.
Rosacea:
Stage I- persistent erythema, generally with telangiectasia formation.
Stage II - addition of papules and tiny pustules.
Stage III- erythema is deep and persistent, telangiectases are dense, and there may be a solid
appearing edema of the central part of
the face due to sebaceous Hyperplasia and lymphedema (rhinophyma and metophyma).
Management: topical metronidazole, antibiotics, and sodium sulfacetamide can work, but oral
antibiotics are more effective than
topical. Minocycline or doxycycline are very effective first-line therapies.
Keratoacanthoma:
difficult to distinguish from basal cell cancers, nodular squamous cell cancers, or molluscum
characterized by rapid growth, achieving a size of 2.5 cm within a few weeks.
Psoriasis:
often has nail involvement in addition to skin
For localized skin rashes, topical corticosteroids are appropriate therapeutic agent.
Topical pimecrolimus is effective for inverse psoriasis (perianal and genital regions) or on the
face and ear canals
Oral retinoids & methotrexate treat generalized psoriasis, & help w/nails, but not first-line for
localized rash
Skin Rashes and Infections
Pityriasis rosea:

self-limited papulosquamous eruption; single herald patch (oval, slightly raised plaque with
scale) followed in 1 - 2 wks with a
generalized eruption.
spontaneously resolve in 6 to 12 weeks, and recurrences are uncommon.
The treatment is symptomatic, and includes antihistamines or corticosteroids to relieve itch.
Impetigo:
well-demarcated erythematous lesions that, when disrupted, develop a secondary golden crust.
most cases are caused by S aureus followed by Strep.
responds well to topical antibiotics like mupirocin applied to the lesion and to the nares
Folliculitis:
infection is generally caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Pseudomonas cepacia.
condition is usually self-limited, and therefore reassurance is all that is necessary.
HSV:
topical antiviral therapy or oral antiviral therapy.
Antiviral agents are more effective treating primary infections than recurrent infections.
Pulse dosing (treating at the first sign of outbreak) may shorten or reduce the severity of an
eruption
Chronic suppression is best to frequency of symptomaTc recurrences and asymptomaTc viral
shedding.
Acyclovir resistance is extremely rare. Valacyclovir & famciclovir have equal efficacy for
cutaneous HSV
Genital herpes:
treat each outbreak (episodic therapy) at first sign of outbreak or use daily antiviral therapy to
prevent (suppressive therapy)
Suppressive therapy seems to reduce, not eliminate, asymptomatic viral shedding.
Suppressive therapy does not alter the natural course of infection and is not associated with
antiviral resistance
Herpes zoster:
AnTviral therapy is treatment of choice, and Tme for lesion healing and overall duraTon of
pain if iniTated within 72 hours
In some cases, no benefit will occur if treatment starts after the 72 hour cutoff, but it should
beinitiated regardless of time in pts >
50, those who are immunosuppressed, or those with eye involvement.
Skin Rashes and Infections
Tinea capitis.
Systemic therapy is needed, but topical ketoconazole shampoo or selenium sulfide lotion may
kill hair spores
Griseofulvin is treatment of choice, and should be used for 4 to 8 weeks.
Terbinafine, itraconazole, fluconazole, and ketoconazole can also be used. If fluconazole were
to be used, the
treatment duration would only be for 3 to 4 weeks, not 4 to 8 weeks.
Tinea corporis/ringworm:
most commonly caused by Trichophyton rubrum.
well-demarcated plaque with central scaling; pruritic.
Atopic dermatitis/eczema

rough, red plaques with flaking that can affect the face, neck, upper trunk, and behind the
knees.
flexural surfaces are often involved; pruritus may be severe.
Papules, vesicles, scaling, crusting, lichenification
Steroids used for acute flares
Use emollients after bathing
Tacroliumus (and nonsteroidal immunomodulators) for short term treatment if severe
Most patients have the onset of eczema in childhood, and onset after the age of 30 is very
uncommon.
Molluscum contagiosum.
more common in white males, children in daycare/nursery (for kids it is not likely to be
sexually transmitted)
poxvirus transmitted through direct skin-to-skin contact.
in adults and in the pubic region, they are sexually transmitted.
can occur in immunocompetent pts, but in pts who are immunocompromised, they are
numerous and larger.
Most resolve spontaneously within months, but they can be treated with cryotherapy, cautery,
or curettage.
Skin Cancer
Reassuring features: <6mm, symmetric, uniform color, well-defined borders
Risk factors: family hx, fair, burn easily, chronic exposure to toxic compounds,
immunocompromised
Superficial spreading melanoma:
Most common type in both sexes
Spreads superficially along the top layers of skin before penetrating into deep layers
Superficial, radial growth phase is slower than the vertical phase
Lentigo Maligna:
Most often in the elderly on chronic, sun-damaged skin
Least common of the 4 types; most common in Hawaii
Acral Lentiginous:
Most common in African-Americans and Asians
Found under the nails, on the soles of feet, palms of hands
Invasive at the time of diagnosis; Most aggressive type
Treat: if any of the ABCDE signs are present, excise completely with 2-3 mm margin; if
pathology
indicates malignancy, excise with 5 mm margin
Tumor thickness is most important prognostic factor; <1 mm thick have low rate of metastasis
Basal Cell Ca: most common; pearly papules w/central ulceration or telangectasias; rarely
metastasize
Squamous Cell Ca: higher rate of metastasis; irregularly shaped plaques/nodules w/raised
Nodular:
borders, bleed easily; scaly, ulcerated
Musculoskeletal
shoulder dislocation _pain management and relocation
keep immobilized for 7 -10 days to allow for capsular healing. Then, start ROM exercises and
strengthening

Younger pts may have recurrence, & surgical referral should be entertained, but not necessary
immediately
Rotator tendonitis_discomfort w/abduction > 90; pain with throwing motion
Adhesive capsulitis_chronic pain and stiffness; do exercise to increase ROM
Iliotibial band syndrome:
most common cause of lateral knee pain in an athlete.
commonly seen in athletes with repetitive knee flexion activities like distance runners and
cyclists.
pain or ache over lateral knee that worsens with activity, and on exam has pain and tightness
over the IT band.
treat with strengthening the hip abductors, internal rotators, and knee flexors is generally
treatment for
Patellofemoral pain syndrome:
diffuse knee pain and a positive patellar grind test; generally does not occur acutely or after
injury
most common diagnosis for patients with anterior knee pain presenting to their PCP
pain is worse with walking, running, ascending or descending stairs, or squatting or sitting for
prolonged periods of time
Treatment is done primarily through strengthening the quadriceps muscles and hip rotators.
ACL tear:
twisting injury, sense of instability, feeling of a pop, and immediate effusion while still able
to bear weight.
Meniscal injuries:
locking, catching, or giving way sensation; symptomatic treatment
Medial collateral ligament sprains:
occurs after valgus stress to a partially flexed knee; pain over the medial aspect of the knee, but
no joint swelling
Ottawa ankle rules are a guide to use to determine if xray is indicated after ankle sprain. Films
should be obtained if:
The pt is unable to walk four steps immediately after the injury and in the office.
There is tenderness over the distal 6 cm of the tibia or fibula, including the malleoli.
There is midfoot or navicular tenderness.
There is tenderness over the proximal fifth metatarsal.
Neck Pain
Spondylosis or osteoarthritis_ Pain aggravated by movement, worse after activities, associated
with a dull ache,
limited ROM
chronic mechanical problems_ tenderness to palpation on examination.
cervical nerve root irritation _radiation of symptoms, weakness, numbness, or paresthesias.
whiplash injury _history of an acceleration injury; get C-spine radiograph
cervical dystonia (torticollis)_ neck would be laterally flexed and rotated.
Physical therapy, stretching, gentle manipulation, cervical collars, ice/heat have all been used
with some results_
evidence supporting those treatments is weaker than the evidence behind use of botulinim toxin.
spinal stenosis: older individual with axial stiffness and paresthesias over several dermatomes
(C7-T1).

CT scan is the best choice.


Canadian cervical spine rules help determine who should receive radiography:
1. Is there one high-risk factor? High-risk factors: age >65, dangerous mechanism (high speed
motor vehicle
accident) or numbness/tingling in extremities. A yes to any of the above requires radiography.
2. Is there one low-risk factor? Low-risk factors: simple rear-end collision, if the pt was
ambulatory at any time at
the scene, if there was absence of neck pain at the scene, and if there was absence of C-spine
tenderness on
examination. A no to any of the above would require radiography.
3. Is the pt able to voluntarily actively rotate the neck 45 to the left and right regardless of
pain? A noto that
question would require radiography.
Spurling test/neck compression test.
pt to bends head to the side & rotate head toward the side of pain while tester exerts downward
pressure.
reproduces symptoms in the affected upper extremity in the case of nerve root injury.
high specificity, but low sensitivity for cervical radiculopathy.
Nonspecific mechanical pain should be considered if the maneuver results in neck discomfort
only.
Back Pain
Inflammatory condiTons produce pain & sTness in the AM; mechanical
disorders worsen during the day w/ activity.
MRI is indicated for pain persisting > 6 wks despite normal radiographs and with
no response to conservative therapy.
Disk herniation_associated with radiation and neurologic symptoms.
Spondylolisthesis: anterior displacement of vertebrae in relation to the one below
most common cause of low back pain in patients < 26, especially athletes.
Back strain_generally follows an inciting event; pain associated with movement.
Treatment:
maintain usual activities, as dictated by pain.
prolonged bed rest & tracJon have not been shown to be eecJve in return to
usual activities sooner.
NSAIDs & muscle relaxants are effective for short-term symptomatic pain relief
Steroids can be considered in those who have failed NSAID therapy.
Low-dose TCAs can be useful in the treatment of chronic pain and do serve as
adjuvants to other analgesics.
Joints
Osteoarthritis:
Osteoarthritis: age >65, history of trauma, obesity, or repetitive joint use; deep, dull, achy pain
Gradual onset exacerbated by activity and decreasing with rest
Bony crepitus on passive ROM
Xray is normal at first, then develops bone sclerosis, subchondral cysts, osteophytes
Heberden nodes (at the DIP joints) and Bouchard nodes (at the PIP joints).
pauciarticular; pain is worse with activity and improved with rest.

often mild swelling, but warmth and an effusion are rare; Crepitus is common, as is
malalignment of the joint.
Indications for joint replacement _poorly controlled pain despite max therapy, malalignment,
and mobility
Fluid aspirated is generally clear joint fluid with a WBC count of 2000/mm 3 to 10,000/mm 3.
In RA, > 50% of the WBCs are PMNs, while in osteoarthritis, < 50% of the WBCs are PMNs.
Rheumatoid Arthritis:
age 30-55 yrs; women>men; symptoms for >6 weeks
Morning stiffness Involves 3 or more joints; involves hand joints; symmetric arthritis; fatigue is
common
Radiographic changes include erosions or decalcifications
Elevated ESR and CRP, anemia, thromobcytosis, low albumin, +rheumatoid factor
gradual, polyarticular and symmetric involvement of joints with morning stiffness that
improves with activity
Hands and feet are usually involved first, but it may spread to larger joints.
symmetric swelling and tenderness are common, with associated rheumatoid nodules.
disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs)_should be managed by rheumatologists
and started early to avoid or
delay joint deformity.
Extra-articular manifestations: seen at any stage of disease
nodules occur anywhere (usually subcutaneously along pressure points), vasculitis, dry eyes,
dyspnea, or cough can all be
seen. Cardiac, GI, and renal systems are rarely involved. When a neuropathy is present, it is
generally because of a
compression syndrome, not as an extraarticular manifestation
Treat: NSAIDs, glucocorticoids, anticytokines (infliximab, etancercept), sulfasalazine,
methotrexate
Joint Pain
Gout
increased risk_men, EtOH consumption, after large meals, after trauma or surgery, thiazides
abrupt in onset and monoarticular with pain at rest and with movement; any joint can be
affected
podagra- an abrupt, intense inflammation of the first MTP joint
attacks often occur overnight, after an inciting event (excessive alcohol or a heavy meal).
Serum uric acid may be normal or low during an acute gout attack; use UA to monitor therapy
but not to diagnose acute attack
Monosodium urate crystals, needle shaped, strong neg birefringence on polarizing microscopy
Ca pyrophaosphate crystals: rode shaped, rhomboid, weakly positive birefringence
Ca hydroxyapatite: cytoplasmic inclusions that are non-birefringent
Ca oxylate: bipryamidal, strongly positive birefringence; ESRD patients
Joint aspirate: WBC is 2000-60,000; <90% neutrophils; high proportion of PMN leukocytes.
Septic joint: WBC: 100,000 with >90% neutrophils
Treat: Acute attack_
__
_colchicine, NAID, glucocorticoids; chronic_
__

_probenecid or allopurinol
sed rate & C-reactive protein are both nonspecific.
crystals of pseudogout are rhomboid-shaped and demonstrate positive birefringement.
glucose levels fluid aspirated from a knee with gout or pseudogout would be normal.
short course of NSAID is one standard therapy for gout, another is a course of colchicine.
Colchicine, 1 tab Q 1-2 hrs until pain is controlled or side effects limit use (usual side effect is
diarrhea).
Corticosteroids can provide quick relief, but should be reserved if initial therapy fails.
Allopurinol & probenecid are effective for prevention, but they can precipitate a flare.
Septic Joint:
infections of only 1 joint; limited range of motion, effusion, fever
Steroid use_S. Aureus
HIV_pneumococcal, salmonella, H. Influenzae
IVDU_strep, staph, gram neg, pneudomonas
Treat: drainage with IV antibiotics (Vancomycin if MRSA)
Ankle Sprain
Most ankle sprains are the result of inversion of the plantar flexed ankle
Grade I: stretching of ATFL w/pain and swelling but no mechanical instability or functional
loss
Grade II: partial tear of ATFL and stretching of CFL; more pain, swelling, bruising; moderate
joint instability,
pain with weight bearing, loss of range of motion
Grade III: complete tear of ATFL and CFL with partial tear of PTFL; significant joint
instability, loss of function,
inability to bear weight
Lateral ankle, and anterior talofibular ligament are most commonly injured (then CFL and
PTFL)
Ottawa Ankle Rules aid decision about x-rays (adult pts, normal mental status, within 10 days
of injury)
100% sensitivity in ruling out significant malleolar and midfoot fractures
Get x-ray if one of the following: >55 yrs, isolated patella tenderness; tenderness of head of
fibula; inability
to flex knee to 90 degrees; inability to bear weight for 4 steps
Anterior Drawer (ankle)_tests anterior talofibular ligament for a tear
Inversion Stress test_tests CFL; translation or palpable clunk of talus on tibia suggests tear
Squeeze test_tests syndesmosis; syndesmotic injury if pain at anterior ankle joint
Lachman test_excessive translation ofa ACL with no solid end point suggests tear
Anterior Drawer (knee)_tests ACL tear
Valgus Stres_tests MCL
Varus stress_tests LCL
PRICE therapy: protection, rest, ice, compression, elevation; NSAID or acetaminophen for pain
Shoulder:
Empty Can Test_tests supraspinatus for rotator cuff injury or tear
External shoulder rotation_tests infraspinatus/teres minor for rotator cuff injury or tear
Lift-off Test_tests subscapularis for rotator cuff injury or tear
GU Infections

Bacterial Cystitis:
Urine culture indicated when acute bacterial cystitis is suspected and urinalysis is inconclusive
classic symptoms + negative dipstick or microscopic evaluation_culture will confirm diagnosis.
4 factors correlate with a diagnosis of acute bacterial cystitis: frequency, hematuria, dysuria,
back pain.
4 factors likelihood of UTI: absent dysuria, absent back pain, history of vaginal discharge,
vaginal irritation
Women with any combination of the positive & negative symptoms have a more than 90%
probability of a UTI.
85% recurrent UTIs_develop within 24 hours of sexual intercourse.
First treat with: voiding after intercourse, acidification of urine, discontinuing diaphragm
if this treatment doesnt work_prophylaxis is indicated for women with frequent infections.
Single-dose postcoital anTbioTc. If that does not infecTons, daily single-dose antibiotic
prophylaxis for 3 - 6
months. If symptoms reoccur after discontinuation, it may need to continue for 1 to 2 years.
Urethritis: gradual onset.
Pyelonephritis: fever, back pain
Interstitial cystitis
chronic in nature and is generally not associated with back pain.
generally diagnosed through cystoscopy, based on presence of ulcerations and fissures in the
bladder
When hematuria is present, interstitial cystitis should be suspected.
Dysuria
Vulvovaginitis is a common cause of dysuria, but is associated with vaginal irritation or
discharge.
Dysuria without pyuria is common.
In postmenopausal years, atrophy is a usual cause.
In younger women, ask about a bladder irritant (caffeine & acidic foods are common).
treat asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy; treatment not indicated for other patients
Male GU
Epididymitis:
sexually active males due to retrograde spread of prostatitis or urethral secretions through the
vas deferens.
sexually active men < 35 yrs_usually associated w/urethritis & caused by N.gonorrhoeae or C.
trachomatis.
less commonly caused by Ureaplasma or Mycoplasma in this age group.
monogamous men > 35_more commonly due to enteric gram-neg rods (Enterobacter) assoc.
w/prostatitis
Testicular torsion
emergent surgical referral, as after 12 hrs w/o treatment, only a 20% chance that the testicle can
be saved.
absent cremasteric reflex (pinch or brush the inner thigh _ipsilateral testicle retracts toward
inguinal canal)
If pain is relieved upon elevation of the testicle when pt is supine, Prehn sign is +.
This does not occur with testicular torsion.

The cremasteric reflex and Prehn sign are positive in cases of epididymitis, hernias, orchitis, or
cancer.
Spermatocele:
asymptomatic nodules, generally found attached to the spermatic cord.
No tests are necessary, unless the diagnosis remains unclear.
Acute prostatitis:
most commonly seen in 30-50-y/o men, and symptoms include frequency, urgency, and back
pain.
patient generally appears acutely ill, and has pyuria.
prostate examination would reveal a boggy, tender, and warm prostate.
Female GU
Candidiasis:
vaginal itch with white cheesy exudate. White plaques usually adhere to
the vaginal wall.
KOH preparation shows multiple hyphae.
Treatment consists of topical azole applications or an oral one-time dose
of fluconazole.
Recurrent yeast infections_probably do not occur more frequently in
diabetic or HIV +women, but may be more difficult to eradicate in this
population
Trichomonas vaginalis:
strawberry cervix; triangular cells with long tails, slightly larger than WBC.
Bacterial Vaginosis:
Studded epithelial cells (clue cells)
treatment of choice is topical or oral metronidazole, with oral or topical
clindamycin an acceptable alternative.
Vaginitis
Trichomonas vaginalis:
Motile, flagellated trichomonads and many WBCs; thinner green-yellow discharge with fishy
odor; frothy discharge with
erythematous cervix
Incubation is 3-21 days after exposure
Risks: multiple sexual partners, pregnancy, menopause
Treat: metronidazole 2g po in a single dose for patient and partner or 500mg BID x 1 week
Vulvovaginal Candidiasis:
Thick, white discharge w/o odor; pruritis, edematous, erythema; pH 4-5; KOH prep shows
budding yeast or
pseudohyphase; fungal cultures not needed
Increased incidence in patients with DM, immunocomp., hx of antibiotic use
Treat: 150 mg fluconozole single dose; or 10-14 days if complicated; do not need to treat
partners unless symptomatic
Bacterial Vaginosis
Overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria and G. Vaginalis
Associated with many sexual partners, though not an STD
Thin, homogenous discharge, pH >4.5, +KOH whiff test, clue cells on wet mount prep

Treat: oral and topical metronidazole or clindamycin; treat pregnant women to decrease
incidence of preterm delivery
Mucopurulent Cervictis:
50% of gonococcal infections and 70% of chlamydial infections are asymptomatic
Diagnosis: gold standard is culture of cervical discharge
Treat: 125 mg ceftriaxone IM for gonorrhea or 500 mg cipro; Doxycyline 100 mg BID x 7
days for Chlamydia or single oral
dose of azithromycin if compliance is a concern; treat partners
PID:
Lower abdominal tenderness with adnexal and cervical motion tenderness, fever, discharge,
elevated sed rate and CRP
Treat: if pregnant, HIV, or severe disease, should get inpatient therapy; oral- flouroquinolone
for 14 days, or ceftiraxone IM
single dose; if inpatient, give cefotetan 2g IV
Complications: tuboovarian abscess, chronic ab pain, infertility, ectopic pregnancy
Liver
most important aspect of diagnosing alcoholic liver disease is the documentation
of chronic alcohol abuse.
labs showing acute hepatocellular injury _AST, ALT, LDH, and alkaline phos.
labs representing hepatic function (more suggestive of chronic disease)_albumin,
bilirubin, and prothrombin time.
Bleeding from varices is the most common cause of death in cirrhotic patients.
Absolute contraindications to liver transplant _portal vein thrombosis, severe
medical illness, malignancy, hepatobiliary sepsis, or lack of patient understanding.
Relative contraindications to liver transplant_active alcoholism, HIV or hep B
surface antigen +, extensive previous abdominal surgery, and a lack of a personal
support system.
Alcoholic hepatitis:
disproportionate of AST compared to ALT with both values usually being < 300
IU/L.
ratio is generally greater than 2.0, a value rarely seen in other forms of liver
disease
Jaundice
childhood unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia _hemolytic diseases (G6PD
deficiency & spherocytosis), Gilbert disease and Crigler-Najjar syndrome.
childhood conjugated hyperbilirubinemia_viral hepatitis is most
common; less common_wilson disease, galactosemia
Viral hepatitis accounts for up to 75% of jaundice in pts < 30, but only for
5% of jaundice in pts >60 yrs
Extrahepatic obstruction (gall stones, strictures, pancreatic cancer)
accounts for > 60% of jaundice in pts > 60 yrs.
CHF accounts for around 10% of jaundice in pts > 60, and metastatic
disease accounts for ~ 13%
obstruction suspected_
__
_do ultrasound or CT scan

_If dilated bile ducts, then ERCP or PTC.


_bile ducts not dilated but likelihood of obstruction is low, evaluate for
hepatocellular/cholestatic liver disease.
_obstruction is still considered likely after a negative ultrasound or CT
scan, MRCP is a reasonable next option.
Jaundice
Prehepatic Jaundice: hemolysis of RBCs which overwhelms the livers ability to conjugate and
clear the bilirubin; mostly unconjugaged
Posthepatic Jaundice: obstruction to the flow of bile through bile ducts; bile duct stones,
strictures, tumors; conjugated
Acute onset of painless jaundice in person > 50 yrs should be worked up for pancreatic cancer
Gilbert Syndrome: unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia
Congenital reduction of conjugation of bilirubin in the liver; level will increase during illness
then recover; no further work up
needed
Hemolysis: unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia; often with anemia with red cell fragments or
abnormalities
Hepatitis A: fecal-oral transmission; contaminated food nad water, drugs, male-male sexual
contact
Jaundice, fever, malaise, abdominal discomfort; self-limited; Incubation for 2-8 weeks; lasts 46 weeks
No specific treatment; just supportive care and symptomatic treatment
Vaccine available for those who are high risk
Prophylaxis for close contacts with immunoglobulin injection
Hepatitis B: transmitted via contaminated blood or body fluids;
Incubation 6 weeks 6 months; Acute symptoms are similar to hep a, but chronic hep b is
highly related to the age of the patient
HBsAg is present in acute and chronic
HBeAAg are more infectious
Anti-HBs is seen in resolved infections and in those vaccinated
Anti-HBcAg IgMis diagnostic of acute infection
Measurable HBsAg with negative anti-HBcAg IgM is diagnostic of chronic Hep B
Acute Hep B is treated supportively, chronic Hep B pts may qualify for antiviral therapy
Vaccination is universally recommended
Hepatitis C: most common cause of liver disease in the US; transmission via blood or body
fluid
60-85% will develop chronic infection with measurable levels of RNA
Chronic Hep C can lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma
Treat with antiviral therapy using ribavirin or interferon
Alcohol Abuse: leads to conjugated hyperbilirubinemia by impairing bile acid secretion and
uptake
AST is elevated more than ALT
Renal
most cases of chronic renal failure are caused by DM and HTN (60%)
serum creatinine can be normal in elderly people with chronic renal
insufficiency, because they have less muscle mass.

best indicator of the presence of renal failure is the GFR.


ability to concentrate and dilute urine is retained until the GFR falls < 30%
of normal.
hypoNa, hyperK, hyperP, and metabolic acidosis (plasma bicarbonate)
occur in later stages of kidney disease.
anemia generally appears when the GFR falls below 60 mL/min.
ACE inhibitors help prevent the evolution of microalbuminuria to full
blown proteinuria.
Renal replacement therapy (transplant or dialysis) is indicated for severe
renal insufficiency (GFR <15 mL/min).
CKD_higher risk for CVD; die primarily due to CVD, before reaching the
need for dialysis.
Renal Failure
First must assess volume status and see if kidneys recover with IV fluids
Stage I: GFR 90-100
Stage II: GFR 60-89
Stage III: GFR 30-59
Stage IV: GFR 15-29
Stage V: GFR <15 or dialysis
Elevated K_treat with sodium polystyrene sulfonate, insulin + glucose, and retention enemas
Anemia_reduced EPO
Edema_low albumin state
Hyaline casts_long term damage to kidneys
Chronic renal failure: GFR < 60 for 3 or more months; decrease in nephrons and function
Is a CVD risk factor
ESRD: irreversible loss of kidney function; GFR < 15
Causes: DM, HTN, glomerulonephritis
Diagnostics:
>30 mg microalbumin per gram CR
Renal imaging and microscopic evaluation of urine
Management: hydration, treat HTN, treat infection, no NSAIDs/aminoglycosides/radiocontrast
Keep BP < 130/80; use ACE or ARB, plus beta blocker, verapamil, or diltiazem if needed
Reduce protein excretion to <500-1000 mg/d, or 60% of baseline
Restrict dietary protein to 0.8-1.0 mg/kg/day
LDL < 100, and ideally <70
Treat volume overload with Na restriction and loop diuretics
Treat metabolic acidosis with sodium bicarb to maintain concentration of 22 mEq/L
Oral phosphate binders if GFR < 25-30
May treat with EPO before developing ESRD to reduce symptoms of anemia and CVD
Hematuria
Bladder Carcinoma:
Painless hematuria without other symptoms is the most common presentation
Risks: male, smoking, aromatic amines often used in dye, paint, aluminum, textile,
and rubber industries.
Pseudohematuria: chemical agents, foods, vaginal bleeding; beets, blackberries,
certain food dyes; chloroquine, metronidazole, phenytoin, rifampin, and

sulfasalazine
Acute prostatitis and UTIs are usually associated with dysuria, fever, and urinary
frequency and urgency.
Chronic prostatitis is associated with urinary symptoms as well.
Stones are associated with pain.
<40 yrs with hematuria, but a normal IV pyelogram, urine culture and
cytology_periodic monitoring, and reassurance
> 40 yrs w/hematuria and normal labs/pyelogram_cystoscopy would be
appropriate.
<20 yrs_
__
_glomerulonephritis, UTI
20-40 yrs_
__
_UTI, stone, trauma, neoplasm
>40 yrs_
__
_bladder cancer, stone, UTI, renal carcinoma, BPH
Hematuria
asymptomatic hematuria
Glomerular Hematuria: associated with proteinuria, erythrocyte casts, dysmorphic RBCs
Renal hematuria: associated with tubulointerstitial, renovascular, and metabolic disorders
Interstitial nephritis: eosinophils in urine; often caused by analgesics or other drugs
Urologic hematuria: tumors, calculi, infection, trauma, BPH
Gross hematuria_
__
_worry about malignancy; always needs a work-up
Microscopic hematuria_usually asymptomatic; no routine screening necessary
Initial dispstick method should be confirmed by evaluation of urinary sediment
Malignancy risk factors: smoking, benzene/aromatic amine exposure, hx of gross hematuria,
>40 yrs, hx of urologic disorder, irritative voiding symptoms, hx of UTI, analgesic abuse, pelvic
irradiation
Radiology: IVP for upper UT, ultrasound, CT (may lead to contrast nephropathy, give Nacetylcysteine), cystoscopy for lower UT
If negative work-up_follow for 3 yrs
Edema
many medications cause peripheral edema as a side effect.
Anti-HTN (CCBs), direct vasodilators, BBs, centrally acting agents,
antisympathetics, rosiglitazone, hormones, corticosteroids, NSAIDs
Bilateral edema + signs/symptoms of CHF (dyspnea, rales, JVD) _
get chest x-ray to rule in CHF, followed by an Echo.
If ascites is present_liver function studies are needed.
check urinalysis_If sediment is abnormal, nephritic syndrome or
ATN is the likely diagnosis.
Unilateral edema_lower extremity Doppler evaluation is indicated
unless history of recent trauma/inflammation

Signs of inflammation/erythema_cellulitis
chronic venous insufficiency_knee-length elastic stockings; leg
elevation throughout the day; limit prolonged standing
Thyroid
Hashimoto Thyroiditis
-most common cause of thyroiditis, and most common cause of goiter in the US
-middle-aged women, generally presents with enlargement of thyroid, and often there is
associated tenderness.
-TSH would be elevated, and the free T 3 and T 4 would be low.
Subacute lymphocytic thyroiditis_acute increase in thyroid size is seen, it is generally nontender.
Subacute granulomatous thyroiditis _follows a viral illness and is also associated with a mildly
painful gland.
Suppurative thyroiditis _associated with fever, a swollen thyroid, and clinical manifestations of a
bacterial illness.
Subclinical hypothyroidism is distinguished by an elevated TSH and a normal free T 4.
-will progress to clinical hypothyroidism at a rate of 2% to 5% per year.
-Risk for progression: presence of thyroid autoantibodies, old age, a female gender, and a TSH
level > 10 mIU/L.
-Invasive fibrous thyroiditis _gradually increasing gland that is firm, but is nontender.
Hyperthyroidism:
-elevated levels of thyroid hormones
-tachycardia is most commonly reported symptom, then fatigue, weight loss, tremor, anorexia,
and increased
sweating all occur with less frequency.
-Thyroid receptor antibodies are very specific and differentiate Graves disease from other
causes of
hyperthyroidism.
-Radionucleotide imaging is helpful in Graves, showing diffuse uptake.
-Once a thyroid nodule is found _radionucleotide imaging.
If a nodule takes up radiotracer, it is termed a hot nodule.
Colloidal cysts and tumors do not take up tracer and are cold nodules.
Therefore, hot nodules are more likely benign.
Neurofibromas would also be cold.
Hyperthyroid
Graves Disease
Symptoms: warm, moist skin, sweating, vasodilation, resting tremor, enlarged thyroid, weight
loss, tachycardia, upper eyelid
retraction, ophthalmopathy, elevated BP, widened pulse-pressure
Thyroid storm: sudden release of thyroid hormone; fever, confusion, restlessness, psychoticlike
behavior
Cause: IgG Abs bind to TSH receptors on thyroid gland_gland hyperfunctioning; autonomous
thyroid nodule may also
secrete thyroixine
Diagnosis: elevated free thyroxine, low TSH; T-99m scan shows diffuse hyperactivity with
large uptake in Graves, and
patchy uptake with overall reduced activity in thyroiditis

Treat: propylthiouracil (prevents peripheral conversion)and methimazole (inhibits


organification), and/or B-blockers;
radioactive iodine (ideal if not pregnant)
40% who receive radioactive iodine become hypothyroid
Medication side effect is agranulocytosis
Hypothyroidism:
lethargy, weight gain, hair loss, dry skin, slowed mentation, constipation, cold intolerance,
depressed affect
May be confused with Alzheimers in older patients
Most commonly due to Hashimoto thyroiditis
Low free thyroid levels, and high TSH; secondary hypothyroidism have low TSH
Treat with thyroid hormone replacement (Levothyroxine)
Nodular Thyroid Disease:
Increased malignancy in children, <30 or >60, hx of irradiation, family hx
Functional adenomas are rarely malignant; malignancy_irregular margins, vascular, microCa
Hyperfunctioning nodules are treated with surgery or ablation
Nonfunctioning nodules >1cm require biopsy (FNA)
Follicular cell malignancy cannot be distinguished from its benign equivalent
Malignant nodules_thyroidectomy followed by radioactive ablation
Hypercalcemia
Corrected serum Ca = (normal Albumin Pts albumin) x 0.8 x serum Ca
PTH, calcitonin and 1,25 dihydroxyvitami D3 (calcitriol) regulate Ca
Thyroid parafollicular cells make calcitonin to lower Ca levels through renal excretion and
opposing osteoclast
activation; this excretes Ca and P
PTH promotes osteoclast activation, mobilizing Ca from bone and Ca resorption at the kidneys
PTH also increases calcitriol levels which promote Ca and P absorption from GI tract
Symptoms: kidney stones, bone pain, arthritis, osteoporosis, poor concentration, weakness,
fatigue, stupor, coma,
abdominal pain, constipation, nausea, vomiting, pancreatitis, short QT, arrhythmias
Common causes of hypercalcemia:
Primary hyperparathyroidism_sporadic, familial, MEN I or II; usually due to an adenoma
Malignancy_solid lung, squamous ca of head/neck, renal, breast, multiple myeloma, prostate;
tumor secretes PTH-rP
or via direct osteolysis
Hypervitaminosis A_increased bone resorption
Immobilization_increased risk when underlying disorder of high bone turnover (pagets)
Hypervitaminosis D_increased calcitriol leads to increased GI absorption of Ca and P
Granulomatous _TB, sarcoidosis, hodgkins; extrarenal conversion of 25 OH D3 to calcitriol
Milk alkali syndrome_excessive intake of Ca containing antacids
Medications_thiazides, lithium; reduced urinary excretion or increased PTH
Rhabdomyolysis_Ca released from injured muscle
Adrenal insufficiency_increased bone resorption and increased protein binding of Ca
Thyrotoxicosis_increased bone resorption
Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia_defect in Ca sensing receptor
Treat: hydration, avoid thiazides, physical activity, avoid inactivity, parathyroidectomy

CVA/TIA
First get a brain CT without contrast, as well as blood sugar, electrolytes, renal function, drug
screen
If more than 3 hrs since the attack, patient is not a candidate for thrombolytic therapy
TIA: focal neuro deficit lasting less than 24 hrs, often less than 1 hr; increased risk for
subsequent stroke
Risk factors: HTN, DM, age, sex, race, heart disease, smoking, hyperlipidemia
95% are due to atherothromboembolism, cardiogenic embolism, and small vessel disease
Stroke: sudden onset of focal neuro deficit, lasting >24 hrs
MCA_aphasia, contralateral hemiparesis, sensory loss, spatial neglect, contralateral impaired
conjugate gaze
ACA_foot and leg deficits with cognitive and personality changes
Vertibrobasilar_motor or sensory loss in all 4 limbs, crossed signs, disconjugate gaze,
nystagmus, dysarthria,
dysphagia
Cerebellum_ipsilateral limb ataxia and gait ataxia
Initial treatment: supplemental oxygen, cardiac monitor, cautiously treat HTN, antipyretic if
febrile
Give anti-HTN if systolic >220 or diastolic >120; or, if pt is suitable for thrombolytic
treatment, give anti-HTN to
reduce systolic <185 and diastolic <110; IV labetalol, nicardipine, and sodium nitroprusside are
often used
Pts with non-hemorrhagic stroke should get aspirin in the first 48 hrs
Give DVT prophylaxis if not getting tPA
Pts should get rtPA if they can be treated in the first 3 hrs
Contraindications: recent surgery, trauma, MI, use of anticoagulants, uncontrolled HTN
Risk of hemorrhage is 5%
Prevention: quit smoking, reduce EtOH, treat HTN as per JNC-7 guidelines, LDL <100, tight
diabetic control, aspirin
Carotid endarterectomy can reduce risk of stroke in pt with history of TIA/CVA and carotid
artery stenosis; indicated if
>70% stenosis, or for symptomatic patients with 50-70% stenosis
Warfarin anticoagulation is useful for pts with a.fib, ischemic stroke caused by MI and LV
thrombus,
cardiomyopathy, rheumatic mitral valve disease, prosthetic heart valves
Tremor
Parkinson Disease:
tremor is typically seen at rest and inhibited by movement
glabella tap reflex is tested by percussing the pts forehead_orbicularis
oculi muscle contracts causing both eyes to blink. The blinking normally
stops after 5 to 10 repeated taps, but persistence of blinking is called
Myerson sign and is common among patients with PD.
MAO B inhibitors (selegiline) morbidity and mortality in PD and delay
functional impairment and disease progression. Other therapies provide
symptomatic relief only, and do not modify disease progression.
Essential tremor:

bilateral, usually symmetric and either postural (elicited by holding the


arm against gravity) or kinetic (more apparent during purposeful
movement).
Intention tremor:
Its amplitude will increase during visually guided movements.
Delerium, Dementia, AMS
history of HTN _think of multi-infarct dementia, rather than delirium (focal neurologic deficits
and papilledema)
in dementia, the level of consciousness is not clouded, but disorientation may occur later in the
illness.
abrupt onset of a mental status change is consistent with delirium.
narcotic excess_pinpoint pupils
DTs_dilated pupils and sympathetic outflow
EtOH withdrawl_hyperalert confusion
Amphetamine withdrawal_psychomotor slowing.
Alzheimers Disease:
age is the strongest risk factor. By 65, 1% meets diagnostic criteria, and the prevalence
doubles every 5 years
Family hx is risk factor- individuals with a first-degree relative with the disease are 4x more at
risk
other risk factors: female gender, low levels of education, CV risk factors, and a history of head
trauma.
Remote memories are well-preserved initially; ability to recall new information is lost early in
the illness.
Difficulty with word-finding is also noted early.
ability to recognize & draw complex figures is an early sign of problems, as is loss of the
ability to calculate.
Social propriety and interpersonal skills often remain strikingly preserved until late in the
illness.
no labs to independently confirm a diagnosis of Alzheimer disease.
Structural imaging is important to rule out other causes as well and may include either a CT
scan or an MRI.
MMSE, the clock drawing test, or other brief screening tools may be most useful in the
diagnosis.
3 cholinesterase inhibitors for treatment: donepezil (Aricept), galantamine (Reminyl), &
rivastigmine (Exelon).
metabolism of acetylcholinesterase, thereby prolonging its action at cholinergic synapses.
modest improvements in cognition, behavior, ADLs, and global measurements of functioning.
they do not change the progression of neurodegeneration.
donepezil_modest clinical improvement but no difference in rate of institutionalization or
progression
Pts with advanced disease have benefit from Memantine, with or without concomitant use of an
acetylcholinesterase inhibitor.
Lewy Body Dementia: begins similarly to Alzheimers, but pts develop complex visual
hallucinations and spontaneous signs of
parkinsonism

Dementia
Alzheimers Disease: most common cause of dementia
Definitive diagnoses by neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles on autopsy
Gradual onset and progression of cognitive dysfunction in more than 1 area of mental function
Should use a validated test, like the MMSE, to confirm presence of dementia
Depression in elderly can present with symptoms of memory disturbance = pseudodementia
Hypothyroidism, B12 deficiency, and neurosyphilis can also present like Alzheimers
Treatments: cholinesterase inhibitors
Mild-moderate: Donepezil, Galantamine, Rivastigmine
Alzheimers dementia: Tacrine must monitor liver enzymes
Severe: Memantine
Vascular Dementia: multi-infarct dementia is the second most common cause of
dementia
Symptoms related to amount and location of neuronal loss
Sudden onset and progresses in a stepwise fashion
Other illnesses associated with Dementia
Parkinson disease, normal pressure hydrocephalus, lewy body dementia, chronic alcohol
abuse, sedative use, anticholinergic use, hypothyroidism, B12 deficiency, neurosyphilis, hypoNa, AIDS
Syncope
Hct, serum creatine kinase, glucose, ECG, carotid massage,
orthostatic BP, & evaluation of pulses should be done
Additional testing _Holter monitor, Echo, ambulatory loop ECG, &
tilt table testing yields a diagnosis in 5% of patients.
Tilt table testing is recommended in pts with unexplained recurrent
syncope if cardiac causes have been ruled out.
An abnormal result suggests vasovagal syncope.
Psychiatric eval should be considered if the tilt table is normal,
especially if associated with other psychiatric symptoms (anxiety,
depression, fear, or dread).
Carotid Dopplers and MRI of the brain should be reserved for
people with bruits or focal neurologic signs.
Stress testing is indicated if there is high risk for, or symptoms of,
ischemic disease.
Geriatrics
of those >65 and of those >85 have some hearing loss; whispered voice test
Presbycusis, noise-induced hearing loss, cerumen impaction, otosclerosis, central auditory
processing disorder
most common cause of hearing loss in the elderly; age related sensorineural hearing loss
associated with
selective high frequency loss & difficulty with speech discrimination
rd
Hearing screening: 1/3
Noise induced: tinnitus, difficulty w/ speech discrimination, problems hearing background
noise
Otosclerosis: autosomal dominant; progressive conductive hearing loss

CAPD: difficulty understanding spoken language but may be able to hear sounds well
25% of patients > 65 have impairments in IADL or ADLs
IADLs: transportation, shopping, cooking, telephone, managing $, taking meds, cleaning,
laundry
ADLs: bathing, dressing, eating, transferring from bed to chair, continence, toileting
Vision screening: Snellen chart or Jaeger card is most sensitive and specific screening
Vision loss: presbyopia, macular degeneration, glaucoma, cataract, diabetic retinopathy
Age related macular degeneration is the leading cause of severe vision loss in elders; atrophy
of cells in central
macular region of retinal pigment epithelium, resulting in loss of central vision
Cataract disease: most common cause of blindness worldwide
Fall Assessment: leading cause of nonfatal injury
Cognitive screening: prevalence of dementia doubles every 5 yrs after 60_Clock draw and three
item recall
Depression screening: two question screen
Nutrition screening: serial weight measurements and inquiry about changing appetite
HTN screening: heart and CV disease are leading causes of death; thiazides are drugs of choice
Stroke prevention: stroke incidence doubles with each 10 yrs; greatest risks are HTN and a.fib
Cancer screening: colon and breast cancer screening until life expectancy is below 5-10 yrs
Osteoporosis screening: CaCO3 and Vit D reduce osteoporotic fractures; DEXA scan if >65
Immunizations: >65 get annual influenza & 1 pneumococcal shot; booster of tetanus &
diphtheria shot; Zoster
HIV/AIDS
PCP pneumonia is an AIDS defining illness in someone with HIV
Nonproductive cough, fever, dyspnea that worsen over a few days to weeks; febrile, tachypnic,
hypoxic
Bilateral interstitial infiltrates on xray; ground glass appearance
Commonly seen with candidiasis, diarrhea, Kaposi sarcoma, wasting syndrome
Give prophylactic treatment with TMP-SMX in pts with CD4<200
Initial HIV exposure: nonspecific symptoms, low grade fever, fatigue, myalgias; known as
seroconversion syndrome; most
experience clinical latancy for 6-9 months after primary infection
Category A: asymptomatic HIV, primary HIV, persistent generalized lymphadenopathy
Category B: symptomatic conditions indicative of defect in cell mediated immunity
Bacillary angiomatosis, ITP, candidiasis, listeriosis, PID, cervical dysplasia, peripheral
neuropathy, oral hairy
leukoplakia, herpes zoster
Category C: AIDS defining illnesses are present; CD4 <200 with or w/o symptoms is
considered a diagnosis of AIDS
Bronchi/trachea/lung/esophagus candidiasis, invasive cervical cancer, coccidiodomycosis,
etrapulmonary crptococcus,
intestinal cryptosporidiosis, CMV, HIV encephalopathy, HSV chronic
ulcers/bronchitis/pneumonitis/esophagitis,
disseminated/extrapulmonary histoplasmosis, intestinal isosporiasis, Kaposi sarcoma, burkitt
lymphoma,

immunoblastic lymphoma, brian lymphoma, MAC, mycobacterium TB, PCP, recurrent


pneumonia, PML, recurrent
salmonella septicemia, toxoplasmosis of brain, wasting syndrome
Diagnosis: positive ELISA tests should be confirmed by western blot
HIV RNA levels, CD4 levels should be monitored
Do initial screen for STDs, Hep B and A vaccine should be given, get PPD, Pap smear
Treat: give annual influenza vaccine; offer pneumococcal vaccine if CD4 <200
Live virus vaccines are contraindicated in HIB pts and their close contacts
Prophylaxis against PCP with TMP-SMX when CD4 <200
MAC prophylaxis with azithromycin or clarithromycin if CD4<50
HIV
Health care workers should be tested for HIV ASAP after needle stick and therapy should be
initiated using at least 2 meds to which the source would unlikely be resistant.
window period of several weeks - 4 months between infection and seroconversion when tests
may
be negative.
During this time, pts may be viremic & infectious, but not have sufficient levels of antibodies
to
result in + tests.
If there is strong clinical suspicion, plasma HIV RNA should be ordered.
More HIV infected women die of cervical cancer than from AIDS_
__
_Pap testing every 6 months.
In HIV-infected individuals, 5 mm is considered a positive test.
Prophylaxis against MAC should be instituted once CD4 count drops < 75 to 100
lymphocytes/mm
Prophylaxis against PCP should be considered once CD4 count drops < 200 lymphocytes/mm
3.
Prophylaxis for fungal disease, herpes simplex and zoster is not generally done.
CMV prophylaxis can be instituted in those with CMV IgG positivity and with CD4 counts <
50
lymphocytes/mm 3, but it is generally not done because ganciclovir (the primary prophylactic
agent) can cause neutropenia.
PCP: treatment of choice is TMPSMX for 3 weeks.
corticosteroids improve course of pts with moderate to severe PCP with O2 sat < 90% or a PaO
2<
65 mm Hg.
Ethics
Emancipation: person younger than 18 petitions
to be declared a legal adult
Live apart from parents, self-sufficient, married,
pregnant or a parent, in the military, declared so by
judicial system
Mature Minor/Judicial Bypass: minor may consent
to receive care w/o parent consent if deemed
mature by the judicial system

Ethical Principles: autonomy, beneficence,


nonmaleficence, justice
Growth Charts
concern should be raised when a child drops > 2 %ile brackets on a growth curve and does not
maintain at that area.
In the US, the majority of FTT is 2ndary to inadequate nutrition & a dietary history is most
likely to
reveal the cause.
Albumin has a long half-life and is a poor indicator of recent undernutrition.
Prealbumin is in acute inammaTon and undernutrition and is therefore insensitive.
Organic disease, including hypothyroidism, is found in < 10% of cases of FTT.
IgA levels are sensitive to undernutrition and would be in FTT.
FTT + diarrhea and recurrent respiratory infections_cystic fibrosis must be considered
FTT + wet burps/emesis/cough_get esophageal pH probe.
FTT + diarrhea or melena_inflammatory bowel disease may be considered, and a hemoccult
test
would be necessary.
FTT + diarrhea, ab pain, foul-smelling stools_lactose intolerance may be considered; lactose
tolerance test
FTT + projectile vomiting, ab distention, palpable mass_pyloric stenosis; get ultrasound
familial short stature _growth curve shows simultaneous changes in height and weight.
FTT & constitutional growth delay_weight rst, then height.
hypothyroidism_height velocity slows first and may plateau before weight changes.
breast-fed infants_weight relaTve to peers aZer 4 to 6 months, but catches up aZer 12 months.
Hospital admission is indicated for FTT if: hypotension, bradycardia, severe malnutrition.
Well Child Care
th
-5
rd
FTT: weigh below 3
%, or deceleration of growth across 2 major growth %iles in short time
All states require PKU and congenital hypothyroidism screening
Lead screening: once at 9-12 mo and once at age 2
Begin to measure blood pressure at age 3
Car seat rear facing until 20 lbs & 1 yr old; forward facing seat 20-40 lbs; booster seat until 4
ft/60
lbs
Developmental Milestones:
1 mo: reacts to pain, responds to noise, regards human face; eye contact
2 mo: eyes to midline, head prone, vocalizes, social smile, recognizes parent
4 mo: eyes past midline, rolls over, laughs/squeals, regards hand
6 mo: sits unsupported, transfers objects, rolls prone to supine, babbles, recognizes strangers
9 mo: pincer grasp (10), crawl, cruises, mama/dada, bye-bye, starts to explore
12 mo: walks, throws, 1-3 words, 1 step command, stranger/separation anxiety
2 yr: walk up/down stairs, copies line, runs, kicks ball, 2-3 word phrases, understood speech,
refers to self

by name, pronouns, parallel play


3 yr: copies circle, tricycle, 3 numbers, sentences, understood, 3 colors, group play, play
simple games,
knows gender, knows first and last name
4 yrs: body parts, copies cross/square, hops, throws overhand, completely understood, uses past
tense, tells
a story, social interaction
5 yrs: copies triangle, catches ball, dresses self, writes name, count 10 objects
6 yrs: draws person, ties shoes, skips, identifies left and right
Strabismus: asymmetric light reflex, refer to ophthalmologist
Abdominal/Vomiting Pain (Peds)
First steps: IV fluid hydration, surgery consult, ab xrays, NG tube; possible
contrast study
Intussusceptions: intermittent severe pain with gradual and slow bowel
telescoping; bilious vomiting; currant jelly stools; sausage shaped mass;
mass if often at the ileocecal junction; barium enema will be diagnostic
and therapeutic
Pyloric stenosis: olive shaped mass palpable in the RUQ; projectile
vomiting between 3-6 wks; nonbilious vomiting after meals; peristaltic
waves across upper abdomen; GI contrast shows double track sign
Malrotation: 60% are less than one month; bilious vomiting and
abdominal pain; get an upper GI series; beaklike appearance of contrast
medium; surgery is treatment
Foreign bodies: flat disk batteries need immediate intervention; most
objects will come out in stool
Poisoning: another cause of vomiting and ab pain in children
Limping and Pain (Peds)
Antalgic gait: when stance phase of gait is shortened, usually because of pain during weight
bearing
SCFE: most common nontraumatic hip pathology in adolescents; separation of growth plate
with
the femoral head being posteriorly displaced; treat by surgically pinning the femoral head
Common in obese adolescent males
Pain with internal rotation of the hip; obligate external rotation on passive flexion
Septic Arthritis: monoarticular and associated with systemic signs; children lay with their hip
flexed, abducted, and externally rotated; joint must be aspirated; GBS, staph aureus, strep
pyogenes; purulent aspirate with WBC > 50,000
Toddlers Fracture: spiral fracture of the tibia that results from twisting while the foot is
planted;
tibial tenderness and normal knee and upper leg
Congenital dysplasia of the hip: painless limp from the time the child learns to walk
Transient synovitis: self limited, often after a viral infection; low grade or no fever; normal
WBC,
normal ESR; pain with internal rotation of the hip and overall ROM limited by pain; yellowclear
aspirate with WBC < 10,000

Legg-Calve-Perthes: avascular necrosis of the femoral head in children 4-8; more common in
boys;
gradual onset of hip, thigh, or knee pain and limping; collapse, flattening, and widening of the
femoral head; treatment is conservative; high risk of developing degenerative arthritis
Non-Asthma Wheezing (Peds)
Acute wheezing_infectious or mechanical obstruction
Chronic wheezing_anomalies of tracheobronchial tree, CV disease, GERD, immunologic
disorder
Bronchiolitis: most common cause of acute wheezing in children < 2yrs, esp infants 1-3 mo
RSV accounts for 70%; the rest are parainfluenza, adenovirus, mycoplasma, metapneumo
Diagnosis is clinical, and includes rhinorrhea, wheezing, cough, irritability, dyspnea
Supplemental O2 and supportive care are the modes of treatment
Nebulized epinephrine, ipratropium or corticosteroids may be helpful
RSV Ig can be given before RSV season for children younger than 2 born prematurely
Croup: most common airway obstruction in children ages 6 mo 6 yrs
Inflammation of the subglotting region that produces barking cough, hoarseness, stridor
Parainfluenza, RSV, rhinovirus, enterovirus, influenza viruses
Runny nose and low grade fever prodrome
Steeple sign on radiology
Give coolmist therapy, corticosteroids, nebulized epinephrine
Epiglottitis: bacterial infection of supraglottic tissue usually in children younger than 5 yrs
H. influenza, strep pneumo, staph aureus, beta hemolytic strep
Child looks toxic with fever, severe sore throat, muffled speech, drooling, dysphagia
Tripod position with neck hyperextended
Thumb sign on xray; CBC shows leukocytosis, neutrophilia, bandemia
Treat with airway management and antibiotics
Foreign body airway obstruction: most common from 6mo 3 yrs
Weak cough, inability to speak or cry, high pitched sounds or no sounds during inhalation,
cyanosis, choking, vomiting,
drooling, wheezing, blood-streaked saliva, unilateral wheezing, decreased breath sounds, stridor
Do not to a blind finger sweep; may attempt opening the airway with head tilt
Fever and Rash (Peds)
Roseola:
HHV6, infects most children before age 3; fever and mild respiratory symptoms that last for 5
days, followed by an
erythematous maculopapular rash that suddenly appears; rash disappears in 1-2 days and no
treatment is usually
necessary
Varicella:
fever and rash which develops in clusters; exanthema is often papules or vesicles on an
erythematous base; dewdrops on
a rose petal; vesicles progress to shallow, crusted erosions; confirmed with Tzanck smear or
DNA probe; antiviral therapy
may shorten disease course if given within 72 hrs of onset
Erythema Infectiousum:

parvovirus B19/fifth disease: infects children under 10 yrs in the winter and spring; rash starts
as confluent erythematous
macules on the face and spares the nose and periorbital regions; slapped cheek appearance; rash
lasts 2-4 days followed
by lacy pruritis exanthema on the trunk and extremities lasting 1-2 weeks; may be given to fetus
during pregnancy,
resulting in hydrops
Group A Beta-Hemolytic Strep:
can cause strep pharyngitis, rheumatic fever, glomerulonephritis; rash of scarlet fever starts 2
days after onset of sore
throat; rash is punctuate, raised, erythematous eruptions that feel like sandpaper; rash starts on
upper trunk and spreads
to the rest of the trunk and extremities; strawberry tongue is common; rash fades and
desquamation occurs 4-5 days
after the first appearance of rash; confirm infection with rapid antigen testing or culture and treat
with PCN
Neisseria Meningitidis:
high fever, hypotension, altered mental status, meningeal irritation; rash often starts as an
erythematous maculopapular
eruption that progress to form petechiae; prophylaxis for close contacts with rifampin
Rocky mountain spotted fever:
acute, life-threatening infection caused by rickettsia rickettsii, transmitted by tick; acute fever,
headache, myalgia, fatigue;
the classic exanthema is a macular, popular or petechial eruption that starts on the wrists and
ankles; low WBCs, low
platelets, elevated liver enzymes; treat with doxycycline
Lyme Disease:
erythema migrans develops 3-30 days after infection; expanding erythematous macule with a
central clearing looking like
a bullys eye; treat with oral doxycycline
Childhood Enuresis
spontaneous nocturnal voiding into bed/clothes at least 2x/week for 3 consecutive months in a
child who is at least 5 yr
Primary monosymptomatic enuresis: bed-wetting w/o history of nocturnal continence & no
other
symptoms.
cause is unknown_felt to be due to producTon of nocturnal ADH.
associated with a maturational delay; 25% of 5-year-olds are enuretic.
Family history is important_1 parent enuretic, 40% likelihood child will be. If both parents,
70%
risk.
Enuresis alarms have been shown to be an effective treatment for nocturnal enuresis.
Frequent nighttime wakening may be effective, but compliance is a barrier to effectiveness.
DDAVP can also be effective, but relapse rate is high once the medication is discontinued.
Secondary monosymptomatic enuresis: recurrence of bed-wetting after at least 6 months of
nocturnal continence.

Non-monosymptomatic: bed-wetting associated w/urgency, frequency, straining, pain, chronic


constipation, encopresis
Breast Changes
Fibrocystic Changes: most common benign condition of the breast.
caffeine and methylxanthines, or using evening primrose oil may symptoms
Cysts: range in size from 1 mm to > 1 cm in size.
Fibroadenomas: rubbery, smooth, well-circumscribed, nontender, and freely mobile.
Mastitis: occurs with nursing, and is characterized by inflammation, edema, and erythema in
areas of the breast;
continue nursing, and start antibiotic that covers streptococcal & staphylococcal infections.
Mammograms: Up to 15% of breast cancers are mammographically silent.
palpable mass deserves further workup, even if the mammogram is negative_do an ultrasound
to determine if the mass is
cystic or solid, and possible biopsy.
Aspiration of the mass may be appropriate, but biopsy is still necessary if the mass is palpable
after aspiration, if the fluid is
bloody, or if the mass reappears within 1 month.
Spontaneous, unilateral discharge is most suspicious for breast cancer; bloody, serous,
serosanguineous, or watery discharge
deserves a workup as well.
abnormality seen on a mammogram is classified using the breast imaging reporting and data
system (BI-RADS).
BI-RADS classification 0 means that the test was incomplete, and additional testing should be
conducted ASAP
BI-RADS 1 & 2 mean that the mammogram is benign, and routine screening can be conducted
at usual intervals.
BI-RADS 3 indicates the lesion is probably benign, but diagnostic mammogram should be
performed in 6 mo
BI-RADS 4 and 5 are suspicious for, and highly suggestive of, cancer (respectively) and tissue
diagnosis is needed
Gynecomastia: benign enlargement of the male breast.
may be asymptomatic or painful, bilateral, or unilateral; Most cases resolve within 1 year.
commonly occurs around puberty, and if so, requires only a history, physical, exam, and
reassurance
Outside puberty, assessment of hepatic, renal, and thyroid functions may help uncover a cause.
Sex hormones are only tested if progressive enlargement is noted.
Breast Disease
Breast cancer risks: family hx of breast cancer, early age menarche, late age menopause,
nulliparity, first birth after age 30,
HRT use, obesity, physical inactivity, EtOH use
Palpation of a new breast mass should prompt a FNA
Clear, yellow or green fluid that results in complete resolution is diagnostic of a benign cyst
and pt can follow up in 4-6
wks to evaluate for recurrence of the lesion
Bloody fluid, a mass that doesnt resolve, or a lesion that recurs requires more evaluation;
Diagnostic mammography is the next test

Ultrasound can be used to determine if the lesion is solid or fluid filled and can assist with
aspirating cystic lesions
Masses found to be solid or complex should be biopsied
Core needle biopsies are done using ultrasound or mammographic guidance
Breast pain: not a common presentation of breast cancer
Cyclic mastalgia: diffuse, bilateral and related to menstrual cycle
Noncyclic mastalgia: unilateral and more common in postmenopausal
Nonmammary pain: pain not from the breast, but usually from the chest wall
Life style changes such as smoking cessation, caffeine elimination, stress reduction, primrose
oil will help with breast
pain; severe pain can be treated with danazol
Nipple Discharge: usually benign; discharge that is spontaneous, persistent, bloody, from a
single duct, associated with a
mass, is more likely to represent a pathologic process
Most common non-benign causes are intraductal papilloma, duct ectasia, cancer, infection
Pt should get mammogram
Treatment of most unilateral, spontaneous or bloody nipple discharge is surgical excision of the
terminal duct involved
Galactorrhea: hypothyroidism, hyperprolactinemia, pituitary adenoma, medications, pregnancy
Menstrual Cycle Irregularity
Normal menstruation: estrogen production by the ovaries is regulated by the hypothalamus and
pituitary; estrogen builds up
the endometrial lining; after ovulation, the corpus luteum produces progesterone, which
compacts the endometerium; if
conception does not occur, the production of progesterone abruptly decreases, resulting in
sloughing of endometrium
Amenorrhea: absence of menstrual bleeding for 6 or more months w/o pregnancy
Menometororrhagia: heavy menstrual flow or prolonged duration of flow at irregular intervals
Abnormal bleeding with irregular cycles is known as dysfunctional uterine bleeding and
implies an abnormality with
the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis
This is more common shortly after menarche and only require watchful waiting at that time
Continuous estrogen stimulation can lead to endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma which may
present as irregular
uterine bleeding
Menorrhagia: excessive menstrual flow, or prolonged duration >7 days at regular intervals
Ovulation is occurring
Leiomyomata (fibroids) are a common cause of this problem
If volume of menstrual bleeding is reduced but there is regular ovulation, think about asherman
syndrome, which is
scarring of the uterine cavity caused by trauma from uterine curettage
Metrorrhagia: bleeding occurring at irregular intervals
Poly/oligo menorrhea: cycles < 21 or >35 days apart, respectively
PCOS clinical picture: obese, hirsute woman with ongoing weight gain and irregular menses
Insulin resistance and androgen excess with anovulatory menstrual cycles
Can induce menstruation by giving progesterone or OCPs

Treat with lifestyle modification- diet, exercise, weight loss


Endometrial Cancer: risk factors are a history of anovulation, obesity, nulliparity, over age 35,
use of tamoxifen, or
unopposed exogenous estrogen
Work up: transvaginal ultrasound, endometrial biopsy; hysteroscopy with D and C can be
therapeutic
If the work up for abnormal bleeding does not reveal malignancy, anovulatory bleeding is
usually responsive to treatment
with OCPs or progestin
Menstrual Cycle Irregularity
Primary amenorrhea:
No menses at 16 in presence of normal secondary sex characteristics; no menses at 14 in the
absence of secondary sex traits
usually the result of a genetic or anatomic abnormality (gonadal dysgenesis, Turner syndrome)
amenorrhea + testosterone & DHEA-S _CT of adrenal glands & ultrasound of ovaries to rule
out neoplasm.
Primary amenorrhea w/normal secondary sex characteristics & normal initial labs_progestin
challenge test.
When no withdrawal bleeding_either inadequate estrogen production or outflow tract
obstruction.
No withdrawal bleeding after estrogen-progestin challenge _outflow obstruction or anatomic
defect.
Hypothalamic failure: anorexia nervosa, excessive exercise, chronic or systemic illness, severe
stress_suppression of hypothalamic GnRH
Pituitary failure
-inadequate GnRH stimulation; history of head trauma, shock, infiltrative processes, pituitary
adenoma, or craniopharyngioma.
Polycystic ovarian syndrome:
-primary amenorrhea; generally associated with normal breast development.
-androgen excess, and symptoms include irregular or absent menses, hirsutism, acne, and
virilization
Constitutional delay of puberty: common in boys; uncommon in girls, clinically very hard to
distinguish from other more common causes.
Secondary Amenorrhea:
Pregnancy is the most common cause
Polycystic ovarian syndrome is common and is responsible for ~ 30% of the cases of secondary
amenorrhea.
Anovulatory Bleeding:
caused by continuous unopposed endometrial estrogen stimulation; progesterone from the
corpus luteum is not secreted
most common cause of dysfunctional uterine bleeding in women < 20, accounting for ~ 95% of
cases.
Postmenopausal Bleeding: needs an endometrial biopsy to rule out endometrial cancer.
Pap Smear Results
ASCUS_repeat in 4 - 6 months & 1 year, HPV testing, or colposcopy. If the HPV
testing is negative, the pt is low risk for cancer, and Pap can be repeated in 1 year.

ASCUS + HPV testing is positive_colposcopy (if over 33 yrs) or wait for infection
to clear (if under 33 yrs)
ASCUS, HPV testing unavailable_colopscopy or repeat the Pap smear in 4 -6 mo.
If repeat Pap has results of ASCUS or higher, a colposcopy should be performed.
If the repeat is normal, Pap should be repeated again in 4-6 mo. If next repeat Pap
is negative, frequency of testing can return to normal.
If you perform a colposcopy and no CIN is found, Pap should be repeated in 12 mo
and the frequency of testing can return to normal.
If patient is postmenopausal and not taking estrogen, Pap can be repeated 1 wk
after a course of vaginal estrogen (4 wks). If the smear remains abnormal,
colposcopy can be considered.
ASCUS, favoring LSIL_colposcopy.
atypical glandular cells (AGUS)_colposcopy, or endometrial biopsy if the atypical
cells are of endometrial origin
Pelvic Pain
Ovarian cysts:
unilateral dull pain that can become diffuse and severe if the cyst ruptures.
smooth mobile adnexal mass with peritoneal signs if the cyst ruptures.
PID:
fever, vaginal discharge, dysuria; gradual in onset and bilateral.
Treatment should provide coverage for N.gonorrhoeae, C.trachomatis, anaerobes, and enteric
gram-neg rods_ceftriaxone 250 mg IM + doxycycline 100 mg BID for 14 days with or w/o
metronidazole 500 mg BID for 14 days.
Inpatient treatment w/parenteral antibiotics for pregnant women, pts with severe illness with
fever
& vomiting, and where surgical emergencies cant be ruled out; may be necessary for those who
fail outpatient regimen
Ectopic pregnancy:
pain is colicky, and may radiate to the shoulder if there is a significant hemoperitoneum.
Nausea, a symptom of pregnancy, is a diagnostic clue.
Ovarian Mass
80 % of ovarian masses in girls < 15 years are malignant.
any adnexal mass should be evaluated by transvaginal ultrasound and referral for surgical
removal.
In many women of childbearing years, adnexal masses are commonly cysts.
If the pain is not acute or recurrent, palpable cysts < 6 cm may be monitored with repeat pelvic
exam.
OCPs
may cause small in BP; risk with age. Once disconTnued, BP usually returns to normal
within 3 months.
androgenic (hair growth, male pattern baldness, nausea) & estrogenic (nausea, breast
tenderness, fluid retention).
Weight gain is thought to be common, but multiple studies have failed to show it to be
statistically significant
side effect most cited as the reason for stopping use is irregular bleeding_common in first 3 mo
3x risk of venous thromboembolism.

protective effect against ovarian cancer and endometrial cancer.


If an active pill is missed, and no intercourse has occurred in 5 days, 2 pills should be taken
immediately & a
backup method used for 7 days. If intercourse occurred in the previous 5 days, emergency
contraception should
be used immediately & pills restarted the following day. A backup method should be used for 5
days.
Progestin-only pills:
ovulation suppression, cervical mucus thickening, endometrium alteration, & tubal transport
inhibition.
effectiveness of this method is dependent on consistency of use.
no hormone-free period with these pills, and they should be taken every day.
do not risk for thromboembolism, and the WHO has reported this to be safe for women with a
history of
VTE, PE, DM, obesity, or HTN.
Nursing women can use this pill, but there is FDA approval for use in others as well.
OCPs containing estrogen and progestin components are contraindicated in smokers > 35 yrs,
because of risk of
thromboembolic events.
An intravaginal ring or transdermal patch that releases estrogen & progestin is contraindicated
in smokers > 35
Women who use IUDs are at higher risk for acquiring a STD and developing PID as compared
to women who use
barrier or other hormonal birth control methods, and patients should be screened carefully
Contraceptives
Hormonal contraceptives
Contraindicated if >35 and a smoker, thromboembolic disease, cerebral vascular disease,
coronary occlusion,
impaired liver function, breast cancer, abnormal vaginal bleeding, congenital hyperlipidemia
OCPs offer significant protection against ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer, Fe deficiency
anemia, PID, and
fibrocystic breast disease
Minipill reduces cervical mucus and causes it to thicken
Depo-Provera: injectable progestine every 14 weeks
Transdermal: similar to OCPs
Intravaginal Ring
Spermicide used alone: when used with a condom, failure rate is similar to OCPs
Condoms: effective at preventing STDs
Diaphragm: spermicide must be placed inside the diaphragm for it to be effective; leave for 6
hrs
IUD: alters the uterine and tubal fluids, inhibits transport of sperm through mucus and uterus;
high
risk of PID; recommended for women in mutually monogamous relationships; contraindicated if
recent/recurrent endometritis, PID, or STD, pregnancy, anatomically distorted uterine cavity,
HIV;
complications include perforation, septic abortion, ectopic pregnancy

Natural Family Planning: measure basal body temp, cervical mucus changes
Emergency contraception: high doses of COPS within 72 hrs decrease pregnancy risk by 74%;
mifepristone is effective after 72 hrs; 2 oral doses of levonorgestrel (plan b)
Emergency Contraception
should be used within 72 hrs of intercourse, well
before implantation (5-7 days after intercourse).
limited hormonal exposure, and have not been
shown to increase the risk of VTE, stroke, or MI.
no medical contraindications
do not disrupt an already implanted pregnancy
and do not cause birth defects.
Progestin ECPs prevent 85% of expected
pregnancies, and combined ECPs prevent 75%
L&D
ROM: visualize fluid, pH >6.5 in vaginal fluid on Nitrazine paper, ferning on air-dried
microscope slide
First stage of labor: onset of labor until cervix is completely dilated
Latent phase- contractions become stronger, longer lasting more coordinated
Active phase- starts at 3-4 cm of cervical dilation and goes at 1.2-1.5 cm / hr
Second Stage of labor: from complete cervical dilation until delivery of the fetus
Normally lasts less than 2 hrs in nulliparous, and <1 hr in parous
Third stage of labor: after delivery of baby and ends with delivery of the placenta; <30 minutes
Progress of labor is determined by: Power, passenger, pelvis
Fetal Heart Rate: normal is 110-160
Bradycardia: maternal hypothermia, meds, heart block, fetal distress
Tachycardia: maternal fever
Acceleration: increase in HR >15 beats/min for >15 sec reassuring
Deceleration: early coincides with contraction/increased vagal tone by compression of the fetal
head; late
decels are after contractions and show uteroplacental insufficiency/maternal hypotension,
epidural
anesthesia, oxytocin, HTN, DM; variable decels are due to umbilical cord compression during
contractions
Cardinal Movements: Flexion, Internal Rotation, extension, external rotation
Variability:
Decreased in sleep, CNS depressants, neuro abnormality, prematurity, acidemia
GBS:
Penicillin in labor; alternatives- ampicilin, cephalothin, erythromycin, clindamycin,
vancomycin
rd
Prenatal Care
First prenatal visit: CBC, HBsAg, HIV, RPR, UA, UC, rubella, blood type, Rh, Pap, GC/Chlam
Naegeles rule: subtract 3 mo and add 7 days to first day of LMP
Follow-up visits every 4 weeks until 28 wks, then every 2 weeks from 28-36 wks, then every
week
Ultrasound not required if uncomplicated; accurate within 1 wks in 1

tri; 3 wks in 3
nd
tri; 2 wks in 2
st
Radiation exposure: risk for baby only if >5 rads (dental xray is 0.00017 rads)
Folic acid: low risk women should take 500 micrograms; 1mg if high risk; 4mg if previous
child with NTD
Use methyldopa and CCB to treat HTN; avoid ACE, ARB, thiazide in first 2 trimesters
Trisomy screening: ideally between 16-18 wks
Triple screen: 65% sen; 95% sp- tests hCG, estriol, AFP
Quadruple screen: adds inhibin; 80% sen
Amniocentesis: 15 weeks; 0.5% risk of spontaneous abortion
CVS: 10-12 wks; 1-1.5% risk of spontaneous abortion; may be associated with limb defects
Gestational DM: screen at 24-28 wks with 1hr glucose challenge
If >135, do 3 hr GTT
28 weeks: repeat RPR, Hb/Hct, give RhoGAM if necessary
GBS: screen at 35-37 wks via swab of lower vagina, perineal area, rectum
Give intrapartum Abx if positive, or if previously positive in past pregnancy
Flu and tetanus toxoid can be given during pregnancy; varicella and rubella not during
pregnancy
Assumption of Fetal Maturity
Heart tones documented for 20 wks by nonelectonic fetoscope, or 30 wks by Doppler
36 wks since positive bHCG
US measurement of crown rump length at 6-11 wks supports gestational age of 39 wks
US at 12-20 wks confirms gestational age of 39 wks
Postpartum Care
Postpartum= 6-12 weeks after delivery of placenta
Breast feeding benefits: rapid return of uterine tone, reduced bleeding, faster weight loss,
reduced ovarian
and breast cancer, convenience, low cost
Breast feeding contraindications: HIV, active herpes, acute/active Hep B
Breast feeding women should use the progestin-only minipill for hormonal contraception
In women not breast-feeding, menstruation begins by the 3
rd
postpartum month
Breast engorgement occurs 1-3 days after delivery
Hemorrhage:
Early if within 24 hrs of delivery; late if >24hrs 6 weeks after delivery
Most commonly caused by uterine atony, lacerations/inversion, retained placenta,
coagulopathy
Uterine atony is most common cause_give IV oxytocin and do bimanual massage
nd
Methylergonovine is 2
line but contraindicated in HTN
Prostaglandin F2alpha is third line, but contraindicated in asthma
Fever:

Often a sign of endometritis _treat with broad spectrum antibiotics


th
UTI, atelectasis, wound infections, VTE
Mood disorders
Maternity blues: develop in the first week and resolve by 10
day postpartum
Tearfulness, sadness, emotional lability
Postpartum depression: onset within 4 weeks of delivery and seen up to a year later
Same symptoms as major depression; high recurrence rate in future pregnancies
Treat with SSRIs
Postpartum Psychosis: manic or delusional behavior within a few days to weeks of delivery
Psych
PTSD
reexperiencing a traumatic event.
Alcohol and drugs are commonly used by the patient to self-treat.
Antidepressants can ameliorate symptoms; sertraline & paroxetine have FDA indications for
treatment.
Alprazolam can be used, but there is significant concern for dependency problems.
Anorexia + Bulemia:
Both disorders involve self-evaluation that is unduly influenced by body weight and/or shape.
binge eating or purging are characteristics of bulimia; there is a binge eating/purging subtype of
anorexia
Both bulimics and binge eating/purging subtypes of anorexics may use diuretics, enemas, and
laxatives.
Both engage in inappropriate behaviors to prevent weight gain.
bulimics sense a lack of control over eating during binging; anorexics often feel a strong sense
of control.
ADHD:
50% to 75% of kids will continue to exhibit symptoms into adulthood.
In adults, ADHD may be more subtle, and symptoms may change_Deficits in executive
function tend to be more salient (poor
organization or time management) and hyperactivity may be replaced by restlessness.
hyperactivity and impulsivity tend to peak between the ages of 6 and 10, inattention remains
relatively stable through the lifespan of
the illness.
Hyperactivity is the most problematic feature for children with ADHD because it tends to be
most disruptive and socially unacceptable.
treating ADHD in adolescents actually the risk of substance abuse when compared to children
not treated.
Oppositional behavior and conduct disorders may be comorbid, but are not necessarily features
of ADHD.
Nefazodone should not be used in patients with liver disease.
Hypertension is a relative contraindication to venlafaxine.
Patients experiencing hypersomnia and motor retardation should avoid nefazodone and
mirtazapine.
Patients who report agitation and insomnia should avoid bupropion and venlafaxine.

Mirtazapine and tricyclic antidepressants are less preferred for patients with obesity.
Bupropion is contraindicated for patients with seizure disorder.
Depression
At least 5 of the following for a 2 week period: depressed mood/loss of interest or pleasure
plus:
weight change, sleep change, psychomotor change, fatigue/loss of energy, worthlessness,
decreased concentration, suicidal thoughts
Causes clinically significant distress or impairment of functioning; not due to another cause
Also consider- hypothyroidism, anemia, EtOH, sedatives, narcotics, cocaine, steroids
Depressed pts with CVD have a greater chance of dying of a heart attack
Treat: pharmacotherapy with psychotherapy is most effective
Treatment failure is usually due to medication noncompliance, inadequate duration of therapy,
or
inadequate dosing
Treat at least 6-9 months after first episode of depression
SSRI: increase serotonin by blocking presynaptic reuptake; takes 4-6 weeks before therapy
works;
side effects are sexual dysfunction, weight gain, GI disturbance, fatigue, agitation
SNRI: act on serotonin at low doses and NE at high doses; second line if SSRIs fail
TCA: affect reuptake of NE and serotonin; side effects of sedation, dry mouth, dry eyes, urinary
retention, weight gain, sexual disturbance, potentially fatal in overdose
MAOIs: increase serotonin and NE released during nerve stimulation; need tyramine restricted
diet
to avoid hypertensive crisis
Buproprion: contraindicated in seizure disorder or eating disorders; no sexual side effects
Trazodone: side effect of priapism; good to use as a sleep aid
Alcohol and Substance Abuse
Tolerance: increased amount or diminished effect
Withdrawal: withdrawal syndrome or need of substance to avoid withdrawal symptoms
Dependence: Substance taken in larger amounts or over more time than intended, Persistent
desire or
unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control, Great deal of time spent in activities necessary to
obtain substance or
recover from effects, Important social, occupational, recreational activities given up or reduced
because of
substance, Use is continued despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent problem
caused by it
Substance abuse: if patient does not meet criteria for substance dependence and one or more of
the following are
evident_failure to fulfill major role obligations, recurrent use in physically hazardous situations,
legal problems,
continued use despite persistent or recurrent social/interpersonal problems caused or made worse
by the
substance
CAGE: Cut down? Annoyed? Guilty? Eye-opener?
72-91% sensitive, 77-96% specific for answering 2 or more with yes

At-Risk Drinking: men age 65 or younger with >4 standard drinks in a day or <14 in a week;
men>65 and all women
with >3 drinks in a day or >7 in a week
Standard Drink: 14 g EtOH: 1 12 oz beer, 1 5 oz glass of wine, 1 shot spirits
Substance induced depression: depression arises in association with EtOH intoxication or
withdrawal
Antidepressant medication is likely to be ineffective, if not harmful, to a pt with EtOH problem
If symptoms persist >4 wks after EtOH discontinuation, consider other causes of depression
EtOH withdrawal: tremulousness, insomnia, anxiety, depressed mood, GI upset, palpitations,
sweating
Seizures can occur with in 6-48 hrs
Hallucinations can occur within 12-48 hrs
DTs occur within 48-72 hrs- hallucination, agitation, tremor, sleeplessness, sympathetic
hyperactivity
Benzodiazepines are the drug of choice for managing EtOH withdrawal
Intervention: 5-10 min discussion with Dr. can lead to significant reduction in risky drinking
Alcohol and Substance Abuse
EtOH:
Elevated GGT is shown to be more sensitive than an elevated MCV, ALT, or AST.
specificity is low; it is in nonEtOH liver disease, DM, pancreatitis, hyperthyroidism, HF, &
anticonvulsant use.
ratio of AST:ALT may help distinguish between alcohol and nonalcoholrelated liver diseases
Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) urine test detects recent EtOH consumption, but says nothing about the
level of
consumption or abuse. Its value is in the monitoring of those patients who are committed to
abstinence.
An MCV is 96% specic for alcohol abuse with a 63% predicTve value.
Naltrexone: helpful for both opiate addiction and alcohol addiction; saturates opiate receptor
sites and leaves
them unavailable for opiate attachment.
For EtOH abuse, naltrexone works by the reinforcing eect of EtOH (not allowing pts to
become drunk)
Disulfiram: negative reaction to ingested alcohol, regardless of the form; flushing, nausea, and
vomiting; alcohol in
cough medicines, mouthwashes, and other forms must be avoided
Acamprosat: most effective at reducing EtOH relapse.; affects both GABA and glutamine
neurotransmission with
greater and longer lasting effects than naltrexone
Cocaine:
Stopping cocaine use does not produce a significant physiologic withdrawal.
Intoxication with cocaine does produce elevated HR and BP.
cocaine withdrawal _extreme fatigue and significant depression. Relapse is common during the
crash
Opiates:
withdrawal is not life-threatening in otherwise healthy adults, but can cause severe discomfort.
Early symptoms: lacrimation, rhinorrhea, yawning, and diaphoresis.

Restlessness & irritability occur later, with bone pain, nausea, diarrhea, abdominal cramping,
and mood lability.
Smoking
5As approach to tobacco use and cessation
Ask about tobacco use
Advise to quit through clear personalized message
Assess willingness to quit
Assist to quit
Arrange follow-up and support
Buproprion: blocks uptake of norepinephrine and/or dopamine; contraindicated in patients
with eating disorders, MAO use, or seizure disorder; start meds 1-2 wks before quite date;
use for 7-12 wks
Nicotine-replacement therapy increases the chance that a smoker will quit.
Varenicline: selective nicotinic receptor partial agonist.
side effects include nausea, insomnia, and abnormal dreams. It is safe in persons with seizure
disorders,
Varenicline is taken for 1 week before the quit date, and therefore can be taken while a
person is still smoking.
Family Violence
physical violence, sexual, intimidation, emotional,
psychological, economic control, isolation from others
Look for numerous bruises of varying ages,
metaphyseal corner fractures, cigarette burns
Do a full x-ray bone scan and ophthalmologic exam
All elder and child abuse must be reported.
Child abuse not reported by a physician is a crime
A spiral fracture of the tibia is known as a toddlers
fracture and is a common injury
Adverse Drug Reactions and Interactions
(low yield)
Medications with high first pass hepatic clearance may be
particularly susceptible to adverse events caused by alterations
in hepatic metabolism
CYP1A2: induced by tobacco; drugs that depend on 1A2 are
theophylline and imipramine
CYP2C9, 2D6, 2C19 have evidence of genetic polymorphism and
different individuals have different rates of metabolism
2E1: alcohol effects this isoenzyme; can produce a hepatotoxic
metabolite of acetaminophen
Probenecid decreases renal excretion of penicillin, resulting in
an increased level and therapeutic effect
Creatinine clearance: (140 age ) x (ideal body weight in kg) (
0.85 for women) / 72 x serum creatinine