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Chapter 23 Homework

1. Which of these individuals is a homozygous genotype?


a. AA
2. All the genes in a population are that population's _____.
a. Gene pool
3. Genetic drift is a process based on _____.
a. The role of chance
4. A mutation occurs when _____.
a. there is a change in the DNA sequence of a gene
5. Every few years a giant axe chops off the head of every
person who is over 6 feet tall. How will this affect the
human population?
a. Alleles that promote "tallness" will decrease in
frequency.
6. Modern travel along with migration reduces the
probability of _____ having an effect on the evolution of
humans.
a.
genetic drift
7. The ease with which humans travel across the globe is
likely to increase _____.
a. gene flow
8. Homologous pairs of chromosomes are lined up
independently of other such pairs during _____.
a. metaphase I
9. Crossing over, resulting in an increase in genetic
variation, occurs between_____.
a. nonsister chromatids of homologous chromosomes
10.
In human gamete production there is an average
of _____ crossover events per chromosome pair.
a. 2-3
11.
Which of these gametes contain one or more
recombinant chromosomes?
a. B, C, F, and G
12.
This animation illustrates _____ as it occurs during
_____.
a. crossing over ... prophase I
13.
Which of the following are basic components of
the HardyWeinberg model?

a. Frequencies of two alleles in a gene pool before


and after many random matings
14.
Which of the following statements is not a part of
the HardyWeinberg principle?
a. The genotype frequencies in the offspring
generation must add up to two.
15.
True or false? The HardyWeinberg model makes
the following assumptions: no selection at the gene in
question; no genetic drift; no gene flow; no mutation;
random mating.
a. True
16.
What is the frequency of the A1A2 genotype in a
population composed of 20 A1A1 individuals, 80 A1A2
individuals, and 100 A2A2 individuals?
a. 0.4
b. The calculation to determine the frequency of the
A1A2 genotype is: 80 A1A2 individuals / (20 + 80 +
100) total individuals = 0.4, the frequency of the
A1A2 genotype.
17.
What is the frequency of the A1 allele in a
population composed of 20 A1A1 individuals, 80 A1A2
individuals, and 100 A2A2 individuals?
a. The frequency of the A1 allele is 0.3.
b. The frequency of the A1 allele is p = (number of A1
alleles) / (total of all alleles) = [(2 ( 20) + 80] / [(2
20) + (2 80) + (2 100)] = 0.3.
18.
Which of the following evolutionary forces results
in adaptive changes in allele frequencies?
a.
Selection
19.
What genotype frequencies are expected under
HardyWeinberg equilibrium for a population with allele
frequencies of p = 0.8 and q = 0.2 for a particular
gene?
a. The expected genotype frequencies are 0.64, 0.32,
and 0.04 for A1A1, A1A2, and A2A2, respectively.
b. The expected frequency of the A1A1 genotype is p2
= (0.8)(0.8) = 0.64; the expected frequency of the
A1A2 genotype is 2pq = 2(0.8)(0.2) = 0.32; the
expected frequency of the A2A2 genotype is q2 =

(0.2)(0.2) = 0.04. To verify your calculations,


confirm that the three frequencies add up to one.
20.
Which of the following evolutionary forces could
create new genetic information in a population?
a.
Mutation
21.

Parents

1. According to Mendel's law of segregation, what is the


probablity that a gamete (egg or sperm) from an Rr
parent carries an R allele? 50%
2. What is the probability that a gamete from an Rr
parent carries an r allele? 50%
22.

Offspring

3. When an Rr female is crossed with an Rr male, what


is the probability of producing a homozygous dominant
(RR) offspring? 25%
4. What is the probability of producing a homozygous
recessive (rr) offspring? 25%
5. What is the probability of producing a heterozygous
(Rr) offspring? 50%

23.

Parents

1. What is the probability that a gamete (egg or sperm)


from this population carries a CR allele? 80%
2. That a gamete from this population carries a CW
allele? 20%

24.

Offspring

3. Of all the offspring resulting from all the matings in


this population, what percentage should have the
genotype CRCR? 64%
4. What percentage should have the genotype CWCW?
4%
5. What percentage should have the genotype CRCW?
32%
25.

Comparing p and q in parents and offspring

6. In the offspring generation, what is the frequency of


the CR allele? 80%
7. In the offspring generation, what is the frequency of
the CW allele? 20%
26.
Click on the diagram to start the animation. What
process is illustrated by this animation?

a. gene flow
27.
Click on the diagram to start the animation. What
process is illustrated by this animation?

a. natural selection
28.
Generation-to-generation change in the allele
frequencies in a population is _____.
a.
Microevolution
29.
1. To calculate the frequency of the brown allele,
count the number of brown alleles and divide by the
total number of alleles in this population.
a. 2. In this beetle population, the number of brown
alleles is 8.
b. 3. In this beetle population, the total number of
alleles is 20.
c. 4. The frequency of the brown allele in this beetle
population is 0.4.
d. 5. The frequency of the green allele in this beetle
population is 0.6.
30.

natural selection
-Consistently causes a population to become better
adapted to its environment
-A result of differential success in reproduction
-Cannot cause a harmful allele to become more
common
genetic drift
-Responsible for the bottleneck effect
-Responsible for the founder effect
-Causes allele frequencies to fluctuate randomly
gene flow
-Can produce new alleles into a population's gene
pool
-A result of the movement of fertile individuals of their
gametes

31.
1. a) natural selection - b) frequency of white allele
increases
2. c) genetic drift - d) frequency of purple allele

increases
3. e) genetic drift - f) allele frequencies change but not
predictably.
4. g) natural selection - h) frequency of purple allele
increases
5. i) gene flow - j) frequency of white allele increases.
32.
Which type of selection tends to increase genetic
variation?
a.
Disruptive selection
33.
In a bell-shaped curve, the x-axis (horizontal
direction) of the graph represents which of the
following?
a. The value of a particular characteristic;
characteristics of an organism can include such
traits as size and color.
34.
True or false? Heterozygote advantage refers to
the tendency for heterozygous individuals to have
better fitness than homozygous individuals. This higher
fitness results in less genetic variation in the
population.
a. False
35.
Long necks make it easier for giraffes to reach
leaves high on trees, while also making them better
fighters in "neck wrestling" contests. In both cases,
which kind of selection appears to have made giraffes
the long-necked creatures they are today?
a. Directional selection
36.
Women often have complications during labor
while giving birth to very large babies, whereas very
small babies tend to be underdeveloped. Which kind of
selection is most likely at work regarding the birth
weight of babies?
a.
Stabilizing selection
37.
Black-bellied seedcrackers have either small beaks
(better for eating soft seeds) or large beaks (better for
hard seeds). There are no seeds of intermediate
hardness; therefore, which kind of selection acts on
beak size in seedcrackers?

a.

Disruptive selection
38.
Small Aristelliger lizards have difficulty defending
territories, but large lizards are more likely to be preyed
upon by owls. Which kind of selection acts on the adult
body size of these lizards?
a.
Stabilizing selection
39.
Different finch species have beaks of different
shapes and sizes. What do these beak differences tell
us?
a. Different finch beak shapes are evidence that finch
species adapted to different environments over
many generations.
40.
Genetic evidence supports which of the following
explanations for the presence of 13 different finch
species on the Galpagos islands?
a. Many years ago, a small population of a single
finch species migrated to the islands and evolved
into the current 13 species.
41.
What does the wide variety of different types of
animal eyes represent?
a.
the intermediate forms that probably occurred
in the common ancestors of todays animals
42.
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
a.
Organisms can change their DNA in order to
become better adapted to their environment.
43.
A giraffe and a mouse (both mammals) have the
same number of vertebrae in their neck and spine.
Which of the following accounts for this?
a.
The vertebrae in their neck and spine are
homologous because they share a common
ancestor.
44.
Sharks (which are fish) and dolphins (which are
mammals) are both shaped like a torpedo. Which of the
following accounts for this?
a.
Their shape arose through convergent
evolution, since that shape is beneficial for
animals living in the ocean.

45.
Which of the following best describes the likely
evolutionary steps that led to a complex eye like we see
in humans?
a.
a flat sheet of light-sensitive cells; lightsensitive cells in a cup; a pinhole camera without a
lens; a pinhole camera with a lens
46.
Which of the following best describes what we can
determine about the evolution of the eye?
a.
A variety of species exist that are likely to be
similar to common ancestors whose eyes evolved
to different degrees over time.
47.
According to the video, how quickly could
evolution take place, going from the simplest lightsensitive cells to a fully-functioning eye?
a.
over the course of 400,000 generations
48.
The enzyme lactase breaks the sugar lactose into
which compound(s)?
a.
Galactose, glucose
49.
How does the term lactase persistent relate to
the term lactose tolerant?
a.
A lactase-persistent person is lactose tolerant.
50.
Four individuals measured their baseline blood
glucose, then drank a litre of milk. They then measured
their blood glucose levels at regular 15 minute intervals
for 60 minutes. The results are shown in the graph
below. Which individuals are lactase-persistent?
a. Sarah, Peter
51.
What did researchers discover about the genetic
mutation causing lactase persistence?
a.
It is found in a regulatory region (a switch)
upstream of the lactase gene.
52.
Which discovery supports the hypothesis that
evolution of the lactase-persistence trait was driven by
the use of milk in pastoralist cultures?
a.
Ancient pots used to hold milk are about the
same age as the lactase-persistence mutations.

53.
How could milk-drinking have provided strong
favorable selection for lactase persistence?
a. Milk may have been a critical food source during
times of famine.
b.
Milk was safer to drink than water and reduced
exposure to pathogens.
c.
Milk is protein and fat-rich and therefore could
have been an important, high-quality food source
54.
Suppose that a mutation for lactase-persistence
occurred in each of the populations described below. In
which populations would the mutation be more likely to
increase in frequency over time because of natural
selection?
a.
a population that raises wheat and sheep
55.
Compare sickle cell disease and malaria.
a.
Sickle cell disease and malaria are both
potentially lethal diseases.
56.
In 1949, Dr. Tony Allison observed a high
frequency of Kenyans carrying the sickle cell allele in
coastal areas and near Lake Victoria, but a lower
frequency in the highlands. What did he hypothesize?
a.
He hypothesized that there was a connection
between malaria and sickle cell disease.
57.
How did Dr. Allison test his hypothesis that sickle
cell disease was connected to malaria?
a.

He expanded his study area beyond Kenya to


the rest of East Africa to see if malaria and sickle
disease were connected.
b.
He evaluated blood samples for malaria
parasites and the presence of sickle cells.
58.
If a person has two normal copies of the
hemoglobin allele, which statements are true?
a.
The person is susceptible to malaria.
b.
The person is homozygous at the hemoglobin
locus.
59.
In some populations, 1 in 500 people have sickle
cell disease. What reason does the film give for why a

potentially deadly, inherited disease is found at such


high frequencies?
a.
Individuals with one sickle cell allele are
protected from malaria and do not have sickle cell
disease, thus keeping the allele in the population.
60.
How does Dr. Allisons work provide an example of
natural selection in humans?
a. In areas with malaria, individuals with one sickle
cell allele reproduced at higher rates than those
with no sickle cell alleles.
b. In areas without malaria, individuals with two
sickle cell alleles reproduced at lower rates than
those without sickle cell disease.
61.
Predict what will happen to the frequency of the
sickle cell allele in areas where malaria has been
eradicated.
a. The sickle cell allele will decrease in frequency.