Study Material
Class XII  Mathematics
20152016
Study Material
Class XII Mathematics
20152016
Prepared/Revised by
Mr. S.K.Sivalingam
PGT (Maths), Faculty, KVS ZIET Mysore
Acknowledgement
,
. . ,
()
Shri. G.K. Srivastava, IAS
Additional Commissioner (Administration)
()
Shri. U N Khaware
Additional Commissioner (Academics)
.
()
Dr. Shachi Kant
Joint Commissioner (Training)
()
Shri. M Arumugam
Joint Commissioner (Finance)
. .
()
Dr. V. Vijayalakshmi
Joint Commissioner (Academics)
. .
()
Dr. E. Prabhakar
Joint Commissioner (Personnel)
. .
()
Shri. S Vijaya kumar
Joint Commissioner (Admn)
FOREWORD
The seven PGTs working as members of faculty at KVS,ZIET Mysore  Mr. K
Arumugam (Physics), Mr.S. Kalusivalingam (Maths), Mr. M Reddenna (Geo.), Mr. S.
Murugan (History), Mr. Hari Shankar (Hindi), Mr. Joseph Paul (Econ.) and Mr. U.P
Binoy (English) prepared Study Materials for Class XII for the academic year 20152016 in their respective subjects.
All these study materials focus on some select aspects, namely;
Gist of lessons/chapter
Marking scheme (CBSE)
Important questions
Solved Question papers with value point
Tips for scoring well in the examination
The above mentioned seven members of faculty at ZIET Mysore have put in a lot of
efforts and prepared the materials in a period of two months. They deserve
commendation for their singleminded pursuit in bringing out these materials.
The teachers of these subjects namely, Physics, Mathematics, Geography, History,
Hindi, Economics and English may use the materials in the month of January &
February 2016 for PreBoard Examination revision and practice purposes. It is hoped
that these materials will help the students perform better in the forthcoming Board
Examinations.
The teachers are requested to go through the materials thoroughly, and feel free
to send their opinions and suggestions for the improvement of these materials to
kvszietmysore@gmail.com.
Dr. E.T ARASU
Deputy Commissioner & Director
KVS, ZIET Mysore
PREFACE
It is a matter of great pleasure that after receiving encouragement from our Deputy Commissioner
DR. E.T Arasu, I now present the thoroughly revised latest edition of STUDY MATERIAL OF CLASS XII
MATHEMATICS based on the latest syllabus and revised question paper pattern to be followed from 2015
onwards.
THE SALIENT FEATURES OF THIS STUDY MATERIAL ARE AS FOLLOWS;
It covers the syllabus given by CBSE for the class XII Mathematics
Gist of each chapter
Marking scheme given by CBSE ( 2015)
Two sets of solved question papers with value points
Two sets of model question papers to be answered
Tips for preexamination and during examination
The material can be used for the purpose of revision
All the concepts of the subject have been included in the material
I am sure this material will serve the purpose of helping students perform better in the Board Examination.
However, suggestions and comments from the teachers and the students for the improvement of this
material will be highly appreciated.
Place: Mysore
Date: 17/12/2015
S.K.Sivalingam
Faculty ZIET Mysore
Index
S.No.
Particulars
Page
No.
Marking Scheme
10
60
88
105
115
118
122
MARKING SCHEME
Course Structure
Unit Topic
Marks
I.
10
II.
Algebra
13
III.
Calculus
44
IV.
V.
Linear Programming
VI.
Probability
10
Total
100
2. Determinants
Determinant of a square matrix (up to 3 x 3 matrices), properties of determinants, minors, cofactors and
applications of determinants in finding the area of a triangle. Adjoint and inverse of a square matrix.
Consistency, inconsistency and number of solutions of system of linear equations by examples, solving
system of linear equations in two or three variables (having unique solution) using inverse of a matrix.
Definite integrals as a limit of a sum, Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (without proof). Basic properties of
definite integrals and evaluation of definite integrals.
4. Applications of the Integrals
Applications in finding the area under simple curves, especially lines, circles/parabolas/ellipses (in standard
form only), Area between any of the two above said curves (the region should be clearly identifiable).
5. Differential Equations
Definition, order and degree, general and particular solutions of a differential equation. Formation of
differential equation whose general solution is given. Solution of differential equations by method of
separation of variables solutions of homogeneous differential equations of first order and first degree.
Solutions of linear differential equation of the type:
dy/dx + py = q, where p and q are functions of x or constants.
dx/dy + px = q, where p and q are functions of y or constants.
10
GIST OF CHAPTERS
Chapter1. Relations and Functions
Introduction:Any set of ordered pairs (x,y) is called a relation in x and y. Furthermore,
The set of first components in the ordered pairs is called the domain of the relation.
The set of second components in the ordered pairs is called the range of the relation.
Relation:  Let A and B be two sets. Then a relation R from set A to Set B is a subset of .
Types of relations: Empty relation: A relation R in a set A is called empty relation, if no element of A is related to any element
of A i
Universal relation :A relation R in a set A is called universal relation, if each element of A is related to every
element of A, i.e., R = A A.
Equivalence relation.: A relation R in a set A is said to be an equivalence relation if R is reflexive, symmetric
and transitive
A relation R in a set A is called
(i) reflexive, if (a, a) R, for every aA,
(ii) symmetric, if (a, b) R implies that (b, a) R, for all a, b A.
(iii) transitive, if (a, b) R and (b, c) R implies that (a, c) R, for all a, b, c A.
Function:
A function is a relation between a set of inputs and a set of permissible outputs with the property that each
input is related to exactly one output. An example is the function that relates each real number x to its
square x2.
A function is a relation for which each value from the set the first components of the ordered pairs is
associated with exactly one value from the set of second components of the ordered pair.
11
Types of functions:
Oneone (or injective):
A function f : X Y is defined to be oneone (or injective), if the images
of distinct elements of X under f are distinct, i.e., for every a, b in X, f (a) = f (b)
implies a = b. Otherwise, f is called manyone.
12
To check the injectivity of the function, f (x) =2x. Draw a horizontal line such that this line cuts the graph
only at one place. Such types of functions are known as oneone functions.
In this case where the line cuts the graph of a function at more than one place, the functions are not oneone.
Onto (or surjective):
A function f : X Y is said to be onto (or surjective), if every element of Y is the image of some element of X
under f, i.e., for every y in Y, there exists an element x in X such that f (x) = y.
Bijective function:
A function f : X Y is said to be oneone and onto (or bijective), if f is both oneone and onto.
13
14
Binary Operations
A binary operation on a set A is a function : A A A. We denote (a, b) by a b.
Binary Operation: A binary operation * defined on set A is a function from A A A. * (a, b) is
denoted by a * b.
Binary operation * defined on set A is said to be commutative iff a * b = b * a.
Binary operation * defined on set A is called associative iff a *(b * c) = (a*b)*c
If * is Binary operation on A, then an element e in A is said to be the identity element iff a * e = e
* a for every a i n A
Identity element is unique.
If * is Binary operation on set A, then an element b is said to be inverse of a A iff a * b = b * a = e
Inverse of an element, if it exists, is unique.
15
Range of usual
principal value
(radians)
Name
Usual notation
Definition
Domain of x for
real result
arcsine
y = sin1 x
x = sin y
1 x 1
/2 y /2
90 y 90
arccosine
y = cos1 x
x = cos y
1 x 1
0y
0 y 180
arctangent
y = tan1 x
x = tan y
/2 < y < /2
90 y 90
arccotangent
y = cot1 x
x = cot y
0<y<
arcsecant
y = sec1 x
x = sec y
x 1 or 1 x
0 y < /2 or /2 <
y
0 y < 90 or 90 < y
180
arccosecant
y = csc1 x
x = csc y
x 1 or 1 x
/2 y < 0 or 0 < y
/2
90 y 0 or 0 < y
90
(We may
16
Very important:
defined by
exists.
In fact, if we restrict the domain of the sin function to any one of the intervals
Then
,
domain and range.
corresponding to branches
exists,
and
interchange their
branch.
We can also justify our answer from the chapter Trigonometric Equations and General Values.
is
17
We may say that
. Also value of
Similarly we restrict the domains of other trigonometric functions to make it invertible the table given below
shows the domain and the range of the six basic inverse trigonometric function.
The values of domain and range indicated for different trigonometric, inverse trigonometric functions can be observed
from the graphs of trigonometric functions and their corresponding inverse trigonometric functions.
We can draw the graph of a inverse function of a function by taking image on line y = x.
Let us apply this to draw graph of y =
and y =
18
Note: Whenever no branch of an inverse function is mentioned, we consider the Principal value branch.
(b)
(c)
2. (a)
19
(b)
(c)
3. (a)
(b)
(c)
4. (a)
(b)
(c)
5. (a)
(b)
20
Chapter 3. Matrices
Definition: A matrix A is defined as an ordered rectangular array of numbers in m rows and n columns.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Row matrix: A matrix can have a single row A [ a11 a12 a13 a1n]
Column matrix:  A matrix can have a single column A =
Zero or null matrix: A matrix is called the zero or null matrix if all the entries are 0.
Square matrix:  A matrix for which horizontal and vertical dimensions are the same (i.e., an
matrix).
Diagonal matrix:  A square matrix A is called diagonal matrix if aij = 0 for .
Scalar matrix:  A diagonal matrix A is called the scalar matrix if all its diagonal elements are equal.
Identity matrix : A diagonal matrix A is called the identity matrix if aij = 1 for i = j , it is denoted by In.
Upper triangular matrix:  A square matrix A is called upper triangular matrix if aij = 0 for
Lower triangular matrix : A square matrix A is called lower triangular matrix if aij = 0 for
Matrix operations
1. Definition: Two matrices A and B can be added or subtracted if and only if their dimensions are the
same (i.e. both matrices have the identical amount of rows and columns.
2. Addition
If A and B are matrices of the same type then the sum is a matrixC =
obtained by adding the corresponding elements aij+bij i.e. A+B = C if aij+bij =cij
3. Matrix addition is commutative , associative and distributive over multiplication
A+B=B+A
A + (B + C) = (A+ B) + C
A (B + C) = AB + AC
(A+B)C= AC + BC
Subtraction
If A and B are matrices of the same type then the difference is a matrix D = obtained by
subtracting the corresponding elements aij  bij i.e. A  B = C if aij  bij =dij
4.
Equal matrices Two matrices are said to be equal if they have the same order and their
corresponding elements are also equal i.e. A = B if aij = bij for all I, j .
5.
Scalar multiplication If A and B are matrices of the same order and k, m are scalars then, scalar
multiplication is defined as kA=[kaij].
6.
K(A+B) = KA + KB
7.
(m+n) A = mA+ nA
21
8.
9.
Matrix multiplication
Definition: When the number of columns of the first matrix is the same as the number of rows in the
second matrix then matrix multiplication can be performed.
Let A and B . Then the product of A and B is the matrix C, which has dimensions mxp. The ijth element of
matrix C is found by multiplying the entries of the ith row of A with the corresponding entries in the jth
column of B and summing the n terms. The elements of C are:
Transpose of Matrices: The transpose of a matrix is found by exchanging rows for columns i.e. Matrix A =
(aij) and the transpose of A is:AT=(aji) where j is the column number and i is the row number of matrix A.
11.
Note that the diagonal elements of the skew symmetric matrix are 0.
A + AT is a symmetric matrix.
A  AT is a skew  symmetric matrix.
Every square matrix A can be expressed as a sum of a symmetric P and skew symmetric Q matrices
10.
a matrix
Interchange of any two rows or columns.
Multiplication of any row or column by any nonzero number(scalar)
The addition to the elements of any row or column the scalar multiples of any other row or column
Working rule to find A1 by elementary transformations
a) Write A = InA, apply elementary row transformations to both the matrices A on LHS and In on RHS
till you get In= BA. Then B is the required A1
b) Write A = AIn, apply elementary column transformations to both the matrices A on LHS and In on
RHS till you get In= AB. Then B is the required A1
22
NOTE : Apply only one kind of transformations (row or column ) in all the steps in one particular
answer.
Chapter 4 Determinants
Every square matrix A is associated with a number, called its determinant and it is denoted by det
(A) or A .
Only square matrices have determinants. The matrices which are not square do not have
determinants
(i) First Order Determinant If A = [a], then det (A) = A = a
then determinant can be formed by enlarging the matrix by adjoining the first two
columns on the right and draw lines as show below parallel and perpendicular to the diagonal.
23
The value of the determinant, thus will be the sum of the product of element. in line parallel to the
diagonal minus the sum of the product of elements in line perpendicular to the line segment. Thus,
= a11a22a33 + a12a23a31 + a13a21a32 a13a22a31 a11a23a32 a12a21a33.
Properties of Determinants
(i) The value of the determinant remains unchanged, if rows are changed into columns and columns
are changed into rows e.g., A = A
(ii) In a determinant, if any two rows (columns) are inter changed, then the value of the determinant is
multiplied by  1.
(iii) If two rows (columns) of a square matrix A are proportional, then A = 0.
(iv) B = k A, where B is the matrix obtained from A, by multiplying one row (column) of A by k.
n
(v) kA = k A, where A is a matrix of order n x n.
(vi) If each element of a row (or column) of a determinant is the sum of two or more terms, then the
determinant can be expressed as the sum of two or more determinants, e.g.,
(vii) If the same multiple of the elements of any row (or column) of a determinant are added to the
corresponding elements of any other row (or column), then the value of the new determinant remains
unchanged, e.g.,
(viii) If each element of a row (or column) of a determinant is zero, then its value is zero. (ix) If any
two rows (columns) of a determinant are identical, then its value is zero.
24
(x) If each element of row (column) of a determinant is expressed as a sum of two or more terms,
then the determinant can be expressed as the sum of two or more determinants.
Important Results on Determinants
(i)
AB = AB , where A and B are square matrices of the same order.
(ii)
n
n
(ii) A =A
(iii) If A, B and C are square matrices of the same order such that ith column (or row) of A is the sum of i
th columns (or rows) of B and C and all other columns (or rows) of A, Band C are identical, then A
=B + C
(iv) In = 1,where In is identity matrix of order n
(v) On = 0, where On is a zero matrix of order n
(vi) If (x) be a 3rd order determinant having polynomials as its elements.
(a) If (a) has 2 rows (or columns) proportional, then (x a) is a factor of (x).
2
(b) If (a) has 3 rows (or columns) proportional, then (x a) is a factor of (x).
(vii) A square matrix A is nonsingular, if A 0 and singular, if A =0.
(viii) Determinant of a skewsymmetric matrix of odd order is zero and of even order is a non zero
perfect square.
(ix) In general, B + C B + C
(x) Determinant of a diagonal matrix = Product of its diagonal elements
(xi) Determinant of a triangular matrix = Product of its diagonal elements
Minors and Cofactors
25
then the minor Mij of the element aij is the determinant obtained by deleting the i
row and jth column.
i+j
The cofactor of the element aij is Cij = ( 1)
Mij
Adjoint of a Matrix  Adjoint of a matrix is the transpose of the matrix of cofactors of the give matrix, i.e.,
26
DEFINITION: A system of linear equations is a set of equations with n equations and n unknowns, is of the
form of
ii.
iii.
iv.
27
A function is said to be continuous on the interval [a, b] if it is continuous at each point in the interval.
Definition of derivative
: If y = f(x) then y1 =
28
FORMULAE
2.
d n
x nx n 1
dx
4.
d
x 1
dx
d 1 1
dx x x 2
6.
d
dx
7.
d x
a a x log a
dx
8.
d x
e ex
dx
9.
d
1
log x
dx
x
10.
d
sin x cos x
dx
1.
d
c 0
dx
3.
d 1
dx x n
5.
n
n 1
x
x 21x
11.
d
cos x sin x
dx
12.
d
tan x sec2 x
dx
13.
d
cos ec x cos ec x cot x
dx
14.
d
s ec x sec x tan x
dx
15.
d
cot x cosec 2 x
dx
16.
d
1
sin 1 x
dx
1 x2
17.
d
1
cos 1 x
dx
1 x2
18.
d
1
tan 1 x
dx
1 x2
19.
d
1
cot 1 x
dx
1 x2
20.
d
1
sec 1 x
dx
x x2 1
21.
d
1
cos ec 1 x
dx
x x2 1
29
ROLLES THEOREM
STATEMENT Let f be a real valued function defined on the closed interval [a, b] such that
1. It is continuous on the closed interval [a, b].
2. It is differentiable on the open interval (a, b).
3. f(a) = f(b).
Then, there exist a real number c
Working Rule:
1.
2.
3.
4.
30
2.
The exponential function, sine and cosine function are everywhere continuous and differentiable.
3.
4.
Take O as origin in time t the position of the particle be at A where OA= s and in time t+t the position of the particle be
at B where OB=s+s clearly the directed distance of the particle from O is function of time t
s=f (t)
s+s=f (t+t)
Algorithm:
1. Solving any problem first, see what are given data.
2. What quantity is to be found?
3. Find the relation between the point no. (1) & (2).
4. Differentiate and calculate for the final result.
31
Slope of the tangent to the curve y = f(x) at the point (x0,y0) is given by m.
Equation of the tangent to the curve y = f(x) at the point (x0,y0) is (y  y0) = m (x x0)
Slope of the normal to the curve y = f(x) at the point (x0,y0) is given by 1 / m
Equation of the normal to the curve y = f(x) at the point (x0,y0) is (y  y0) = (  1 /m) (x x0)
To curves y = f(x) and y = g(x) are orthogonal means their tangents are perpendicular to each other at the
point of contact
Graphically, f(x) is increasing on (a, b) if the graph y=f(x) moves up as x moves to the right. The graph in fig is the graph of
strictly increasing on (a, b).
STRICTLY DECREASING FUNCTION: A function f(x) is said to be a strictly increasing function on (a, b) if
32
x1<x2 => f(x1)>f(x2) for all x1, x2(a, b)
Thus, f(x) is strictly increasing on (a, b) if the values of f(x) decrease with increase in the value of x. Graphically, f(x) is
decreasing on (a, b) if the graph y=f(x) moves down as x moves to the right. The graph in fig is the graph of strictly decreasing
on (a, b).
It is evident from fig that if f(x) is a decreasing function on (a, b), then tangent at every point on the curve y=f(x) makes and
obtuse angle with the positive direction of x axis.
Thus, f(x) > 0(<0) for all is the necessary condition for a function f(x) to be increasing (decreasing) on a given interval (a,
b). in other words, if it is given f(x) is increasing (decreasing on (a, b), then we can say that f(x)>0(<0).
SUFFICIENT CONDITION
Theorem Let f be a differentiable real function defined on an open interval (a, b).
(a) If f(x) > 0 for all , then f(x) increasing on (a, b)
(b) If f(x) < 0 for all , then f(x) decreasing on (a, b)
ALGORITHM FOR FINDING THE INTERVAL IN WHICH A FUNCTION IS INCREASING OR DECREASING.
33
Let f(x) be a real function. To find the intervals of monotonicity of f(x) we proceed as follows:
Step 1 find f(x).
Step II Put f(x)>0 and solve this inequation.
For the values of x obtained in step II f(x) is increasing and for the remaining points in its domain it is decreasing.
Or
1. Calculate f(x) =0 for critical points
2. Let c1, c2, c3 are the roots of f(x) = 0.
3. Cut the no line at c1, c2, c3
4. Write the interval in table
5. Consider any point in the interval
6. See the sign of f(x) in that interval and accordingly determine the function is increasing or decreasing in that
interval.
Maximum Let f(x) be the real function define on the interval I. then f(x)is said to have the maximum value in I, if there
exists a point a in I such that f(x)<f(a) for all x
in such a case, the number f(a) is called the maximum value of f(x) in the interval I
and the point a is called a point of maximum value of f in the interval I.
Minimum Let f(x) be the real function define on the interval I. then f(x) is said to have the minimum value in I, if there
exists a point a I such that
f(x)>f(a) for all x
In such a case, the number f(a) is called the minimum value of f(x) in the interval I and
the point a is called a point of minimum value of f in the interval I.
34
f(x)f(a)>0 for all x in (a,a+)
The value of the function at x= a i.e. f(a) is called the local minimum value of f(x) at x=a.
The points at which attains either the local maximum or local minimum values are called the extreme values of
f(x).
Case II. Let f have a local minimum value at x=c, then f is an increasing function in the left nbd of x=c
f(x) changes continuously from +ve to +ve as increases through c.
35
Just before the maximum the slope is positive, at the minimum it is zero and just after the maximum it is negative.
Thus decreases at a maximum and hence the rate of change of is negative at a maximum.
Minima
Similarly, at a minimum the slope changes from negative to positive.
Hence with increases of x. the slope is increasing that means the rate of change of slope w.r.t x is positive.
Working Rule:
1.
Find f(x).
2.
Solve f(x) = 0 within the domain to get critical point let one of the value of x = c.
3.
Calculate f(x) at x = c.
4.
If f(c) > 0 then, f(x) is minimum at x = c, and if f(c) < 0, then f(x) is maximum at x= c.
Maxima
Similarly, at a maximum the slope changes from positive to negative.
Working Rule:
5.
Find f(x).
6.
Solve f(x) = 0 within the domain to get critical point let one of the value of x = c.
7.
Calculate f(x) at x = c.
8.
If f(c) < 0 then, f(x) is minimum at x = c, and if f(c) < 0, then f(x) is maximum at x= c.
In order to illustrate the problem, draw a diagram, if possible. Distinguish clearly between the variable and
constants.
(ii)
If y is the quantity to be maximized or minimized, express y in terms of a single independent variable with the
help of given data.
(iii)
Get dy/dx and d2y/dx2, then equate dy/dx=0 get the value of x.
(iv)
36
Chapter 7 Integration
Integration is a way of adding slices to find the whole. Integration can be used to find areas,
volumes, central points and many useful things.
The Chain Rule tells us that derivative of g(f(x)) = g'(f(x))f'(x). But what about going the other
way around? What happens if you want to integrate g'(f(x))f'(x)? Well, that's what the
"reverse chain rule" is for. As you can see, a lot of integrals you'll run into can be solved this
way. It is also another way of doing substitution without having to substitute.
Trigonometric substitution
Another substitution technique where we substitute variables with trigonometric functions.
This allows us to leverage some trigonometric identities to simplify the expression into one
that it is easier to take the antiderivative of.
Division and partial fraction expansion
When you're trying to integrate a rational expression, the techniques of partial fraction
expansion and algebraic long division can be *very* useful.
Integration by parts
When we wanted to take the derivative of f(x)g(x) in differential calculus, we used the
product rule. In this tutorial, we use the product rule to derive a powerful way to take the
antiderivative of a class of functionsintegration by parts.
If u and g are two functions of x then the integral of product of two functions = 1st function integral of the product of the derivative of 1st function and the integral of the 2nd function
Write the given integral where you identify the two functions u(x) and v(x) as the 1st
and 2nd function by the order
I inverse trigonometric function
L Logarithmic function
A Algebraic function
T Trigonometric function
E Exponential function
37
Note that if you are given only one function, then set the second one to be the
constant function g(x)=1. integrate the given function by using the formula
is a
limiting case of the summation of an infinite series, provided f(x) is continuous on [a, b]
The converse is also true i.e., if we have an infinite series of the above form, it can be
expressed as a definite integral.
38
= F(b)F(a)
Properties
Property 1:
Property 2:
Property 3:
Property4:
Property5:
Property6:
Property 7:
Property 8:
39
1. x n dx
x n 1
, n 1
n 1
1
1
dx
n
x
n 1 xn1
1
4. dx log x
x
3. dx x
5. a x dx
2.
ax
log a
6. e x dx e x
7. sin x dx cos x
8. cos x dx sin x
9. sec 2 x dx tan x
17.
dx
1
x
tan 1
2
a x
a
a
18.
dx
1
ax
log
2
a x
2a
ax
19.
dx
1
xa
log
2
x a
2a
xa
20.
x
sin 1
a
a2 x2
21.
dx
x a
2
log x x 2 a 2
22.
23. a 2 x 2 dx
x 2 2 a 2 1 x
a x sin
2
2
a
24. x 2 a 2 dx
x 2
a2
x a 2 log x x 2 a 2
2
2
25. x 2 a 2 dx
x 2
a2
x a 2 log x x 2 a 2
2
2
dx
dx
x a
2
log x x 2 a 2
40
The standard way to do this is to let the ith strip begin at xi1 and end at xi; the area of that
strip is estimated as (xixi1)f(x'i) with x'i anywhere in the strip.
A Riemann sum is a sum of the form just indicated: it is a sum over strips of the width of the
strip times a value of the f(x) within the strip. The function is said to be Riemann
integrable if the sum of the area of the strips approaches a constant independent of which
arguments are used within each strip to estimate the area of the strip, as maximum strip
width goes to zero.
The notation used above can be understood from this approach; we are summing the area
of the individual strips, which for a very small interval around x of size dx is estimated to
be f(x)dx, and summing this over all such strips. The integral sign represents the sum which
is not an ordinary sum, but the limit of ordinary sums as the size of the intervals goes to
zero.
41
Area between two curves:There are actually two cases that we are going to be looking at.
In the first case we want to determine the area between y = f(x) and y = g(x) on the interval
[a,b]. We are also going to assume that
The second case is almost identical to the first case. Here we are going to determine the
area between x = f(y) and x =g(y) on the interval [c,d] with
.
42
where
called the integrating factor. If an initial condition is given, use it to find the constant C.
Here are some practical steps to follow:
43
5. If you are given an IVP, use the initial condition to find the constant C.
VARIABLE SEPARABLE FORM The differential equation of the form is called separable,
if f(x,y) = h(x) g(y); that is,
   (I)
4. Write down all the solutions; the constant ones obtained from (1) and the ones given
in (3);
5. If you are given an IVP, use the initial condition to find the particular solution. Note
that it may happen that the particular solution is one of the constant solutions given
in (1). This is why Step 4 is important.
Homogeneous Differential Equations
44
Chapter 10 VECTORS
A quantity that has magnitude as well as direction is called a vector. It is denoted by
directed line segment, where A is the initial point and B is the terminal point . The
distance AB is called the magnitude denoted by and the vector is directed from A to
B.
FIXED VECTOR is that vector whose initial point or tail is fixed. It is also known as
localised vector. For example, the initial point of a position vector is fixed at the
origin of the coordinate axes. So, position vector is a fixed or localised vector.
FREE VECTOR is that vector whose initial point or tail is not fixed. It is also known as a
nonlocalised vector. For example, velocity vector of particle moving along a straight
line is a free vector.
Coinitial vectors: Vectors having the same initial point are called as coinitial vectors.
Negative of a vector: A vector whose magnitude is the same of that of a given vector but in
the opposite direction is called as the negative of the given vector.
POSITION VECTOR gives the position of a point with reference to the origin of the
coordinate system. COLLINEAR VECTORS are those vectors that act either along the
same line or along parallel lines. These vectors may act either in the same direction
or in opposite directions.
vectors acting along the same direction.
vectors are said to be equal if they have the same magnitude and direction.
ADDITION OF VECTORS:
1. Triangle law of vectors for addition of two vectors. If two vectors can be represented
both in magnitude and direction by the two sides of a triangle taken in the same
order, then the resultant is represented completely, both in magnitude and
direction, by the third side of the triangle taken in the opposite order.
Corollary: 1) If three vectors are represented by the three sides of a triangle taken in order,
then their resultant is zero.
2) If the resultant of three vectors is zero, then these can be represented completely by the
three sides of a triangle taken in order.
2. Parallelogram law of vectors for addition of two vectors.If two vectors
are completely represented by the two sides OA and OB respectively of a
45
, such that
It is important to remember that there are two different angles between a pair of
vectors, depending on the direction of rotation. However, only the smaller of the two is
taken in vector multiplication
Some Properties of the Dot Product
i.i = j.j = k.k = 1 and i.j = j.i = i.k = k.i = j.k = k.j = 0.
The dot product is commutative:
The dot product is distributive over vector addition:
The dot product is bilinear:
When multiplied by a scalar value, dot product satisfies:
46
Vector product:
The Cross Product a b of two vectors is another vector that is at right angles to both.
a b = a b sin() n
i i = j j = k k = 0.
The cross product of a vector with itself is the null vector
If a b = a c and a 0 then: (a b) (a c) = 0 and, by the distributive law above:
a (b c) = 0 Now, if a is parallel to (b c), then even if a 0 it is possible that (b c) 0
and therefore that b c.
SCALAR TRIPLE PRODUCT
It is defined for three vectors
in that order as the
scalar
. ( )It denotes the volume of the
parallelopiped formed by taking a, b, c as the coterminus edges.
i.e. V = magnitude of . =  . 
The value of scalar triple product depends on the cyclic order of the vectors and is
independent of the position of the dot and cross. These may be interchange at pleasure.
However and anticyclic permutation of the vectors changes the value of triple product in sign
but not a magnitude.
47
Show that
If three vectors
48
In space, any point can be expressed as P(x, y, z). The equations of a line passing through a
given point and parallel to a given direction are given by
The equations of a line which passes through two given points are
.
Two lines in space may be parallel lines or intersecting lines or skew lines. Two parallel lines
or intersecting lines are in the same plane. If two lines do not intersect then there is no
angle between them.
Cos =
Unfortunately this gives poor accuracy for angles close to zero; for instance an angle of
1.00E7 radians evaluates with an error exceeding 1%, and 1.00E8 radians evaluates as
(ab) values cancel out the computation time is similar to the other expressions.
49
Thus the vector representing the shortest distance between AB and CD will be in the same
direction as (AB X CD), which can be written as a constant times (AB X CD). We can then
equate this vector to a general vector between two points on AB and CD, which can be
50
obtained from the vector equations of the two lines. Solving the three equations obtained
simultaneously, we can find the constant and the shortest distance.
Plane:
A plane is a flat (not curved) two dimensional space embedded in a higher number of
dimensions.
In two dimensional space there is only one plane that can be contained within it and that is
the whole 2D space.
Three dimensional space is a special case because there is a duality between points (which
can be represented by 3D vectors) and planes (also represented by 3D vectors). We can
visualise the vector representing a plane as a normal to the plane.
The angle between two planes is defined as the angle between their normals. It is given by
Coplanarity of four points:Coplanar points are three or more points which lie in the same plane where a plane is a flat
surface which extends without end in all directions. It's usually shown in math textbooks as
a 4sided figure. You can see that points A, B, C and D are all coplanar points on a single
plane.
51
The concept of coplanar points may seem simple, but sometimes the questions about it may
become confusing. With a little bit of geometry knowledge and some realworld examples, it
can be mastered even the most challenging questions about coplanar points.
Any three points in 3dimensional space determine a plane. This means that any group of
three points determines a plane, even if all the points don't look like they're located on the
same flat surface.
Let's look at another real life example. The tissue paper box is covered in leaves. Points have
been placed at the tips of four leaves and labeled W, X, Y and Z. From the first picture, we
can see that points X, Y and Z are coplanar. They form a triangle, and you can visualize that.
If you were to cut through the tissue box and pass through these points, you would have a
piece of the tissue box that would have a plane figure, a triangle, as its base.
52
Linear programming is the process of taking various linear inequalities relating to some
situation, and finding the "best" value obtainable under those conditions. A typical example
would be taking the limitations of materials and labor, and then determining the "best"
production levels for maximal profits under those conditions.
In "real life", linear programming is part of a very important area of mathematics called
"optimization techniques". This field of study (or at least the applied results of it) are used
every day in the organization and allocation of resources. These "real life" systems can have
dozens or hundreds of variables, or more. In algebra, though, you'll only work with the
simple (and graphable) twovariable linear case.
The general process for solving linearprogramming exercises is to graph the inequalities
(called the "constraints") to form a walledoff area on the x,yplane (called the "feasibility
region"). Then you figure out the coordinates of the corners of this feasibility region (that is,
you find the intersection points of the various pairs of lines), and test these corner points in
the formula (called the "optimization equation") for which you're trying to find the highest
or lowest value.
The Decision Variables: The variables in a linear program are a set of quantities that need to
be determined in order to solve the problem; i.e., the problem is solved when the best
values of the variables have been identified. The variables are sometimes called decision
variables because the problem is to decide what value each variable should take. Typically,
the variables represent the amount of a resource to use or the level of some activity.
The Objective Function: The objective of a linear programming problem will be to maximize
or to minimize some numerical value. This value may be the expected net present value of a
project or a forest property; or it may be the cost of a project;
The Constraints: Constraints define the possible values that the variables of a linear
programming problem may take. They typically represent resource constraints, or the
minimum or maximum level of some activity or condition.
Linear Programming Problem Formulation: We are not going to be concerned with the
question of how LP problems are solved. Instead, we will focus on problem formulation
translating realworld problems into the mathematical equations of a linear program and
interpreting the solutions to linear programs. We will let the computer solve the problems
for us. This section introduces you to the process of formulating linear programs. The basic
53
steps in formulation are: 1. Identify the decision variables; 2. Formulate the objective
function; and 3. Identify and formulate the constraints. 4. A trivial step, but one you should
not forget, is writing out the nonnegativity constraints. The only way to learn how to
formulate linear programming problems is to do it.
The corner points are the vertices of the feasible region. Once you have the graph of the
system oflinear inequalities, then you can look at the graph and easily tell where the corner
points are. You may need to solve a system of linear equations to find some of the
coordinates of the points in the middle.
Chapter 13 Probability
Definition:
54
Two events are dependent if the outcome or occurrence of the first affects
Two events, A and B, are independent if the fact that A occurs does not
affect the probability of B occurring.
Summary:
55
Summary:
Summary:
can be found by computing the probability of each event separately, and then multiplying
the results together.
Bayes theorem
Bayes' theorem (also known as Bayes' rule) is a useful tool for calculating conditional
probabilities. Bayes' theorem can be stated as follows:
Bayes' theorem. Let A1, A2, ... , An be a set of mutually exclusive events that together form
the sample space S. Let B be any event from the same sample space, such that P(B) > 0.
Then,
P( Ak B )
P( Ak  B ) =
P( A1 B ) + P( A2 B ) + . . . + P(
An B )
Bayes' theorem (as expressed above) can be intimidating. However, it really is easy to use.
The remainder of this lesson covers material that can help you understand when and how to
apply Bayes' theorem effectively.
When to Apply Bayes' Theorem
Part of the challenge in applying Bayes' theorem involves recognizing the types of problems
that warrant its use. You should consider Bayes' theorem when the following conditions
exist.
The sample space is partitioned into a set of mutually exclusive events { A1, A2, . . . ,
An }.
Within the sample space, there exists an event B, for which P(B) > 0.
56
57
heads that result from the coin flips. The variable X can take on the values 0, 1, or 2; and X is
a discrete random variable.
The table below shows the probabilities associated with each possible value of X. The
probability of getting 0 heads is 0.25; 1 head, 0.50; and 2 heads, 0.25. Thus, the table is an
example of a probability distribution for a discrete random variable.
Number of
Probability,
heads, x
P(x)
0.25
0.50
0.25
Note: Given a probability distribution, you can find cumulative probabilities. For example,
the probability of getting 1 or fewer heads [ P(X < 1) ] is P(X = 0) + P(X = 1), which is equal to
0.25 + 0.50 or 0.75.
Continuous Probability Distributions
The probability distribution of a continuous random variable is represented by an equation,
called the probability density function (pdf). All probability density functions satisfy the
following conditions:
The random variable Y is a function of X; that is, y = f(x).
The value of y is greater than or equal to zero for all values of x.
The total area under the curve of the function is equal to one.
Mean and Variance
Just like variables from a data set, random variables are described by measures of central
tendency (like the mean) and measures of variability (like variance). This lesson shows how
to compute these measures for discrete random variables.
58
59
so
60
g) (7).
4. Show that the relation R in the set of real numbers defined as R = {(a, b): a
} is neither
T2}.
7. If f: R
then find (f
f) (x).
is even} is an
equivalence relation.
9. Show that the relation S in the set A = { x : x Z,
ii) Is associative?
11. If the binary operation
12. Let
on Z is defined by
then find
.
. Find
61
N defined by f(n) =
function is bijective.
14. Let
16. Consider f: R
.
17. Let A =
that
18. If f: R
and
find (
) (x).
on A if any.
)(x).
62
1. Evaluate
2. Evaluate
3. Evaluate
4. Evaluate
5. Evaluate
6. Evaluate
7. Evaluate
8. Evaluate
9. Evaluate
10. Evaluate
11. What is the domain of sin1 x?
12. Prove that tan11 + tan12 + tan13 =
63
13. Prove that tan1
+ tan1
+ tan1
+ tan1
+tan1 =
23. Solve
24. Solve
26. Solve
64
1. Find x and y if
2. Find x and y if
3. Find x if
4. Find y if
5. Find y if
6. Find y if
65
19. If A =
2x 3y + 5z = 16, 3x + 2y 4z = 4 and
2x + y + 3z = 9, x + 3y z = 2and 2x + y
x + y  2z = 3.
20. If A =
+ z = 7.
66
1
2. x2
x3
10
1
3. x
x
4.
5. 1 x2
6. 3x2 4
7.
1 x
1 x
8.
9. x2 x3 5
4 x3
11.
1 x2
x 3x
x2 1
x2 1
x 1 x 1
x 1 x 1
4. Tan104x
1 co s x
6.
1 cosx
dy
= y2 + y sin2x.
dx
2
dy
9. If y = a sin x + b cos x then prove that y2 +
= a2 + b2.
dx
10. If y =
1 sin2 x
dy
then prove that
+ sec2 ( x) = 0.
dx
4
1 sin2 x
67
2x
4. sin1
1 x2
3. Sin1 1 x2
5. sin1 3x 4x3
1
6. sec1
2
2x 1
x
7. co s1
x 1
8. co s1
cos x
10. tan1
1 sin x
1 cos x
11. tan1
1 cos x
1 sin x
12. tan1
1 sin x
1 x2
14. tan1
1 x2
1 a2 x2 1
16. tan1
ax
a x
13. tan1
1 ax
1 x
15. co t 1
1 x
17. tan1
2
1 x 1
1 x2
2
18. tan1 x
x2 1
1 x 1 x
1 sin x 1 sin x
19. tan1
20. co t 1
1 x 1 x
1 sin x 1 sin x
21. sin1 x 1 x x 1 x2
22. sin1 3x 4x3 cos1 4x3 3x
sin1 x
dy
xy 1 .
23. If y =
then prove that 1 x2
dx
1 x2
4. e 2x
5. esin x
6. esin x
e x e x
8.
e x e x
7. e x tan x
9. e x cos x
11. log x2 3
1
12. log x
1 x2 1
14. log
2
1 x 1
1 cos 2 x
15. log
1 cos 2 x
17. log
xa xb
16. log
1 sin x
1 sin x
68
19. log s ecx tan x
x
x
20. log s ec tan
2
2
21. log x x2 1
ax
23. e
log sin bx
22. log x
x2 1
1.
x2 y2 25
2.
x2 y 2
1
a2 b2
3. x3 y3 3xy
4. x3 y3 3 x2y xy2
5. x 4 y 4 4xy
6. x3y3 y x
7.
x y
dy
xy 1 0.
8. If y 1 x2 log 1 x2 x then prove that 1 x2
dx
dy
1
dy
1 y2
0.
10. If x 1 y2 y 1 x2 1 then prove that
dx
1 x2
dy
1 y2
0.
1 x2 1 y2 a x y then prove that
dx
1 x2
dy
12. If x + y = sin(x + y) then prove that
=  1.
dx
dy
log x
.
13. If y log x = x y then prove that
dx
1 log x 2
11. If
14.
x ......
15.
16.
17. x
x
x
1
x .....
Logarithmic differentiation
Differentiate the following wrt x:
1. x x
2. xlog x
69
x
3. xsin x
4. sin x
cos x
5. sin x
sin x
6. ta n x
7. log x
8. sin x x
2x
x
2 x
11. x
x2 1
x2 1
sin x
x
sin x
12. x
co s x
sin x
co s x
13. sin x
tan x
sin x
tan x
14. sin x
9. xcot x
2x2 3
x2 x 2
tan x
sin x
tan x
15. sin x
dy
.
dx
dy
y
x
17. If x y 0 then find
.
dx
16. If x
c then find
dy
log x
y
x y
dy
y
19. If x e x then find
.
dx
dy
20. If x y x y then find
.
dx
21. x x
x ...
sin x
22. sin xsin x
...
2.
2t
1 t2
, y
.
2
1 t2
1t
3. x = a cos , y= b sin
4. x = a (1 cos ), y = a ( + sin )
5. x = a (cos + sin ), y = a (sin cos )
6. x = 2cos cos 2, y = 2 sin sin 2.
7.
Higher Derivatives
The derivative of the derivative of a function is called as the second derivative.
d2y
d dy
y '' or y or
dx
2
2
dx
dx
70
d3y
d d2y d3y
d d2y
y ''' or y or
3
dx3 dx dx2 dx3 dx dx2
1. Find the second derivative of x2 + log x wrt x.
2. If y = ex (sin x + cos x) then prove that y2 2y1 + 2y = 0.
d2y
cos x
3. If y = sec x + tan x then prove that
2
dx
1 sin x 2
d2y
dx2
sin x
1 co s x 2
71
1. Show that the rectangle of maximum area that can be inscribed in a circle is a square.
2. Verify LMVT for the function f(x) = x2 + 2x + 3 for [4, 6].
3. Prove that the curves x = y2 and xy = k intersect at right angles if 8k2=1.
4. Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y =
2y+5=0
6. The length x of a rectangle is decreasing at the rate of 5 cm / min and the width y is
increasing at the rate of 4 cm / min. when x = 8 cm y = 6 cm find the rate of change of
a)perimeter b) area of the rectangle.
7. Find the intervals in which the function f given by f(x) = sin x + cos x,
is strictly
Find the intervals in which the function f given by f(x) = sin x  cos x,
is strictly
72
10. A manufacturer sell x items at a price of Rs
2y+5=0
12. Find the approximate value of f(2.01) where f(x) = 4x3+5x2+2.
13. Find the points on the curve y = x3 at which the slope of the tangent is equal to the y coordinate of the point.
14. Find the equations of the normal to the curve y = x3+2x+6 which are parallel to the line
x+14y+4= 0.
the x axis.
16. Find the equations of the tangent and the normal to the curve x = 1 cos
1. Evaluate
x2
1 x3 dx
1 a. Evaluate
x sin x
dx
2. Evaluate
1 cos 2 x
0
2a. Eva.
x tan x
0 secx cos ecx dx
4. Eva.
x tan x
sec x tan x dx
0
5. Eva.
3. Eva.
3a. Eva.
ax
dx
ax
x sin x
1 cos
0
4a. Eva.
dx
x cos 6 x
dx
2
sin 6 x
3x
tan x cot x dx
dx
1 x
,y=
at
73
2
6. Eva.
sec x
3 tan xdx
7. If
3x
6a. Eva.
e dx
5 4e x e2 x
8.
x 4 ex
Evaluate
dx
3
x 2
e cos x
dx
8 a .Evaluate cos x
e e cos x
0
9. Evaluate
9a.Evaluate sec2 7 x dx
1
2
1 log x dx
cos x
dx
x
11a.Evaluate
12a.Evaluate
sec2 x
x dx
13a.Evaluate
2 sin x 3 4sin x dx
x4
dx
14a.Evaluate
x 1 x 2 1
10. Evaluate
11. Evaluate
13. Evaluate
14. Evaluate x co s x dx
2
10a.Evaluate
dx
1 x2
dx
5 4 x 2x2
sin x
dx
x
15. Evaluate
x 1 x 2 x 4 dx
15a.Evaluate
x
dx
16. Evaluate 2
2
a cos x b2 sin2 x
0
17. Evaluate
e2 x e 2 x
e2 x e2 x dx
e x sin4 x 4
dx
18. Evaluate
1 cos4 x
cos x
dx
x log x
e2 x e 2 x
dx
16a.Evaluate 2 x
e e 2 x
17a.Evaluate
log x
dx
x
1 x2
dx
18a.Evaluate
x 1 2 x
19. Evaluate
sin x cos x
dx
sin2 x
19a.Evaluate
20. Evaluate
3x
1
4
21. Evaluate
x
1
x sinx dx
74
22. Evaluate
sin
xdx
22a.Evaluate
5x 2
1 x 2 4 x 3 dx
23a.Evaluate
23. Evaluate
x 2
x 2 x 3 dx
1
24a.Evaluate
x sin x dx
25. Evaluate x 2 1 x dx
dx
3
2
3
2
1 x
25a.Evaluate
x 2 3x
x 1 x 2 dx
1. Find the area of the region included between y2= 4ax and x2 = 4ay, a > 0.
2. Find the area lying above the x axis and included between x2 + y2 = 8x and y2 = 4x.
3. Find the area of the region enclosed by the curves y = x2 and y = x.
4. Find the area of the region enclosed by the curves y2 = x and y = x + 2.
, x =  3, x = 3 and y =0.
.
7. Find the area of the region in the first quadrant enclosed by the xaxis, the line x =
y and
75
12. Find the area bounded by the lines x + 2y = 2, y x = 1 and 2x + y =7.
13. Find the area bounded by the lines 2x+ y = 4, 3x  2y = 6 and x  3y + 5 = 0.
14. Find the area bounded by the lines 4x  y + 5= 0, x + y 5 = 0 and x  4y + 5 = 0.
15. Find the area bounded by the curves x2 + y2 = 1 and (x 1)2 +y2 = 1.
16. Prove that the curves y2= 4x and x2 = 4y divide the area of the square bounded by x = 0, x = 4,
y = 4 and y = 0 into three equal parts.
17. Find the area of the region included between the parabola y2 = x and x+y = 2.
18. Find the area of the region included between the parabola x2 = 4y and x = 4y  2.
19. Find the area of the region included between the parabola 4y = 3x2 and 3x  2y+12 = 0.
20. Find the area of the region bounded by the curves
26. Find the area of the triangle ABC with vertices as A ( 1, 0), B(1, 3) and C(3, 2).
27. Find the area of the triangle ABC with vertices as A (4, 1), B (6, 6) and C (8, 4).
76
2. Form the DE representing the parabolas having the vertex at the origin and the axis along
the positive direction of xaxis.
3. Form the DE representing the family of ellipses whose foci on x axis and the centre at the
origin.
5. Solve :
6. Solve:
7. Solve
8. Solve
9. Solve
10. Solve
77
11. Solve
12. Solve
, y= 0 when x = 1.
13. Solve
14. Solve
15. Solve
16. Solve
, y = 0 when x =
17. Solve
18. Solve
19. Solve
20. Solve
21. Solve
22. Solve
23. Solve
24. Solve
25. Solve
. Y = 1 when x = 0.
78
26. Solve
find the solution curve passing through the point (1,  1).
=0.
79
19. If a , b & c are three vectors such that a b a c and a b a c , a 0then prove that
b c .
20. Write a vector of magnitude 15 units in the direction of i 2 j 2k .
21. Find the position vector of a point R which divides the line hoining two points P and Q
whose position vectors 2a b and a 3b externally in the ratio 1:2. Also show that P is
the midpoint of RQ.
22. Write a vector of magnitude 9 units in the direction of 2i j 2k .
2
and a b is a unit vector. Write the angle
3
between a & b .
80
and
at a distance
3. Find the equation of the plane passing through the point (1, 1, 2) and perpendicular to the
planes 2x + 3y 3z = 2 and 5x 4y + z = 6.
4. Find the equation of the plane passing through the point (1, 3, 2) and perpendicular to the
planes x + 2y + 3z = 5 and 3x + 3y + z = 0.
5. Find the equation of the plane passing through the point (3, 4, 1) and parallel to the line
81
7. Find the equation of the line passing through the point P (4, 6, 2) and the point of
measured
and
and
are
and
are
and
16. Find the equation of the plane determined by the points (3,1, 2), (5, 2, 4) and (1, 1, 6).
Also find the distance of the point (6, 5, 9) from the plane.
17. Find the direction cosines of the line passing through the points (2, 4, 5) and (1, 2, 3).
82
19. Show that the lines
and
22. Find the equation of the line passing through the points (0, 0, 0) & (3, 1, 2) and parallel to
the line
23. The points A (4, 5, 10), B(2, 3, 4), C (1, 2, 1) are three vertices of a parallelogram ABCD. Find
the vector equations of the sides AB & BC and also find the coordinates of the point D.
and
and
(1,
3, 3).
27. Find the distance of the point (6, 5, 9) from the plane determined by the points
(3, 1,
and
83
32. Find the coordinates of the point where the line through (3, 4, 5) & (2, 2, 1) crosses the
plane determined by (1, 2, 3), (2, 2, 1) & (1, 3, 6).
33. Find the Cartesian and the vector equations of the plane passing through the points (0, 0, 0)
1. A factory owner purchases two types of machines, A and B for his factory. The requirements
and the limitations for the machines are as follows:
Machine
Area occupied
Labour force
1000 m2
12 men
60
2000 m2
8 men
40
2.
He has maximum area of 9000 m2 available and 72 skilled labourers who can operate both
the machines. How many machines of each type should he buy to maximize the daily
output?
2. An aeroplane can carry a maximum of 200 passengers. A profit of Rs 1000 is made on each
executive class ticket and a profit of Rs 600 is made on each economy class ticket. The airline
reserves at least 20 seats for executive class. However, at least 4 times as many passengers
prefer to travel by economy class than by the executive class. Determine how many tickets
of each type must be sold in order to maximize the profit for the airline. What is the
maximum profit?
3. A diet is to contain at least 80 units of vitamin A and 100 units of minerals. Two foods F1and
F2 are available. Food F1 costs Rs 4 per unit food and F2 costs Rs 6 per unit. One unit of food
F1 contains 3 units of vitamin A and 4 units of minerals. One unit of food F2 contains 6 units
of vitamin A and 3 units of minerals. Formulate this as a linear programming problem. Find
the minimum cost for diet that consists of mixture of these two foods and also meets the
minimal nutritional requirements.
4. A dealer wishes to purchase a number of fans and sewing machines. He has only Rs 5760 to
invest and has a space for atmost 20 items. A fan costs him Rs 360 and a sewing machine Rs
240. His expectation is that he can sell a fan at a profit of Rs 22 and a sewing machine at a
84
profit of Rs 18. Assuming that he can sell all the items that he can buy how should he invest
his money in order to maximize the profit? Formulate this as a LPP and solve it graphically.
5. One kind of cake requires 200g flour and 25g of fat, and another kind of cake requires 100g
of flour and 50g of fat. Find the maximum number of cakes which can be made from 5 kg of
flour and 1 kg of fat assuming that there is no shortage of the other ingredients used in
making the cakes? Formulate this as a LPP and solve it graphically.
6. A small firm manufactures gold rings and chains. The total number of rings and chains
manufactured per day is atmost 24. It takes 1 hour to make a ring and 30 minutes to make a
chain. The maximum number of hours available per day is 16. If the profit on a ring is Rs 300
and that on a chain is Rs 190 find the number of rings and chains that should be
manufactured per day so as to earn the maximum profit. Make it LPP and solve it
graphically.
7. One kind of cake requires 300g flour and 15g of fat, and another kind of cake requires 150g
of flour and 30g of fat. Find the maximum number of cakes which can be made from 7.5 kg
of flour and 600 g of fat assuming that there is no shortage of the other ingredients used in
making the cakes? Formulate this as a LPP and solve it graphically.
8. A factory makes two types of items A and B made of plywood. One piece of item A requires
5 minutes for cutting and 10 minutes for assembling. One piece of item B requires 8 minutes
for cutting and 8 minutes for assembling. There are 3 hours and 20 minutes available for
cutting and 4 hours for assembling. The profit on one piece of item A is Rs 5 and that on item
B is Rs 6. How many pieces of each type should the factory make so as to maximize the
profit? Make it as a LPP and solve it graphically.
85
1. A pair of dice is thrown 4 times. If getting a doublet is considered as a success, find the
probability distribution of number of successes.
2. A and B throw a pair of die turn by turn. The first to throw 9 is awarded a prize. If A starts
the game, show that the probability of A getting the prize is 9 / 17.
3. A man is known to speak 3 out of 4 times. He throws a die and report it is a 6. Find the
probability that it is actually a 6.
4. A man is known to speak 3 out of 5 times. He throws a die and report it is a number greater
than 4. Find the probability that it is actually a number greater than 4.
5. An insurance company insured 2000 scooter drivers, 3000 car drivers and 4000 truck drivers.
The probabilities of accidents are 0.04, 0.06 and 0.15 respectively. One of the insured
persons meets with an accident. What is the probability that he is a car driver?
6. An insurance company insured 2000 scooter drivers, 5000 car drivers and 7000 truck drivers.
The probabilities of accidents are 0.04, 0.05 and 0.15 respectively. One of the insured
persons meets with an accident. What is the probability that he is a car driver?
7. A die is thrown again and again until three sixes are obtained. Find the probability of
obtaining the third six in the sixth throw of the die.
8. Three bags contain balls as shown in the table below:
Bag
II
86
III
A bag is chosen at random and two balls are drawn from it. They happen to be white and
red. What is the probability that they came from the III bag?
9. Two groups are competing for the position on the board of directors of a corporation. The
probabilities that the first and the second groups will win are 0.6 and 0.4 respectively.
Further, if the first group wins, the probability of introducing a new product is 0.7 and the
corresponding probability is 0.3 if the second group wins. Find the probability that the new
product introduced was by the second group.
10. Coloured balls are distributed in three bags as shown in the following table;
Bag
White
Red
II
III
A bag is selected at random and then two balls are randomly drawn from the selected bag.
They happen to be white and red. What is the probability that they came from bag II?
11. There are three coins. One is two headed coin (having head on both faces), another is a
biased coin that comes up heads 25% of the time and third is an unbiased coin. One of the
three coins is chosen at random and tossed, it shows heads, what is the probability that it
was the two headed coin?
12. The probability that A hits a target is 1/3 and the probability that B hits the target is 2/5. If
each one of them shoots a target what is the probability that
87
16. On a multiple choice examination with three possible answers for each of the five questions,
what is the probability that a candidate would get four or more correct answers just by
guessing?
17. A card from a pack of 52 cards is lost. From the remaining cards of the pack, two cards are
drawn and are found to be both clubs. Find the probability of the lost card being a club.
18. From a lot of 10 bulbs which include 3 defectives, a sample of 2 bulbs is drawn at random
with replacement. Find the probability distribution of the number of defective bulbs.
19. There are two bags, Bag I and Bag II. A bag contains 4 white and 4 red balls, bag II contains 3
white and 7 red balls. One of the two bags is selected at random and a ball is drawn from the
bag which is found to be white. Find the probability that the ball is drawn from the bag I.
20. A couple has two children. Find the probability that both are boys, if it is known that a) at
least one of the children is a boy. b) the elder child is a boy.
21. A bag contains 4 balls. Two balls are drawn at random, and are found to be white. What is
the probability that all balls are white?
22. An experiment succeeds twice as often as it fails. Find the probability that in the next six
trails there will be atleast 4 successes?
23. An urn contains 4 white and 3 red balls. Let X be the number of red balls in the random draw
of three balls. Find the mean and variance of X.
24. In answering a question on a multiple choice test, a student either knows the answer or
guesses. Let 3/5 be the probability that he knows the answer and 2/5 be the probability that
he guesses. Assuming that a student who guesses at the answer will be correct with
probability 1/3. What is the probability that the student knows the answer given that he
answered it correctly?
88
SAMPLE PAPER
CLASS: XII
MATHEMATICS
Max.Marks:100
Time Allowed: 3 hours
General Instructions:
1. All questions are compulsory
2. This question paper consists of 26 questions divided into three sections A, B and C.
Section A comprises of 06 questions of one mark each, section B comprises of 13
questions of four marks each and section C comprises of 07 questions of six marks
each
3. All questions in Section A are to be answered in one word, one sentence or as per
the exact requirement of the question
4. There is no overall choice. However, internal choice has been provided in 04
questions of four marks each and 02 questions of six marks each. You have to
attempt only one of the alternatives in all such questions.
5. Use of calculators is not permitted. You may ask for logarithmic tables, if required
SECTION  A
i j
1. If A =[a ij ] where aij
i j
if i j
, then construct a 2 3 matrix A
if i j
3.
4.
5.
6.
7. Prove that if a plane has the intercepts a, b, c and is at a distance of p units from
1
1
1
1
the origin, then 2 2 2 2
a
b
c
p
(OR)
(3 i 3 j 5 k ) (2 i 3 j 6 k )
8. Find the equation of the plane through the line of intersection of the planes
x + y + z = 1 and 2x + 3y + 4z = 5 which is perpendicular to the plane x  y + z = 0.
9. Find the probability distribution of number of doublets in three throws of
a pair of dice.
(P.T.O)
89
1 x 1
10. Write the simplest form of tan 1
(OR)
3
8
84
cos 1
Prove that sin 1 sin 1
5
17
85
2
x 2 if x 1
11. Discuss the continuity of the function f defined by f ( x)
x 2 if x 1
5
x
dx
12. Evaluate
7x x
2
dy
3a
2a
5ax
2
2
13. If y = tan 1 2
then show that
2
2
dx a 9 x
a 4x2
a 6x
.
x 2 1
x
dx
14. Evaluate e
2
x 1
(OR)
Evaluate
x 4
dx
x5
2
15. Evaluate 7 x 5dx as a limit of sum.
1
x 1 x 2 x a
16. Show that x 2 x 3
x3 x4
1 x2 1 x2
1
tan
17. Differentiate
with respect to x.
2
2
1 x 1 x
(OR)
d2y
If y = x + cot x then prove that sin x 2 2 y 2 x 0
dx
18. Find the matrix P satisfying the matrix equation
2 1 3 2 1 2
3 2 P 5 3 2 1 .
SECTION C
20. If length of three sides of a trapezium other than base is equal to 10 cm each, then
find the area of the trapezium when it is maximum.
(P.T.O)
(OR)
90
Prove that the radius of the right circular cylinder of greatest curved
surface area which can be inscribed in a given cone is half of that of the cone.
21. Using integration find the area of region bounded by the triangle whose vertices
are ( 1, 0), (1, 3) and (3, 2).
22. Find the image of the point (1,6,3) in the line
x y 1 z 2
1
2
3
24. A merchant plans to sell two types of personal computers a desktop model and a
portable model that will cost Rs 25000 and Rs 40000 respectively. He estimates
that the total monthly demand of computers will not exceed 250 units. Determine
the number of units of each type of computers which the merchant should stock to
get maximum profit if he does not want to invest more than Rs 70 lakhs and if his
profit on the desktop model is Rs 4500 and on portable model is Rs 5000.
25. Let f : N R be a function defined as f (x) = 4 x 2 12 x 15 . Show that f : N S
where S is the range of f is invertible and find the inverse of f.
26. Given three identical boxes I, II and III, each containing two coins. In box I, coins
are gold , in box II, both are silver coins and in the box III, there is one gold and one
silver coin. A person choses a box at random and takes out a coin. If the coin is of
gold, what is the probability that the other coin in the box is also of gold?
(OR)
A man is known to speak truth 3 out of 4 times. He throws a die and reports
that it is a six. Find the probability that it is actually a six
***
91
ANSWER KEY
Q.NO
Value points
Marks
2 1 2
Required matrix A =
3 4 1
1M
a b = 3 i 6 j 6 k
1M
1
Unit vector parallel to a b is (3 i 6 j 6 k )
9
4
5
6
7
Total
Marks
2 i 3 j 4 k . 2 i 3 j 4 k 11
Required distance =
9 36 4
1M
=1
= 3
2y y = 0
Order = 3 and Degree = 1
1M
1M
1M
1M
1M
4M
1M
92
OR
a1 i 2 j 4 k
a2 3i 3 j 5 k
1M
b 2 i 3 j 6 k
4M
(
2
1 )
=


1 M
1M
293
=
7
1M
1M
n1 (1 2 )i (1 3 ) j (1 4 )k
x  y + z = 0, n2 i j k .
1M
Since the planes are perpendicular, n1.n2 = 0
1 + 2 1 3 + 1 + 4 = 0 . 3 = 1 Therefore = 
1
3
1
in equation (1) we get
3
1M
The equation of the required plane is x z + 2 = 0.
1M
1M
M
4M
93
15
216
1
216
Required Probability distribution is
X
P(X)
10
0
125
216
1
75
216
2
15
216
Let x = tan
1 x 2 1
1 1 cos
Then tan 1
= tan
x
sin
2sin 2
2
= tan 1
2sin cos
2
2
3
1
216
1M
1M
4M
1M
2
1
tan 1 x
2
94
OR
11
3
8
Let sin 1 and sin 1
5
17
4
15
cos ;cos
5
17
now., cos( ) cos cos sin sin
84
85
84
cos 1
85
3
8
84
sin 1 sin 1 cos 1
5
17
85
For x<1 or x>1 the given function is continuous being a polynomial
At x = 1,
LHL lim f ( x) lim x 2 1
x 1
x 1
1M
1M
4M
1M
M
1 M
1M
x 1
1M
4M
1M
12
b
We know that
I
2
I
2
1M
x
25 x
dx
dx
7x x
7 (2 5 x) 2 5 x
2
5
1M
7x
dx
7x x
5
I I
2
3
I
2
f ( x)dx f (a b x)dx
4M
x 7x
5
dx dx x 2 5 2 3
7x x
2
5
1 M
95
13
14
5ax
5ax
1
a2
y tan 1 2
tan
2
2
2
a 6x
a 6x
a2
3x 2 x
a a
3x
2x
1
tan
tan 1 tan 1
a
a
1 3x 2 x
a
a
dy
1
3
1
2
hence,
2
2
dx
3x a
2x a
1
1
a
a
3a
2a
2
2
2
a 9x a 4x2
x2 1 1 1 x
e dx
I
x 12
x2 1
2 x
e dx
x 12 x 12
x 1
2 x
e dx
x 1 x 12
x 1
take f ( x)
x 1
2
Then f ' ( x)
2
x 1
4M
1 M
1M
1M
1M
1M
1M
4M
OR
1M
1 4
1 3
x
I 4 dx
x
1
3
put 1 3 1 x 3 t 4 dx dt
x
x
1M
2M
4M
5
4
1 1
4
1
I t 4 dt 1 3 c
3
15 x
1M
96
15
a = 1; b= 2
ba 3
h
nh 3
n
n
f ( x) 7 x 5
we know that
1M
h 0
1M
now, 7 x 5 dx limh 12 (7h 12) (14h 12) ..... (7(n 1)h 12
2
4M
h 0
h 0
7
lim h nh nh h 12nh
h 0
2
1M
1M
16
R3 R3 R2
1M
x 1 x 2 x a
x2 x3 xb
1
1
c b
1M
R2 R2 R1
x 1 x 2 x a
1
1
ba
1
1
c b
4M
17
1M
1M
xb 0
xc
x 2 cos , cos1 x 2
1 cos 1 cos
y tan 1
1 cos 1 cos
1M
cos sin
1
2
2
tan
cos sin
2
2
1M
97
1 tan
2 tan 1 tan( )
tan 1
4 2
1 tan
2
4M
1
cos 1 x 2
4 2
1M
dy
1 1
x
*2 x
dx
2 1 x4
1 x4
1M
( OR )
dy
1 cos ec 2 x
dx
1M
d2y
2 cot x
2 cos ec 2 x. cot x
2
dx
sin 2 x
1M
4M
d y
2 cot x 2( y x)
dx 2
d2y
sin 2 x 2 2 y 2 x 0
dx
sin 2 x.
1M
1M
18
let APB=C
P=A1CB1
1M
2 1
consider A=
3 2
1 2 1 2 1
A1=
1 3 2 3 2
3 2
Consider B=
5 3
1M
1 3 2 3 2
B1=
1 5 3 5 3
15
25
P=
37 22
19
1M
4M
1M
1
2
2 4
1
8 5 1
14
4 1 3
2M
4M
98
2 4 1
2 4
1
1
Now X = A B 8 5 1 1 = 2
14
4 1 3 9 3
2M
So x =1, y =2, and z = 3.
SECTION C
20
The required trapezium is as given in Fig below. Draw
perpendiculars DP and CQ on AB
1M
(fig)
DP QC 100 x 2
A.area of trapezium x 10 100 x 2
A '( x)
1M
1M
2 x 2 10 x 100
100 x 2
A '( x) 0 x 5
A ''( x)
2 x3 300 x 100
3
2 2
100 x
30
0
75
Thus the area of the trapezium is maximum at x=5
Area= 75 3 cm2
Let OC = r be the radius of the cone and OA = h be its height. Let a
cylinder with radius OE = x inscribed in the given cone .The height
QE of the cylinder is given by
1M
1M
A ''( x) x 5
OR
1M
1M
= because
QE
h( r x )
r
1M
6M
S S ( x)
2 h
rx x 2
r
99
2 h
r 2x
r
4 h
S ''( x)
r
S '( x)
S '( x) 0 x
1 M
1M
(fig)
M
r
2
Now S ''( x) 0, x
r
is a point of maxima of S
2
Hence the result
1M
100
21
1M
(fig)
6M
Equation of line segment AB is
1M
1M
Therefore, from equation (1), we obtain
Area (ABC) = (3 + 5 4) = 4 units
1M
22
2
2
2
General point is L( ,2 1,3 2 )
1M
1M
1M
101
Drs
AL (1,2 5,31)
AL perpendicular line 1(1)+2(25)+3(31)=0
=1
Points are (1,3,5)
The eqn
1
6
3
1
3
5
2
2
2
( , , ) (1,0,7)
23
1M
1M
6M
1M
6M
1M
1M
Substituting these values in equation (1), we get:
1M
6M
This is the required general solution of the given differential
equation
1M
102
24
1M
The monthly demand of computers will not exceed 250 units.
The profit on a desktop model is Rs 4500 and the profit on a
portable model is Rs 5000.
1M
1M
The corner points are A (250, 0), B (200, 50), and C (0, 175).
The values of Z at these corner points are as follows.
Corner point
Z = 4500x + 5000y
2M
103
A(250, 0)
1125000
B(200, 50)
1150000
C(0, 175)
875000
Maximum
25
26
1M
To prove f is 11
2M
f is onto
1 x 6
f1=
for all x [5, )
3
2M
2M
Let E1, E2 and E3 be the events that boxes I, II and III are chosen,
respectively.
1
Then P(E1) = P(E2) = P(E3) =
3
Also, let A be the event that the coin drawn is of gold
Then P(AE1) = P(a gold coin from bag I) =
2
1
2
6M
1 M
1 M
6M
1 M
Let E be the event that the man reports that six occurs in the
throwing of the die and let S1 be the event that six occurs and S2 be
the event that six does not occur.
6M
1 M
104
OR
1
6
5
6
P(ES1) = Probability that the man reports that six occurs when six
has
actually occurred on the die
3
= Probability that the man speaks the truth =
4
P(ES2) = Probability that the man reports that six occurs when six
has
not actually occurred on the die
3 1
= Probability that the man does not speak the truth = 1
4 4
Thus, by Bayes' theorem, we get
P(S1E) = Probability that the report of the man that six has
occurred is
1M
1M
1M
6M
actually a six
1 M
3
8
1 M
105
SA
(4 M)
LA
(6 M)
TOTAL
Unit
RELATIONS & FUNCTIONS

1(4)
ALGEBRA
1(1)
3(12)*
CALCULUS
2(2)
16(24)***
3(18)*
11(44)
3(3)
2(8)
1(6)*
6(17)
LINEAR PROGRAMMING


1(6)
1(6)
PROBABLITY

1(4)
1(6)
2(10)
TOTAL
6(6)
13(52)
7(42)
26(100)
1(6)
2(10)
4(13)
106
Sub: Mathematics
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS:
Section A
+ 1 1 4 1
1. If 
=
 find the value of x.
3 +2 1 3
2. Find 2 (7 4) .
3. Find the slope of the tangent to the curve y=3 4 4x at x=4.
4. Find a unit vector in the direction of sum of vectors = 2 + 7 and = 2 + 2 3
5. For what value of , 2 + + and 2 + 3
perpendicular to each other
6. If = 3 2 = + 2 find  + 2
Section B
8
1
1
7. If 0<x<1, solve tan ( + 1) +tan ( 1)=tan1 ( 31)
8. A school wants to award its students for the values of honesty, regularity and hard work
with a total cash award of Rs.6, 000.Three times the award money for hard work added to
that given for honesty amounts to Rs.11, 000.The award money given for honesty and hard
work together is double the one given for regularity .Represent the above situation
algebraically and find the award money for each using matrix method.
0 1 2
9. Using elementary transformation find the inverse of the following matrix A=[1 2 3]
3 1 1
1+
1
1
10. Using properties of determinants prove that  1
1+
1 =ab+bc+ca+abc
1
1
1+
OR
107
+

=4abc
+
=0
14. (3 2 +2+1)
(1 )(2 )
15. A man is known to speak truth 3 out of 4 times. He throws a die and reports that it is a
six. Find the probability that it is actually a six.
21. Prove that the volume of the largest cone that can be inscribed in a sphere of radius R is 27
of the volume of the sphere.
OR
If the sum of hypotenuse and a side of a right angled triangle is given .show
Find the mean, variance and standard deviation of the number of Kings?.
+2
25. Find the distance of the point (2,3,4) from the line
the plane 4x+12y 3z+1=0
OR
2+3
4
3+4
5
measured parallel to
108
Find the equation of the plane through the intersection of the planes
.( + 3) 6 =0 and .(3 4) = 0,whose perpendicular
distance from the origin is unity.
26. An aero plane can carry a maximum of two hundred passengers. A profit of Rs. 1000 is
made on each executive class ticket and a profit of Rs 600 is made on each economic class
ticket. the airline reserves at least 20 seats for executive class . However, at least four times
as many passengers prefer to travel by economy class, than by executive class. Determine
how many tickets of each type must be sold in order to maximize the profit for the airline?
what is the profit? Form a LPP and solve graphically? Aero plane is the fastest means of
transportation and reduces travelling time, so what is the importance of time?
109
SCORING KEY
SECTION A
1. x=2
1
2. 4 tan(74x)+c
3. 764
3
4
4. =5 + 5
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
5. 2
6. 5
(1)
(1)
SECTION B
1
+1+1
7. tan (1(+1)(1) )
2
= 8/31
+31x8=0
X=1/4 x=8(not possible)
(1)
8. let x,y and z be the awarded money for honesty ,regularity and hardwork
A.T.Q the system of equations are:
X+y+z =6000 , x+3z =11000, x2y+z=0
Wkt AX = B
1 1 1
6000
Where A = [1 0 3] , X =[] , B =[11000]
1 2 1
0
(1/2)
6 3 3
1
Getting A1 = 6 [ 2
0 2]
2 3 1
1
(12 )
Applying X = A1B to getting x=500,y=2000,z=3500
0 1 2
1 0 0
9. Write A = IA [1 2 3]
= [0 1 0] A
1/2
3 1 1
0 0 1
For R1 R2

For R3 R3  3R1
 1/2
1 2 2
0 1 1
[0 1 2] = [1 0 0] A
3 1 1
0 3 1
R1 R1  2R2
1 0 1
2 1 0
[0 1
]
=
[
2
1
0 0] A 1/2
0 5 8
0 3 1
R3 R3 + 5R2
1 0 1
2 1 0
[0 1 2 ] = [ 1
0 0] A
0 0 2
5 3 1
For R3 12R3  1/2
For R1 R1 + R3 1 /2
R2 R2  2R3
2 2
4x2
(1)
( 1)
(1)
(1)
110
1
2
1 0 0
[0 1 0] = [4
5
0 0 1
2
1
2
1
2
5
2
3
2
A1 = [4
1
2
1
2
1] A 1/2
3
2
1
2
1
2
1]
1/2
1
2
abc 1/
1/
+1
1/
1/
1
(1)
+1
Applying R1 R1+R2+R3
Applying C2C2C1 ,C3 C3 C1
Expand along R1 to get the answer
OR
Applying R1R1+ R2+ R3
Taking 2 as common factor from R1
Apply R2R2 R1 , R3 R3 R1
Apply R1
R1+R2+R3
(1/2)
Expand along R1 to get the answer
(1/2)
11. Taking log on both sides
= ( ) log
(log + ) =
= +1
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
1
(loge=1)
(+1)2
But loge =1
= (+)2
()2
OR
u= .
y= u+v
= ( + log )
Similarly = ( + log )
112
1 12
111
12.
= ( + ) + (
+ )
y= sin1
1
=
2
1
1
=1
Differentiating w.r.t x
1 2
2
2
1 2 =0
2
Hence (1 2 ) 2 = 0
13 Solution
P =  cos Q = sin cos
I.F = sin
Solution is y sin = sin cos sin dx
= dt
= sin ( sin + 1 ) +c
Y=sin  1 + c sin
sin = t
14.. 5 2 = (6 + 2) +
1+ 1
OR
put cos = , differentiating , sin = ,
1
+
,
(1)(2) (1) (2)
Solving & getting the value of A & B , A = 1 , B = 1 ,
,
1
(1)(2cos ) = log  2  +c
1
1
1+1
16,Solution
2
P= 2 +1
2+4
Q= 2 +1
I.F = 1+ 2
Solution is y(1+ 2 ) =
=
2+4
1+ 2 dx
2 +1
2 +
4 dx
112
x 2
x 4 2 log x x 2 4 c
2
(2)
1 2 = 2 3 4 = + 2
3 4 5
1 2  = 6
(1/2)
(1)
(1)
(1)
1
2 )
(
2
1 ).(

1 2 
Shortest distance = 
(1)
= 1/6
19.Getting the equation of the plane ABC
Getting perpendicular vector
Getting the required unit vector
(1)
(2)
(1)
(1)
SECTION C
20 Let y be an arbitrary element of range f .
then y =4x2 + 12x +15 , for some x in N
=
6 3
2
, as y 6
6 3
(1)
21.
(2+3)2 +663
2
2+33
2
(1)
=x
(1)
(2)
(1)
R2 = x2 + r2
1
V = 3 r2h
1
= 3 (R2 x2)(R+x)
(1)
R
(1)
113
1
(R2
dV/dx = 3
2R x
dV/dx = 0 => x = R/3
3X2)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
OR
let h and x be the length of the hypotenuse and one side of a right triangle and y be the
length of the third side,
Let A be the area of the triangle
1
1
A = 2 X.Y = 2 X.2 2
(1)
1
Z = A2 = 4 ( k2x2 2kx3)
(1)
= 4(2k2x 6kx2)
(1)
= 0 => = 3
(1)
(1)
(1)
15+ 8
Ans:2
23. to draw the correct graph
To get the point of intersection
to get the area in terms of integration
1
9 9
ans =32 + 8  4 sin1(1/3)
(1)
(1)
(2)
(2)
. 24 P(X=0) = 188/221
P(X=1) = 32/221
P(X=2) = 1/221
Mean = 34/221
Variance = 6800/2212
Standard deviation = 0.37
.25 Getting the equation of the line
Getting the general point
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(2)
B(4,5/2,2)
(1)
AB = 17/2
.26 Value points
Let the number of executive class tickets be x
Let the number of economic class tickets be y
Now the LPP is given by
(1)
marks
114
A
B
C
. .
(2)
Hence ABC is the feasible region. The corner points of the region are
A(20,180) , B(40,160) and C(20,80)
Now we can find the profit Z at the various corner points
Corner points
Z = 1000x + 600y
A(20,180)
Rs 128000
B(40,160)
Rs 136000 (Maximum)
C(20,80)
Rs 68000
(1)
Conclusion the maximum profit is Rs 136000 and is achieved when 40
tickets of executive class and 160 tickets of economic class is sold.
(1)
Time is important as it does not wait for anyone.it is commonly said that time
and tide waits for none .we can never get back the lost time.
(1)
(for any other points related to importance of time )

115
Time: 3 hours
Subject: Mathematics
M:M 100
________________________________________________________________________
General instructions:
I. All questions are compulsory
II.
The question paper consists of 26 questions divided into three sections A,B and C.
Section A comprises 6 questions of one mark each, Section B comprises of 12
questions of four marks each and Section C comprises of 7 questions of six marks
each.
III.
All questions in Section A are to be answered in one word, one sentence or as per the
exact requirement of the question.
IV. There is no overall choice. However, internal choice has been provided in 4 questions
of four marks each and 2 questions of six marks each. You have to attempt only one
of the alternatives in all such questions.
Section A
1. Write a example of matrices A and B of order 2 x 2 such that AB = BA
2. Write a differential equation for y A cos x B sin x where A and B are arbitrary
constants.
3. Find the product of the order and degree of the differential equation
2
d 2 y dy
x 2 y 2 0
dx dx
2
4. The magnitudes of a and b are 1 and 2 respectively. Find the angle between a and b if
it is given that a .b 1
7. A school wants to award its students for the values of Honesty, Regularity and Hard
work with a total cash award of Rs 6,000. Three times the award money for Hard work added
to that given for honesty amounts to Rs 11,000. The award money given for Honesty and
Hard work together is double the one given for Regularity. Represent the above situation
algebraically and find the award money for each value, using matrix method. Apart from
these values, namely, Honesty, Regularity and Hard work, suggest one more value which
the school must include for awards.
116
1 1
3
1 a a2
2
9. Using the properties of determinants, show that a 2 1 a a 3 1
a a2 1
3ax b
if x 1
if x 1 is Continuous at x = 1, find the values of a
if x 1
and b.
11. If y= + ,find
( OR)
dy
1
dx 1 x 2
12. .Find the intervals in which the function f(x) = 2x3 9x2 + 12x + 30 in increasing or
decreasing.
13 . Evaluate02 3+2
Evaluate
(OR)
2x 3
x 2 2x 5
dx
14. Evaluate
x sin
15 Evaluate
x dx
1 cos x
16. Find the equation of the plane passing through the intersection of the plane
2 + 3 + 1 = 0 + 2 + 3 = 0 and perpendicular to the plane
3 2 4 = 0.
17. Show that the lines = 3 + 2  4 + ( + 2 +2) and = 5  2 + (3 +2 +6)
are intersecting. Hence find their point of intersection.
18. In a group of students, 200 attend coaching classes, 400 students attend school regularly
and 600 students study themselves with help of peers. The probability that a student
will succeed in life who attend coaching classes, attend school regularly and study
themselves with help of peers are 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 respectively. One student is
selected who succeeded in life, what is the probability that he study himself with
help of peers.What type of study can be considered for the success in life and why?
1
1
19. Prove that 2 tan 1 tan 1
3
7 4
117
SectionC
20. Prove that the relation R on the set N x N defined by (a, b) R (c, d) <=> a + b = b + c,
for all (a, b), (c, d) N x N is an equivalence relation.
21. A wire of length 28m is to be cut into two pieces, one piece is bent into a circle and the
other into a square. What should be the length of the two pieces so that the
combined area of the square and the circle is minimum.
OR
A window is in the form of a rectangle surmounted by a semicircle. If the perimeter
of the window is 30 cm, find the dimensions of the window so that maximum
possible light is admitted.
22. A farmer has a piece of land. He wishes to divide equally in his two sons to maintain
peace and harmony in the family. If his land is denoted by area bounded by curve
y2=4x and x=4 and to divide the area equally he draws a line x=a , what is the value of
a? What is the importance of equality among the people?
dy
y x cos x sin x if y 1 .
23. Solve the differential equation x
dx
2
24. A furniture dealer deals in only two items  tables and chairs. He has Rs. 10,000 to invest
and a space to store at most 60 pieces. A table costs him Rs. 500 and a chair costs
him Rs. 100. He can sell table at Rs. 550 and a chair at Rs. 115. Assume that he can
sell all the items that he buys. Formulate this problem as an LPP so that he
maximizes his profit.
25.
Find the image of the point (1,2,3) in the plane x+2y+4z=38
OR
Find the shortest distance between the lines r = i +2 j  4k +(2i + 3j + 6k) and
r=3i+3j5k+(2i+3j+8k)
26. Three cards are drawn successively ,with replacement, from a wellshuffled pack of 52
cards. Find the probability distribution of number of aces. Also find mean and
variance of
the distribution.
118
Time: 3 hours
Subject: Mathematics
M:M 100
________________________________________________________________________
General instructions:
I. All questions are compulsory
II.
The question paper consists of 26 questions divided into three sections A,B and C.
Section A comprises 6 questions of one mark each, Section B comprises of 12
questions of four marks each and Section C comprises of 7 questions of six marks
each.
III.
All questions in Section A are to be answered in one word, one sentence or as per the
exact requirement of the question.
IV. There is no overall choice. However, internal choice has been provided in 4 questions
of four marks each and 2 questions of six marks each. You have to attempt only one
of the alternatives in all such questions.
Section A
4. Evaluate
sin20
cos 20
sin70
cos 70
dx
5 2 x x2
x 3 y 2 z 5
line.
7. Prove that the function f defined by f(x) =
OR
3x 4
is invertible. Also find the inverse of f.
5x 7
119
ab
is commutative. Verify
3
associative property.
a bc
2a
2a
3
2b
bca
2b a b c .
8. Prove that
2c
2c
c a b
Or
Prove that
1
1
a
a 2b
9. Prove that tan cos 1 tan cos 1 .
b
b a
4 2
4 2
10. Differentiate wrt x: sin x
cos x
cos x
sin x
OR
If x a cos sin and y a sin cos , find
11. If y 1 x 2 log
d2y
.
dx2
dy
xy 1 .
dx
12. Out of a group of 8 highly qualified doctors in a hospital, 6 are very kind and
cooperative with their patients and so are very popular, while the other two
remain reserved. For a health camp, three doctors are selected at random. Find
the probability distribution of the number of very popular doctors.
What values are expected from the doctors?
OR
A box of oranges is inspected by examining three randomly selected oranges drawn
without replacement. If all the three oranges are good, the box is approved for sale,
otherwise, it is rejected. Find the probability that a box containing 15 oranges out of
which 12 are good and 3 are bad ones will be approved for sale.
13. Evaluate
x2 1
x 1 x 3dx
2
120
14. Evaluate
15. Evaluate
x sin x
1 x2
x dx
1 cos
0
dx
parallel to
the line x + 3y = 4.
17. Find the shortest distance between the lines
x 1 y 2 z 3
and
1
1
2
x 1 y 1 z 1
.
1
2
2
18. Let
and
perpendicular to both
19.
. Find a vector
and , and
which is
The cost of 4 kg onion, 3 kg wheat and 2 kg rice is Rs 60. The cost of 2 kg onion,
4 kg wheat and 6 kg rice is Rs 90. The cost of 6 kg onion 2 kg wheat and 3 kg
rice is Rs70. Find the cost of each item per kg by using matrix method.
20. Show that the altitude of the right circular cone of maximum volume that can be
OR
Find the point on the curve x 2 = 4y which is nearest to the point (1, 2).
21. Find the area of the region enclosed between the circles x 2 y 2 1 and
x 1
y2 1 .
22. A doctor is to visit a patient. From past experience it is known that the
probability that he will come by train, bus, scooter or by car are 3/10, 1/5, 1/10,
2/5 respectively. The probabilities that he will be late are 1/ 4, 1/3 & 1/12 if he
comes by train, bus & scooter respectively but if he comes by car, he will not be late.
When he arrives, he is late. What is the probability that he has come by train?
OR
Three bags contain balls as shown in the table.
121
Bag
Number
Number of
Number of red
of white
black balls
balls
balls
I
II
III
A bag is chosen at random and 2 balls are drawn from it. They happen to be white
and red. What is the probability that they came from bag III?
23. A company manufactures two types of novelty souvenirs made of plywood.
Souvenirs of type A require 5 minutes each for cutting and 10 minutes each for
assembling. Souvenirs of type B require 8 minutes each for cutting and 8 minutes
each for assembling. There are 3 hours 20 minutes available for cutting and 4 hours
of assembling. The profit is Rs 5 each for type A and Rs 6 each for type B souvenirs.
How many souvenirs of each type should the company manufacture in order to
maximize the profit?
24. Find the equation of the plane passing through the point i 2j 3k perpendicular
dy
y sin x given that y (0) = 2.
dx
122
123
Spatial learner: learns best by visualizing, seeing, working with pictures, is good at
puzzles, imaging things, and reading maps and charts.
Musical learner: learns best by hearing, rhythm, melody, and music; is good at
remembering tones, rhythms and melodies, picking up sounds.
Bodily/kinesthetic learner: learns best by touching, moving, and processing knowledge
through bodily sensations; is good at physical activity.
Interpersonal learner: learns best by sharing, comparing, relating, cooperating; is good
at organizing, communicating, leading, and understanding others.
Intrapersonal learner: learns best by working alone, individualized projects, and selfpaced instruction.
During Exams Preparations
Do not panic
Have healthy food in time and sleep in time
Focus on the question paper and identify which questions can be answered correctly
Attempt all the questions
Answer the questions as per your knowledge and skills
Dont think about those chapters which you have not remembered well. Feel
confident about those lessons which you have learned well. It will increase your
confidence and will remove your stress
