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Class IX
UNIT I: Physical World and Measurement

Physics: Scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and

Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units,
fundamental and derived units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy
and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant

Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.

UNIT II: Kinematics

Frame of reference, Motion in a straight line; Position-time graph, speed and
velocity. Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous
velocity. Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time and position-time graphs, for
uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment).

Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion.
Scalar and vector quantities: Position and displacement vectors, general vectors,
general vectors and notation, equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a
real number; addition and subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity.

Unit vectors. Resolution of a vector in a plane-rectangular components.

Scalar and Vector products of Vectors. Motion in a plane. Cases of uniform
velocity and uniform acceleration- projectile motion. Uniform circular motion.

UNIT III: Laws of Motion

Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newton’s first law of motion; momentum and
Newton’s second law of motion; impulse; Newton’s third law of motion. Law of
conservation of linear momentum and its applications.

Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling
friction, lubrication.

Dynamics of uniform circular motion. Centripetal force, examples of circular
motion (vehicle on level circular road, vehicle on banked road).

UNIT IV: Work, Energy and Power

Work done by a constant force and variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy
theorem, power.

Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces;
conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies); nonconservative forces; motion in a vertical circle, elastic and inelastic collisions in
one and two dimensions.

UNIT V: Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body

Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conservation and centre of
mass motion. Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of uniform rod.

Moment of a force,-torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular
momentum with some examples.

Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equation of rotational motion,
comparison of linear and rotational motions; moment of inertia, radius of gyration.
Values of M.I. for simple geometrical objects (no derivation). Statement of parallel
and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.

UNIT VI: Gravitation

Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration
due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth.

 Gravitational potential energy. Qualitative ideas of Black Body Radiation. work done on compressing a gas. UNIT X: Oscillations and Waves . UNIT VII: Properties of Bulk Matter  Elastic behavior. Specific heat capacity: Cp. work and internal energy. Reynold’s number. shear. Heat engines and refrigerators. Hooke’s law. temperature. change of state – latent heat. Isothermal and adiabatic processes. UNIT IX: Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory  Equation of state of a perfect gas. bubbles and capillary rise. Heat. First law of thermodynamics. thermal expansion of solids. concept of mean free path. UNIT VIII: Thermodynamics  Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law of Thermodynamics). liquids.  Heat. law of equipartition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heat capacities of gases. Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications.  Viscosity. Kinetic energy and temperature.  Surface energy and surface tension. and Green House effect. Geostationary satellites. Wein’s displacement law.  Second law of the thermodynamics: Reversible and irreversible processes.conduction and thermal conductivity. modulus of rigidity.  Kinetic theory of gases: Assumptions. excess of pressure. gravitational potential. Escape velocity. poisson’s ratio. Anomalous expansion. Young’s modulus. thermal expansion.  Heat transfer. terminal velocity. orbital velocity of a satellite.calorimetry. bulk modulus. Cv.  Newton’s law of cooling and Stefan’s law. Stokes’ law. degrees of freedom. angle of contact. application of surface tension ideas to drops. and gases. Critical velocity. concept of pressure. convection and radiation. elastic energy. Stress-strain relationship. streamline and turbulent flow.

capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates. electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric diploes in an electrostatic field. phase. Dielectrics and electric polarization. capacitors and capacitance. displacement as a function of time. a dipole and system of charges: equipotential surfaces. electric potential due to a point charge. simple pendulum-derivation of expression for its time period. free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.  Electric flux. electric dipole. electric field lines. forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only). energy in SHM –Kinetic and potential energies. Coulomb’s law-force between two point charges. fundamental mode and harmonics. Doppler effect. Periodic functions. combination of capacitors in series and in parallel. Periodic motion-period.  Conductors and insulators. Beats. electric field due to a dipole. electric field due to a point charge. potential difference. statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire. Class IIX UNIT I: Electrostatics  Electric charges and their conservation. resonance. . Longitudinal and transverse waves. Van de Graaff generator. energy stored in a capacitor.  Wave motion. free. frequency. reflection of waves. speed of wave motion. torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field. standing waves in strings and organ pipes. Principle of superposition of waves. uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside)  Electric potential. Displacement relation for a progressive wave.  Electric field. forces between multiple charges. Simple harmonic motion(SHM) and its equation. oscillations of a spring-restoring force and force constant.

Biot-Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor. and for comparing emf of two cells. straight and toroidal solenoids. and their relation with electric current. UNIT III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism  Concept of magnetic field.UNIT II: Current Electricity  Electric current. electrical energy and power. moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter. . Wheatstone bridge. combination of cells in series and in parallel.  Para-. with examples.  Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field. potential difference and emf of a cell. drift velocity and mobility. electrical resistance. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. metre bridge. V-I characteristics (liner and non-linear).  Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field.  Internal resistance of a cell. Torque experienced by a current loop in a magnetic field.  Carbon resistors. electrical resistivity and conductivity. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Cyclotron. magnetic field lines. dia-and ferro-magnetic substances. temperature dependence of resistance.  Potentiometer-principle and applications to measure potential difference. colour code for carbon resistors. measurement of internal resistance of a cell. Oersted’s experiment. series and parallel combinations of resistors. Ohm’s law. Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements. bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid.  Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire.  Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications. Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron.

UNIT IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents  Electromagnetic induction. total internal reflection and its applications optical fibres. thin lens formula. correction of eye defects (myopia and hypermetropia) using lenses. x-rays. infrared. peak and rms value of alternating current/ voltage. mirror formula. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism. Magnification. power in AC circuits.  Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only). image formation and accommodation. wattles current. reactance and impedance. spherical mirrors. LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only). combination of thin lenses in contact combination of a lens and a mirror. Eddy currents. resonance.  Scattering of colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset. microwaves.  Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves. UNIT VI: Optics  Reflection of light. Self and mutual inductance. LCR series circuit. Faraday’s law. visible. power of a lens. Lenz’s Law. Refraction of light.  Wave optics: Wavefront and Huygens’ principle. reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wavefronts. UNIT V: Electromagnetic Waves  Need for displacement current. refraction at spherical surfaces. ultraviolet. Permanent magnets.  AC generator and transformer.  Alternating currents.  Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers. lens-maker’s formula. Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves. lenses. induced emf and current. . gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses. Electromagnetic and factors affecting their strengths.  Optical instruments: Human eye.

 Interference. Rutherford’s model of atom. semiconductor diode.alpha.particle nature of light. Davisson-Germer experiment (experimental details should be omitted. atomic masses. de Broglie relation. nuclear fission and fusion. conductors. Mass-energy relation. Young’s double hole experiment and expression for fringe width. AND. isobars. transistor action. only conclusion should be explained). Junction transistor. I-V characteristics of LED. Polarisation. isotopes. width of central maximum. solar cell. Einstein’s photoelectric equation. beta and gamma particles/ rays and their properties decay law. diode as a rectifier. . Hertz and Lenard’s observations. hydrogen spectrum. UNIT IX: Electronic Devices  Energy bands in solids (qualitative ideas only).  Diffraction due to a single slit.I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias. characteristics of a transistor. and Zener diode.particle scattering experiments.  Radioactivity. Zener diode as a voltage regulator.  Matter waves. transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Composition and size of nucleus. UNIT VIII: Atoms and Nuclei  Alpha.wave nature of particles. insulators and semiconductors. plane polarized light. binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number. UNIT VII: Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation  Photoelectric effect.  Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. NOT. energy levels. Brewster’s law. NAND and NOR). Bohr model. Logic gates (OR. photodiode. isotones. mass defect. Transistor as a switch. coherent sources and sustained interference of light. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens’ principle. uses of plane polarized light and Polaroids.

stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry. UNIT IV: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure  Valence electrons. dual nature of matter and light. Hydrogen bond.Aufbau principle. intermolecular interactions. Dalton’s atomic theory: concept of elements. UNIT III: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties  Modern periodic law and long form of periodic table. melting and boiling points. role of gas laws of elucidating the concept of the molecule. isotopes and isobars. Pauli exclusion principles and Hund’s rule. shapes of s. chemical reactions. electronic configuration of atoms. concept of orbital. concept of hybridization involving s. polar character of covalent bond. valence bond theory.  Laws of chemical combination. VSEPR theory. valence. geometry of molecules. percentage composition and empirical and molecular formula.Chemistry Class IX UNIT I: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry  General Introduction: Important and scope of chemistry. bond parameters. quantum numbers. covalent bond. Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Boyle’s . Lewis structure. atoms and molecules.atomic radii. UNIT II: Structure of Atom  Atomic number. electronegativity. Concept of shells and subshells. types of bonding. de Broglie’s relationship.p and d orbitals. rules for filling electrons in orbitals. UNIT V: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids  Three states of matter. electron gain enthalpy. resonance. stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals. ionic radii. molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only). ionic bond.  Atomic and molecular masses. p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules. Mole concept and molar mass. ionization enthalpy. periodic trends in properties of elements.

Kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea). Second law of thermodynamics. strong and weak electrolytes. deviation from ideal behaviour. Avogadro number. ideal gas .Vapour pressure.Brief introduction. critical temperature. UNIT VIII: Redox Reactions  Concept of oxidation and oxidation and reduction. heat capacity and specific heat. ideal behaviour of gases. buffer solutions. redox reactions oxidation number. ionization of polybasic acids. UNIT VII: Equilibrium  Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes. liquefaction of gases. Charle’s law. measurement of U and H. Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea). ionization. dynamic nature of equilibrium.  Third law of thermodynamics. Hess’s law of constant heat summation. viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only.  Introduction of entropy as state function. solution and dilution. atomization. no mathematical derivations). phase transition. empirical derivation of gas equation. factors affecting equilibrium-Le Chatelier’s principle. criteria for equilibrium and spontaneity. formation. UNIT VI : Thermodynamics  First law of thermodynamics-internal energy and enthalpy.ionization of acids and bases. acid strength. common ion effect (with illustrative examples). equilibrium constant. combustion. solubility product.  Liquid State. enthalpy of : bond dissociation. Henderson equation. degree of ionization.. Avogadro’s law. ionic equilibrium. Gibbs energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous process. Gay Lussac’s law. concept of PH. law of chemical equilibrium. balancing redox reactions in terms of loss and gain of electron and change in oxidation numbers. sublimation.

occurrence.  Important compounds of silicon and a few uses: silicon tetrachloride. hydridesionic. Boron.UNIT IX: Hydrogen  Occurrence. boron hydrides. biological importance of Mg and Ca.  Industrial use of lime and limestone. physical and chemical properties: uses of some important compounds: oxides. allotropic forms. variation of properties. occurrence. sodium chloride. heavy water. . reactions. Carbon. electronic configuration. some important compounds: borax. their uses. trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen. atomic and ionic radii). UNIT X: s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals)  Group I and group 2 elements:  General introduction. anomalous behaviour of first element. UNIT XI: Some p-Block Elements  General Introduction to p-Block Elements. trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy. silicates and zeolites. hydrogen and halogens. diagonal relationship. oxidation states.  Group 13 elements: General introduction. preparation. uses. electronic configuration. hydrogen peroxide-preparation. oxidation states. water. sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogencarbonate. uses and structure. reactions with acids and alkalies.  General 14 elements: General introduction. trends in chemical reactivity. trends in chemical reactivity. properties and uses of hydrogen. covalent and interstitial. silicones. anomalous properties of first element of the group.  Preparation and Properties of Some important Compounds:  Sodium carbonate. boric acids. biological importance of sodium and potassium. occurrence. anomalous properties of the first element of each group. physical and chemical properties of water. electronic configuration. isotopes. variation of properties. Aluminium: uses.

conformations (ethane only). ozonolysis. addition reaction of. physical properties.  Alkanes-Nomenclature.  Alkynes-Nomenclature. mechanism of electrophilic addition. carbocations. Benzene. carbanions. structure of double bond (ethene). combustion and pyrolysis. chemical reactions in atmosphere. aromaticity. greenhouse effect and global warming. chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes. methods of preparation: chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen. chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitutionNitration sulphonation.  Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radials. classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. major atmospheric pollutants.Some Basic Principles and Techniques  General introduction. physical properties. resonance and hyper conjugation. UNIT XIII: Hydrocarbons  Alkanes. water. chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation. UNIT XIV: Environmental Chemistry  Environmental pollution: Air. water and soil pollution. directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene. Friedel Craft’s alkylation and acylation. structure of triple bond (ethyne). strategy for control of environmental pollution. electromeric effect. acid rain ozone and its reactions.Introduction.  Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect. oxidation.UNIT XII: Organic Chemistry. physical properties. types of organic reactions. halogen. resonance. methods of purification qualitative and quantitative analysis.Nomenclature. green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution. hydrogen halides and water. halogenation. carcinogenicity and toxicity. IUPAC nomenclature. geometrical isomerism. smogs. electrophiles and nucleophiles.hydrogen. methods of preparation.pollution due to industrial wastes. . hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect). halogens. isomerism. effects of depletion of ozone layer.  Aromatic hydrocarbons.

Arrhenious equation. Activation energy. kohlrausch’s Law. calculation of density of unit cell. Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell. Van Hoff factor. semiconductors and insulators. UNIT II: Solutions  Types of solutions. number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell. factors affecting rates of reaction. Band theory of metals. temperature. colligative properties. UNIT III: Electrochemistry  Redox reactions. expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids. . solid solutions. lead accumulator. point defects. dry cell. concentration. unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices. UNIT IV: Chemical Kinetics  Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous).Class IIX UNIT I: Solid State  Classification of solids based on different binding forces.electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells. elevation of boiling point. rate law and specific rate constant. conductors. no mathematical treatment). packing in solids. ionic covalent and metallic solids. EMF of a cell. standard electrode potential. Raoult’s law. order and molecularity of a reaction. electrolysis and Laws of electrolysis (elementary idea). depression of freezing point.relative lowering of vapour pressure. molecular. solubility of gases in liquids. corrosion. electrical and magnetic properties. integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions). catalyst. amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea). specific and molar conductivity variation of conductivity with concentration. conductance in electrolytic solutions. packing efficiency. osmotic pressure. determination of molecular masses using colligative properties abnormal molecular mass. concept of collision theory ( elementary idea. fuel cells. voids.

Phosphorous.UNIT V: Surface Chemistry  Adsorption-physisorption and chemisorption. electronic configuration. oxidation states. electrophoresis. Sulphur – allotropic forms. dioxygen: preparation. lyophobic multimolecular and macromolecular colloids. emulsions. occurrence. coagulation. electronic configuration. trends in physical and chemical properties. activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis. trends in physical and chemical properties. UNIT VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements  Principles and methods of extraction. occurrence. lyophillic. properties and uses. interhalogen compounds oxoacids of halogens (structures only). occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium. halides (PCI3 . reduction electrolytic method and refining.  Group 17 elements: General introduction. preparation. . compounds of phosphorous: preparation and properties of phosphine. colloidal state: distinction between true solutions. UNIT VII: p. properties and uses of sulphur dioxide. Brownian movement. factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids. copper. compounds of halogens: preparation.types of emulsions. oxidation states. oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).allotropic forms. properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid. compounds of sulphur: preparation. electronic configuration. colloids and suspensions. occurrence. PCI5 ) and oxoacids (elementary idea only). oxides of nitrogen (structure only). catalysis homogeneous and heterogeneous. zinc and iron.concentration.Block Elements  Group 15 elements: General introduction. trends in physical and chemical properties. sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture. properties of colloids. oxidation. preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid. ozone. classification of oxides.  Group 16 elements: General introduction. oxidation states. properties and uses. Tyndall effect.

Preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4. oxidation states.electronic configuration. UNIT IX: Coordination Compounds  Coordination compounds: Introduction. interstitial compounds. methods of preparation. Optical rotation.  Haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond. UNIT XI: Alcohols. and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences. colour. Phenols and Ethers  Alcohols: Nomenclature.  Actinoids: Electronic configuration. magnetic properties. occurrence. identification of primary. catalytic property. general trends in properties of the first row transition metals. freons. characteristics of transition metals. electronic configuration. ionization enthalpy. coordination number. ionic radii. electronic configuration. chemical reactivity. tetrachloromethane. ligands. oxidation states. isomerism (structural and stereo) bonding. secondary and . oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids.  Uses and environment effects of – dichloromethane. biological systems). IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. Werner’s theory VBT. mechanism of substitution reactions. substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only). trends in physical and chemical properties. importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis. uses. nature of C –X bond. DDT.CFT.metallic character. physical and chemical properties. magnetic properties and shapes.  Lanthanoids. UNIT X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes  Haloalkanes: Nomenclature. colour. UNIT VIII: d and f Block Elements  General introduction. iodoform. physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only). trichloromethane. Group 18 elements: General introduction. alloy formation.

physical and chemical properties. physical and chemical properties uses.  Diazonium salts: Preparation. polysaccharides (starch. lactose.  Hormones. chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.  Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature.L.  Ethers: Nomenclature. acidic nature of phenol. configuration. physical and chemical properties. methods of preparation. uses of phenols. structure. methods of preparation. physical and chemical properties. reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes. tertiary structure and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only). uses. uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol. uses. secondary structure. denaturation of proteins. electrophillic substitution reactions.  Proteins. . D. acidic nature. glycogen): importance. UNIT XII: Aldehydes. monosaccharide (glucose and fructose). cellulose. classification. oligosaccharides (sucrose. identification of primary secondary and tertiary amines. physical and chemical properties.Classification (aldoses and ketoses). enzymes. methods of preparation. methods of preparation.Elementary idea of – amino acids. methods of preparation. primary structure.Elementary idea (excluding structure).  Cyanides and Isocyanides. maltose). proteins.will be mentioned at relevant places. and mechanism of nucleophilic addition. polypeptides. peptide bond.  Phenols: Nomenclature. nature of carbonyl group.tertiary alcohols. mechanism of dehydration. Ketones and Carboxylic Acids  Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature. uses UNIT XIII: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen  Amines: Nomenclature. UNIT XIV: Biomolecules  Carbohydrates.

disinfectants. Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category). elementary idea of antioxidants. Biology Class IX UNIT I: Diversity in Living World  What is living? . antacids. Binomial nomenclature. Bryophytes. Herbaria.  Salient features and classification of animals-nonchordate up to phyla level and chordate up to classes level (three to five salient features and at least two examples). Tools for study of Taxonomy – Museums. Protista and Fungi into major groups. Need for classification.  Five kingdom classification. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers. bakelite. Some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polyesters. Angiosperms.preservatives. Three domains of life.  Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA UNIT XV: Polymers  Classification. Pteridophytes. Taxonomy & Systematics. Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy. Zoos.classification up to class. characteristic features and examples). Viruses and Viroids. antihistamines. UNIT XVI: Chemistry in Everyday Life  Chemicals in medicines. copolymerization. Botanical gardens. antimicrobials. .Classification and function. Biodiversity.Natural and synthetic. artificial sweetening agents. salient features and classification of Monera. antiseptics. antifertility drugs. methods of polymerization (addition and condensation). tranquilizers. rubber. Vitamins.analgesics.  Salient features and classification of plants into major groups-Algae. antibiotics.soaps and detergents. Lichens. cleansing action.  Chemicals in food.  Cleansing agents.

micro bodies. ribosomes. carbodydrates. Tissues. chromatin.cymose and recemose. nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). Diffusion of gases (brief mention). (Brief account only) UNIT III: Cell Structure and Function  Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life. meiosis and their significance. Enzymes-types. Cell organelles-structure and function. inflorescence. facilitated diffusion. Long distance transport of water – Absorption.  B Cell division: Cell cycle. cell membrane. vacuoles. Deficiency symptoms. Plant – water relations – Imbibition. nucleic acids. fruit and seed (To be dealt along with the relevant practical of the Practical Syllabus). water potential. transpiration pull.  Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules-structure and function of proteins. symplast. UNIT IV: Plant Physiology  Transport in plants: Movement of water. Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients-Transport of food. flagella. mitosis. leaf.  Animal tissues. properties. Nucleus-nuclear membrane. anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive. macro and micronutrients and their role. active transport. plastids. respiratory. lysosomes. Mass flow hypothesis. circulatory. mitochondria. Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root. Golgi bodies.UNIT II: Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants  Morphology and modifications. stem. apoplast. flower. Morphology. gases and nutrients. cell wall. Transpiration-Opening and closing of stomata.  Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals. nucleolus. Plant cell and animal cell. enzyme action. Cell to cell transport-Diffusion. Endomembrane system-endoplasmic reticulum. cilia. Cytoskeleton. lipids. Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell. centrioles (ultra structure and function). Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a . osmosis. root pressure and guttation. plasmolysis. Mineral toxicity. phloem transport. Cell envelope.

Peristalsis. Nitrogen metabolism-Nitrogen cycle. Disorders related to respiration-Asthma. constipation. vomiting. Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humansExchange of gases. Respiratory system in humans. Conditions of growth. Site of photosynthesis take place.  Plant growth and development: Seed germination. carbohydrates and fats. Factors affecting photosynthesis. Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones. Cardiac cycle. ethylene. fermentation (anaerobic). Differentiation. Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis. Cyclic and non cyclic and photophosphorylation. Emphysema.  Respiration: Exchange gases. coagulation of blood. Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM.  Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only). Energy relationsNumber of ATP molecules generated. TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic).method to study mineral nutrition. cytokinin. carbohydrates and fats. dedifferentiation and redifferentiation. indigestion. blood groups. Egestion. Chemiosmotic hypothesis. transport of gases and regulation of respiration Respiratory volumes. Alimentary canal and digestive glands. Photoperiodism. Amphibolic pathways. Cellular respiration-glycolysis. Respiratory quotient. Human circulatory systemStructure of human heart and blood vessels. pigments involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary idea). diarrhea. digestion. Phases of Plant growth and plant growth rate. absorption and assimilation of proteins. Growth regulators-auxin. UNIT V: Human Physiology  Digestion and absorption.  Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition. Vernalisation. jaundice. Seed dormancy. biological nitrogen fixation. Photorespiration C3 and C4 pathways. Composition of lymph and its function. ABA.  Body fluids and circulation: Composition of blood. ECG. cardiac output. Caloric value of proteins. Occupational respiratory disorders.gibberellin. Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell. .

Regulation of cardiac activity. Gonads. Heart failure. Disorders of muscular and skeletal system-Myasthenia gravis. Skeletal system and its functions (To be dealt with the relevant practical of Practical syllabus). Arthritis. (Imp: Diseases and disorders mentioned above to be dealt in brief.) Class IIX UNIT I: Reproduction  Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction. vegetative propagation in plants. Uraemia. Urine formation. Pituitary. Addison’s disease). peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system. goiter. Osmoregulation.  Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement. Pancreas. Generation and conduction of nerve impulse.  Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion.Double circulation. Nephritis. Regulation of kidney function-Renin-angiotensin. Human excretory system-structure and fuction. Osteoporosis.g. Dwarfism.ciliary. muscular. gemmule.  Chemical coordination and regulation: Endocrine glands and hormones. Elementary structure and function of eye and ear. fragmentation. ureotelism.Ammonotelism. a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species. Adrenal. Modes-Binary fission. Parathyroid. Thyroid. Angina pectoris. Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea). Renal failure. diabetes. Disorders. Sense organs. sporulation.  Neural control and coordination: Neuron and nerves. budding. ADH and Diabetes insipidus. Hypo-and hyperactivity and related disorders (Common disorders e. Gout.contractile proteins and muscle contraction. Asexual reproduction. Atrial Natriuretic Factor. Human endocrine system-Hypothalamus. Modes of reproduction – Asexual and sexual. Reflex action. Nervous system in humanscentral nervous system. fiagellar. exopthalmic goiter. . Role of hormones as messengers and regulators. Coronary artery disease. Muscular dystrophy. Renal calculi. Tetany. Dialysis and artificial kidney. Acromegaly. uricotelism. Role of other organs in excretion. Pineal. Cretinism. Joints. Disorders of circulatory systemHypertension. Skeletal muscle.

Post fertilization eventsDevelopment of endosperm and embryo. Significance of seed and fruit formation.Need and Methods.  Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems. Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF. DNA packaging. Outbreeding devices. Amniocentesis. Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.  Molecular basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material. Development of male and female gametophytes. Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP). Double fertilization. honey bee. genetic code. Colour blindness. Menstrual cycle. birds. Genome and human genome project.  Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Linkage and crossing over. embryology and molecular evidence). Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary. Transcription. Mendelian disorders in humans-Thalassemia. translation. Gametogenesis. Parturition (Elementary idea). DNA finger printing. implantation. embryo development upto blastocyst formation. Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution from Paleontology. Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure. Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups. parthenocarpy. Pollinationtypes. Structure of DNA and RNA. Central dogma. Chromosome theory of inheritance. Sex determination-In humans. Down’s syndrome. polyembryony. Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance. Gene expression and regulationLac Operon. ZIFT. . GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness) UNIT II: Genetics and Evolution  Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance.spermatogenesis & oogenesis. Lactation (Elementary idea). comparative anatomy. Chromosomal disorders in humans. Pollen-Pistil interaction. Chromosomes and genes. Sex linked inheritance-Haemophilia. Co-dominance.  Evolution: Origin of life. agencies and examples. Deviations from MendelismIncomplete dominance. Special modes-apomixis. Fertilisation. Pleiotropy. DNA replication. Development of seed and formation of fruit. Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea). Birth control.

Ascariasis. Biofortification. Pathogens. Ecological succession. Adolescence. drug and alcohol abuse. Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous). Basic concepts of immunology-vaccines. Biosafety issues-Biopiracy and patents. parasitism. HardyWeinberg’s principle. ring worm). competition. energy. common cold. Adaptive Radiation. sewage treatment. Apiculture and Animal husbandry.Darwin’s contribution. parasites causing human diseases (Malaria. Loss of Biodiversity. HIV and AIDS. Mechanism of evolution-Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples. Energy flow.  Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity. productivity and decomposition. pollination.  Ecosystem: Patterns. Genetically modified organisms-Bt crops. Ecological Services-Carbon fixation. Population interactions-mutualism. Population attributes-growth.  Improvement in food production. birth rate and death rate. types of natural selection. Human evolution. Pyramids of number.  Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing. biomass. Gene flow and genetic drift. Population and ecological adaptations. Plant breeding. tissue culture. Typhoid. gene therapy. UNIT III: Biology and Human Welfare  Health and Disease. Patterns of Biodiversity. Importance of Biodiversity. predation. Filariasis. Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution. industrial production. components. Transgenic Animals.  Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production. Biodiversity . oxygen release. Cancer. Pneumonia. UNIT IV: Biotechnology and Its Applications  Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology). age distribution. amoebiasis. UNIT V: Ecology and environment  Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche. single cell protein. energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.

radioactive waste management. endangered organisms. Water pollution and its control. extinction. Ozone depletion. biosphere reserves. Agrochemicals and their effects.  Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control. Greenhouse effect and global warning. Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues. National parks and sanctuaries. Solid waste management. Deforestation. . Hotspots.conservation. Red Data Book.