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You are on page 1of 69

**Calculating and Measuring Power
**

in Three Phase Circuits

Joseph E. Fleckenstein, P.E.

2011

PDH Center

5272 Meadow Estates Drive

Fairfax, VA 22030 USA

Phone: 703-988-0088

**www.PDHcenter.com
**

www.PDHonline.org

An Approved Continuing Education Provider

www.PDHcenter.com

PDH Course Exxx

www.PDHonline.org

**Calculating and Measuring Power in Three Phase
**

Circuits

Joseph E. Fleckenstein

Index

1. Introduction

2. Calculating Power in Single Phase Circuits

A. Single Phase Voltage and Single Phase Current

B. Single Phase Power

C. Kilowatts, Lumens, BTU‟s and Horsepower

3. Calculating Power in Balanced Three Phase Circuits

A. General

B. Calculating Power in Balanced Three Phase Wye Circuits

1. General

2. Resistive Loads

a. Using Phase Parameters

b. Using Line Parameters

3. Inductive or Capacitive Loads

a. Using Phase Parameters

b. Using Line Parameters

C. Calculating Power in Balanced Delta Three Phase Circuits

1. General

2. Resistive Loads

a. Using Phase Parameters

b. Using Line Parameters

3. Inductive or Capacitive Loads

a. Using Phase Parameters

b. Using Line Parameters

4. Calculating Power in Unbalanced Three Phase Circuits

A. Calculating Power in Unbalanced Three Phase Circuits - General

B. Calculating Power in Unbalanced Three Phase Wye Circuits

1. General

2. Resistive Loads

a. Using Phase Parameters

b. Using Line Parameters

3. Inductive or Capacitive Loads

a. Using Phase Parameters

b. Using Line Parameters

© Joseph E. Fleckenstein

Page 2 of 69

www.PDHcenter.com

PDH Course Exxx

www.PDHonline.org

**C. Calculating Power in Unbalanced Three Phase Delta Circuits
**

1. General

2. Resistive Loads

a. Using Phase Parameters

b. Using Line Parameters

3. Inductive or Capacitive Loads

a. Using Phase Parameters

b. Using Line Parameters

D. Calculating Power in a Three Phase Circuit with Mixed Wye and

Delta Loads

1. General

2. Using phase data

3. Using line data

5. Measuring Power in a Single Phase Circuit

6. Measuring Power in a Three Phase Three Wire Circuit

A. General

B. Using a Single Wattmeter

C. Using Two Wattmeters

D. Using Three Wattmeters

7. Measuring Power in a Three Phase Four Wire Circuit

A. General

8. Measuring Power with a Power Analyzer

A. General

9. Summary of Symbols and Equations

A. Symbols

B. Equations

10. References

Appendices

A. Demonstration that Equations 5 is the equivalent of Equation 6

B. Table of Computed Values of Instantaneous Power for Example 1

C. Demonstration that Total Power of an Unbalanced Delta Circuit is

Equivalent to that of an Assumed Wye Circuit

D. Computation to Confirm Two Wattmeter Theory

E. Table of Typical Three Phase Power Values vs ωt for One Cycle

F. Convenient Three Phase Equations

© Joseph E. Fleckenstein

Page 3 of 69

Introduction The transmission and distribution of electricity is commonly done by means of three phase circuits.PDHcenter. Sometimes. it very often becomes necessary for an engineer to determine the power those circuits would require.PDHonline. the need may arise to determine the power consumption of an existing installation. This course treats the subject of three phase power in detail and in a manner that a reader. On the other hand. In short. there are balanced loads and unbalanced loads.com PDH Course Exxx www. well experienced in three phase circuits or otherwise. it sometimes becomes necessary to take measurements in order to determine the power that is being used by an existing installation. This spectrum of possible scenarios can be confusing to a person who. say. three phase circuits are the most practical means of dealing with larger amounts of electrical power. calculations and measurements go hand in hand.www. secondly.org COURSE CONTENT 1. When dealing with new or planned three phase circuits. there are three phase three wire circuits and three phase four wire circuits. and the distribution of electrical power within these buildings is commonly done with three phase circuits. The course is arranged so that power values may be calculated from either phase parameters or line parameters. a person must first know what measurements are to be made and. may not deal with three phase power on a frequent basis. Fleckenstein Page 4 of 69 . Likewise. There are delta connected loads and wye connected loads. of course. If measurements are to be made. these determinations can be made by calculation. In the case of an existing installation. how are field measurements converted to actual power values. And. © Joseph E. Electrical services to commercial and industrial users are usually three phase circuits. will find easy to follow. The course treats both balanced and unbalanced three phase circuits as well as the common wye and delta circuits.

V(t) = V sin (ωt) … Equation 103 © Joseph E. in a circuit that is said to have a lagging current it is the current that lags voltage. vi = (vPK) sin ωt … Equation 101 where. The trace of the voltage and current in a typical electrical circuit with a leading power factor is shown in Fig. Commonly.) for a lagging power factor. or θSP < 0 The trace of the voltage and current in a typical electrical circuit with a lagging power factor is shown in Fig. vi = instantaneous value of voltage (volts) i vPK = peak value of instantaneous voltage v (volts) ω = 2πf (radians) f = frequency (hz) t = time (sec) Similarly. instantaneous current can be expressed as. voltage and current are expressed as a function of time in rms values. or θSP > 0 for a leading power factor.com PDH Course Exxx www. 1. i i = instantaneous value of current (amps) i iPK = peak value of instantaneous current “i ” (amps) θSP = angle of lead or angle of lag (radians) of current with respect to voltage in a single phase circuit. 2A. (The subscript „SP‟ designates „single phase‟. (–θSP) < 0. ii = iPK sin (ωt – θSP) … Equation 102 where. a person would be well advised to first review and understand the principles applicable to single phase power. the instantaneous voltage in a single phase AC electrical circuit with respect to time can be expressed by the relationship. By common practice.PDHcenter. Calculating Power in Single Phase Circuits To better understand three phase power. Fleckenstein Page 5 of 69 . a three phase circuit is essentially three separate single phase circuits which happen to have peaks and valleys at different times.PDHonline.org 2. Single Phase Voltage and Single Phase Current In general. (–θSP) > 0. 2.www. After all.

V = rms voltage I = rms current (Note: It is important that a reader understands Equations 101 and 102 are accurate expressions for instantaneous voltage and instantaneous current with respect to time.com PDH Course Exxx www. Equations 103 and 104 are not used in this course for calculating instantaneous electrical properties. while convenient for calculating power and other electrical properties of a circuit.PDHonline. V = (1/ I = (1/ vi iPK. at a selected value of time (t) Equation 101 can be used to compute the precise value of voltage. will not provide precise values of voltage and current at selected values of time. Fleckenstein Page 6 of 69 . According to these equations.org I(t) = I sin (ωt – θSP) … Equation 104 where.www.PDHcenter. and i PK © Joseph E.) The commonly recognized relationships between instantaneous values of rms voltage and rms current are. Likewise. at a selected value of time (t) Equation 104 will compute the precise value of current. On the other hand Equations 103 and 104.

i P = [(vPK) sin ωt] [iPK sin (ωt – θSP)]. 1 watt-second = 1 joule. In other words. All of these usages are being subject to changes in the units used to describe the particular end use.www.PDHonline. the more commonly used measure of electrical energy is the kilowatt-hour which would be the energy equivalent of one kilowatt flowing for one hour. Single Phase Power Power is defined as the rate of flow of energy with time. Fleckenstein Page 7 of 69 . However.org 2B.com PDH Course Exxx www. i i i P = v • i (watts) From Equation 101. One unit of energy in the SI system is the joule. or i P = (vPK)(iPK) (sin ωt) [sin (ωt – θSP)] Since. Common uses for electrical power have been for lighting. one version is: i P = [(vPK)(iPK)/2] cos θSP – [(vPK)(iPK)/2] cos (2ωt – θSP) … Equation 106 © Joseph E. the unit of the flow of electrical energy is called the watt. Of course. which today is more commonly called the SI (Système International) system. For example. Instantaneous power in a single phase circuit is given by the expression. some of the other units of measure associated with the use of electrical power are changing. vi = (vPK) sin ωt and from Equation 102. One joule flowing for one second is one watt. sin (ωt – θSP) = sin ωt cos θSP – cos ωt sin θSP i P = (vPK)(iPK) (sin ωt) [sin ωt cos θSP – cos ωt sin θSP] i P = (vPK)(iPK) (cos θSP) (sin2 ωt) – (vPK)(iPK) (sin θSP) (sin ωt) (cos ωt) … Equation 105 i The equation for instantaneous power (P ) is often stated by various authors in a different form. The watt has been the standard unit for the measure of electrical power and it appears the use will continue for the foreseeable future. to drive electrical motors and for heating. ii = iPK sin (ωt – θSP) Therefore. In the MKS (MeterKilogram-Second) system of units.PDHcenter.

5. and θ = 45.57º) sin ωt cos ωt B = (6854.82 VAC Irms = 10 amps IPK = 10 = 14. Fleckenstein Page 8 of 69 .96) sin ωt. A scaled plot of the values of Function A is shown in Fig. which describes power flow in a typical single phase circuit with a power factor of 0. Example 1 It will be informative to plot the computed values of Equation 105 for one complete cycle (ωt = 0º to ωt = 360º) of the variable ωt for a typical single phase application.70 Therefore. single phase VPK = 480 = 678. The plot provides a pictorial view of the physical value of power as a function of time.70.www.14 amps Power Factor = 0. 4 and a plot of Function A minus Function B is shown in Fig.org (Reference #1) As demonstrated in Appendix A.82) (14.14) (0. Equation 105 Let. and B = (678.7) sin ωt 2 A = (6718.com PDH Course Exxx www... 5.57º Equation 105 states. It is significant to note that in Fig. i P = A– B 2 A = (678. A scaled plot of the values of Function B is shown in Fig. power flow has two large © Joseph E. 3. i P = VPKIPK cos θ sin2ωt – VPKIPK sin θ sin ωt cos ωt . In the way of illustration.71) sin ωt cos ωt The computed values of Function A and Function B in this example are contained in Appendix B.14) (sin 45. cos θ = 0.82) (14.PDHonline.70. and B = VPKIPK sin θ sin ωt cos ωt Then. Equations 105 and 106 are equivalent equations although each is stated in a different form. consider a case having the following parameters: Vrms = 480 VAC.PDHcenter. 2 A = VPKIPK cos θ sin ωt.

PDHcenter.com PDH Course Exxx www.org peaks in the positive direction and two smaller valleys in the negative direction.PDHonline. This power flow will be compared below to power flow in a three phase circuit which. as demonstrated below.www. Fleckenstein Page 9 of 69 . © Joseph E. is drastically different.

i P = A(t) – B(t). the net result being that the total contribution throughout the period is zero. The integral is evaluated from t = 0 to t = T.PDHcenter.e. The net power in the period is determined from integration of the equation for instantaneous power (Eq. the instantaneous power in a single phase circuit i is: P = VPKIPK cos θ sin2ωt – VpIp sin θ sin ωt cos ωt Generally speaking the average power is of the most interest. the net power over a single cycle is determined and then divided by the time of one period.www. whereby A(t) = VPKIPK cos θ sin2ωt. (with value „T‟ occurring at ωt = 360º) ∫A(t) = [VPKIPK cos θ]{[T/2 – (sin 2 ωT)/4ω] – [0/2 – (sin 0)/4ω]} = [VPKIPK cos θ] (T/2) The average value of ∫A(t) throughout the period is: [VPKIPK cos θ] [T/2] / T = [VPKIPK cos θ] / 2 It will be apparent that the contribution of B(t) to the value of the integral of i P throughout the period t = 0 to t = T is B(t) = 0. and B(t) = VPKIPK sin θ sin ωt cos ωt ∫A(t) = ∫VPKIPK cos θ sin2ωt dt = VPKIPK cos θ ∫sin2ωt dt ∫A(t) = VPKIPK cos θ [t/2 – (sin 2 ωt)/4ω]. V= VPK / . This is the case since half of the function is positive during the period under consideration and half is negative.org According to Equation 105. To determine the average power a single cycle of ωt is considered. and I = IPK / Thus. By definition. 101) with respect to t. Let T = the time for a single cycle (from ωt = 0º to ωt = 360º). evaluated from t = 0 to t = T. Fleckenstein Page 10 of 69 .PDHonline. from the value of ωt = 0 to ωt = 360º. i.com PDH Course Exxx www. Voltages and currents are commonly used in the rms values. Let. To determine average power. © Joseph E.

and the power factor will always be between 0 and + 1. © Joseph E. BTU’s and Horsepower It would be fair to say that a lage usage of electrical power can be attributed to lighting. There are of course other popular units of measure for defining the amount of light a device produces. electric motors and heating. Kilowatts. Electrical lighting. and especially incandescent lighting.org P = [VPKIPK cos θ] /2 Substituting rms values for peak values of voltage and current gives: P = VI cos θ … Equation 107 Where. This practice is changing as more efficient light sources have become available. Fleckenstein Page 11 of 69 . 2C. More and more the various types of lights are being defined by the amount of light produced rather by the amount of electrical power the light requires.e.0. The incandescent light which remains the most common means of providing illumination. i. In the United States.PDHonline.PDHcenter. One unit that seems to be gaining in acceptance is the „lumens‟. Lumens.www. is one of the least efficient means of converting electrical energy into light. In any event the unit of the electrical power to activate a light will most certainly remain the „watt‟. the BTU (British Thermal Unit) has long been used in the United States and in Commonwealth Countries. the BTU will probably continue is use for the foreseeable future although overseas the BTU is being replaced by the „calorie‟ as well as other units.com PDH Course Exxx www. at around 17 lumens per watt.) Equation 107 is the commonly recognized equation for calculating power in a single phase circuit. has long been defined by the amount of power to activate the light. When describing heat. by the wattage. P = power (watts) V = potential (rms voltage) I = current (rms amperage) cos θ = power factor (The valid range of θ for a single phase circuit is from –90º + 90º. which is a metric unit.

6% would require 1 kilowatt of electrical energy to operate and would produce 1 kilowatt X 0.PDHonline. or 746 watts of output which would be the equivalent to 1 horsepower of output. Calculating Power in Balanced Three Phase Circuits 3A. a 1 kilowatt motor with an efficiency of 74. Fleckenstein Page 12 of 69 .com PDH Course Exxx www.80 X 1 kilowatt of output power or (800/746) = 1.www.PDHcenter. A typical wye circuit is shown in Fig.746 kilowatts of output power (brake power). Because of globalization and increased international trade. 6. Another big change occurring in the United States is in the way electrical motors are defined.07 HP.org Nevertheless. If a wye circuit is the four wire type. For example. Traditionally the size of a motor has been defined by „horsepower‟. 1 horsepower = 746 watts. electric resistance heating is mostly classified by its kilowatt rating. a fourth conductor is extended from the wye neutral point to ground. 3. the unit „horsepower‟ is being replaced by the „watt‟. A three wire wye circuit is absent a conductor extending from the © Joseph E. A wye circuit could be the three wire or four wire type. A 1 kilowatt motor with an efficiency of 80% would produce 0. In electrical units. General There are two basic types of three phase circuits: delta and wye.

it is particularly important that a person clearly understands the significance of current lead and current lag as well as the bearing that lead/lag has on the determination of power. specific parameters must be known. In a delta circuit line voltages. 7. Power factor in a single phase circuit is a clearly understood condition. To calculate the power of a three phase circuit. In a wye circuit. phase voltage equals line voltage but phase current is not equal to line current. In other words. Also.866. A typical delta circuit is shown in Fig. power factor in a single phase circuit is the cosine of the angle between current and voltage. line current equals phase current but phase voltage is not equal to line voltage. A leading current with a lead angle of.com PDH Course Exxx www. In a delta circuit. whether for a wye circuit or a delta circuit. Equation 12 can be helpful when a person needs to determine line currents and the associated lead/lag in order to perform power calculations.PDHcenter.www. Unless care is taken to use the appropriate equation. but phase voltages for a three wire circuit may be difficult to read. a motor power factor is the cosine of the angle between the phase current and the phase voltage whether the motor is a wye wound motor or a delta wound motor. the matter of power factor is somewhat more complicated. Equation 12 in Appendix 12 gives the relationship between phase lead/lag and line lead/lag for wye circuits and balanced delta circuits. currents and the leads or lags of currents with respect to voltages must be known. line currents and line voltages of an existing installation can generally be read with ease.PDHonline. in order to perform correct calculations.866. More specifically. In three phase circuits.org neutral point to ground. When computing three phase power. which are the same as © Joseph E. a correct answer cannot be expected. Voltage must be known. one must make the distinction between line parameters and phase parameters and then apply the correct calculation. 30º has a power factor equal to the cosine of 30º or 0. A motor with a nameplate that states the motor power factor is giving the power factor of the phases. With a wye circuit. So. say. Fleckenstein Page 13 of 69 . The most common type of three phase motor is the induction motor which always has a lagging power factor. A lagging current of 30º would likewise have a power factor of 0.

(–θP) > 0. Particularly with high voltage motors. instantaneous power of each of the phases of a three phase is given by Equation 105. to measure the phase currents of a delta wound motor would require removing the terminal box cover and moving existing connections. Fleckenstein Page 14 of 69 .) for a lagging power factor. an effort of this type may be especially undesirable. Consider a case having the following three phase parameters characteristic of a three phase motor: Vrms = 480 VAC. phase currents and the lead/lag of the currents are all identical.PDHcenter. P = power (watts) VP = phase voltage (rms) IP = phase current (rms) cos θP = power factor of phase θP = lead/lag of phase current with respect to phase voltage θP = angle of lead or angle of lag (radians) (phase current with respect to phase voltage) (The subscript „P‟ designates „phase‟.com PDH Course Exxx www. Example 2 In above Example 1. three phase VPK = 480 = 678. As will be demonstrated a plot of three phase power throughout the same period is very different. the power of a single phase circuit is described by the relationship. For example. the values of instantaneous power were plotted for one complete cycle. phase voltages. or θP > 0 for a leading power factor.82 VAC Irms = 10 amps © Joseph E. According to Equation 107. (–θP) < 0. It follows then that the power for a balanced three phase circuit is. P = VI cos θ. P = 3VPIP cos θP … (Reference 1) where. or θP < 0 As in a single phase circuit. line currents. where the parameters are the single phase parameters. can be conveniently read but phase currents may be difficult to read.PDHonline. By definition a balanced circuit has line voltages.www.org phase voltages.

i P = VPKIPK cos θ sin2ωt – VPKIPK sin θ sin ωt cos ωt www. It is significant to note that the value of instantaneous power throughout the cycle is constant. A plot of the values of power for the assumed parameters for one complete cycle is shown in Fig.com PDH Course Exxx IPK = 10 = 14.. cos θ = 0. As mentioned. in this instance 10078. A summary of the power computations of instantaneous power vs ωt for Example 2 is tabulated in Appendix E.PDHcenter. The computations of Example 1 and Example 2 demonstrate one of the significant differences between a single phase motor and a three phase motor. the nameplate will also state the full load amperage. which is the © Joseph E. the sum of the powers of the three phases is calculated to be exactly a constant value. the nameplate on a three phase motor will bear the power factor which is applicable to the phase currents and phase voltages.. as „FLA‟. and θ = 45.org .70. 8. Equation 105 It may be seen that the power factor is the same as that assumed in Example 1. The power of the single phase motor in a single cycle has two sharp peaks and two sharp valleys whereas the power of the three phase motor is exactly constant for all values of ωt. In this later example the user is a three phase motor.www. Fleckenstein Page 15 of 69 .PDHonline.14 amps Power Factor = 0.7 Therefore.42 ± .02 watts. In other words.57º Equation 105 states that for each of the three phases.

3B. 6 the line current in Conductor A is the current of Phase A-D.PDHcenter. The line current in Conductor B is the current of Phase B-D. Calculating Power in Balanced Three Phase Wye Circuits 3B1. Calculating Power in Balanced Three Phase Wye Circuits . and all three currents are at the same lead/lag angle. This is seemingly inconsistent. 3B2. For a wye circuit the magnitude of the phase voltages are a fixed ratio of the line voltages and are given by the expression. General In a balanced three phase wye circuit the phase currents of all three phases are of the same magnitude as the line currents. VL = ) VP … Equation 109 or.www. VP = [1/ )] VL where. The phase voltages are at a magnitude that is a fixed ratio of the line voltages. θP = θL + 30º More specifically.PDHonline. but nonetheless standard practice. θP-A/AD = θL-A/CA + 30º θP-B/BD = θL-B/AB + 30º θP-C/CD = θL-C/BC + 30º Reference: Equation 12 in Appendix F.com PDH Course Exxx www.Resistive Loads © Joseph E. In the typical three phase wye circuit as represented in Fig.org magnitude of the line current. VL = line voltage (rms) VP = phase voltage (rms) The lead/lag of the line currents in a wye circuit are related to the lead/lag of the phase currents by the general expression. and the line current in Conductor C is the current of Phase B-D. Fleckenstein Page 16 of 69 .

org 3B2a. or cos θP = 1. Thus. VL = ) VP. P = 3VPIP cos θP = 3{[1/ )] VL} IL cos (θL + 30º) P = VL IL cos (θL + 30º) = VL IL cos (–30º + 30º) = VL IL cos (0º) = VL IL (1) © Joseph E. Using Phase Parameters According to above Equation 108. Using Line Parameters From Equation 109. The net power for all three phases becomes.com PDH Course Exxx www. or VP = [1/ )] VL In a balanced wye circuit the magnitude of the line current is equal to the magnitude of the phase current (although the lead/lag of the current with respect to phase voltage is different from the lead/lag of the current with respect to line voltage). P = 3VPIP cos θP From Equation 108. P = 3VPIP cos θP In a resistive circuit the power factor is unity.0 for resistive loads.PDHcenter. θP = 0º θP = 0º = θL + 30º θL = –30º Thus.0.www.PDHonline. P = 3VPIP … Equation 3B2a 3B2b. Fleckenstein Page 17 of 69 . IP = IL For a balanced or unbalanced wye circuit the current lead/lag are related by the expression: θP = θL + 30º … Equation 12 Since cos θP = 1.

Calculating Power in Balanced Three Phase Wye Circuits – Inductive or Capacitive Loads 3B3a. θP = θL + 30º VP = [1/ )] VL In a balanced wye circuit the magnitude of the line current is equal to the magnitude of the phase current. Using Phase Parameters From Equation 109. The reasons for this are explained below.www. P = 3VPIP cos θP … Equation 3B3a 3B3b. General In a balanced three phase delta circuit the phase voltages are the same as the line voltages and the line currents are a fixed ratio of the phase currents. P = 3VPIP cos θP From Equation 12. Using Line Parameters From Equation 109. 3C. © Joseph E.com P= PDH Course Exxx www. IP = IL P = 3VPIP cos θP From Equation 12 θP = θL + 30º P = 3 [1/ )] VL IL cos (θL + 30º) P= ) VL IL cos (θL + 30º) … Equation 3B3b Note: Equation 3B3b can be used for any balanced three phase load whether the user is wye. delta or a mix. Calculating Power in Balanced Delta Three Phase Circuits 3C1. Fleckenstein Page 18 of 69 .PDHcenter.org VL IL … Equation 3B2b 3B3.PDHonline.

Using Phase Parameters From Equation 109 P = 3VPIP cos θP Since the power factor in a resistive load is unity.PDHonline. Using Line Parameters P = 3VPIP cos θP VL = VP IL = ( IP. Fleckenstein Page 19 of 69 . and Line voltage B-C is the voltage of Phase B-C. IP … Reference 2 IL = ( As with balanced wye circuits the lead/lag of the line currents in a balanced delta circuit are related to the lead/lag of the phase currents by the expression. 8 line voltage A-B is the voltage of Phase A-B.org In the representation of a typical delta circuit of Fig. P = 3VPIP … Equation 3C2a 3C2b. Line voltage B-C is the voltage of Phase B-C. θP = θL + 30º … Reference: Equation 12 θP-A/AD = θL-A/CA + 30º θP-B/BD = θL-B/AB + 30º θP-C/CD = θL-C/BC + 30º 3C2. Since the phase voltages are of the same magnitude as the line voltages. VL = VP Phase currents are related to line currents by the expression.www. Calculating Power in Balanced Three Phase Delta Circuits Resistive Loads 3C2a.PDHcenter. or IP = [1/( θP = θL + 30º ] IL θP = 0º = θL + 30º θL = –30º © Joseph E.com PDH Course Exxx www.

Fleckenstein Page 20 of 69 .www. VL = line voltage © Joseph E.org ] IL} cos (0º) 3C3. General It is relatively easy to calculate power in either a balanced three phase wye circuit or an unbalanced three phase wye circuit since the phase current is the line current.Using Line Parameters P = 3VPIP cos θP IL = ( IP IP = [1/( ] IL VP = VL θP = θL + 30º P = 3VPIP cos θP = 3 VL[1/( P= ] IL cos (θL + 30º) VL IL cos (θL + 30º) … Equation 3C3b 4. P = 3VPIP cos θP … Equation 3C3a 3C3b.com PDH Course Exxx P = 3VPIP cos θP = 3 VL{[1/( ] IL} cos (θL + 30º) P = 3 VL{[1/( ] IL} cos (–30º + 30º) = P = 3 VL{[1/( P = 3 VL{[1/( ] IL} = ( L IL P=( L IL … Equation 3C2b www. Calculating Power in Balanced Three Phase Delta Circuits – Inductive or Capacitive 3C3a.PDHonline. Calculating Power in Unbalanced Three Phase Circuits 4A.Using Phase Parameters From Equation 109.PDHcenter. VP = [1/ )] VL where. and the phase voltage is related to line voltage by a fixed ratio. VL = ) VP … Equation 108 or.

If the delta circuit is a balanced circuit. 4B. Unbalanced delta circuits on the other hand require more attention to detail and more time overall.PDHcenter. General A viable method to determine the power of an unbalanced three phase wye circuit is to treat the circuit as a combination of three single phase circuits. Calculating Power in Unbalanced Three Phase Wye Circuits 4B1. θP = θL + 30º Unlike power computations for a wye circuits. The computations are made especially easy since phase current is equal to line current and phase voltage is a fixed ratio of line voltage. Fleckenstein Page 21 of 69 . PB = VB-DIB cos θP-BD For Phase C-D. Using Phase Parameters For Phase A-D.PDHonline.www. 4B2. PA = power attributed to phase A PB = power attributed to phase B PC = power attributed to phase C © Joseph E. the computations of power for a delta circuits are not as easy. PC = VC-DIC cos θP-CD Where. Calculating Power in Unbalanced Three Phase Wye Circuits Resistive Loads 4B2a. This is in large part due to the fact that in a delta circuit line currents are the product of two phase currents.com PDH Course Exxx www.org VP = phase voltage The lead/lag of the line currents is related to the lead/lag of the phase currents by the expression. the computations are relatively straightforward. PA = VA-DIA cos θP-AD For Phase B-D.

VA-D = VB-D = VC-D = VP PT = VP [IA + IB + IC] … Eq. PT = VP [IA + IB + IC] = 277. 6.com PDH Course Exxx www. cos θP-AD = cos θP-BD = cos θP-CD = 1. Fleckenstein Page 22 of 69 . Using Line Parameters Phase currents equal line currents. For Phase A-D.128 [7 + 11 + 15] = 9145. PA = VDAIA cos θP-A/DA © Joseph E. 4B2a Example 3 Consider a wye circuit the equivalent to that of Fig.org IA = current in conductor A and phase A-D IB = current in conductor B and phase B-D IA = current in conductor A and phase C-D θP-AD = lead/lag of current in phase A with respect to voltage VA-D θP-BD = lead/lag of current in phase B with respect to voltage VB-D θP-CD = lead/lag of current in phase C with respect to voltage VC-D For resistive loads.0 PA = VA-DIA PB = VB-DIB PC = VC-DIC PT = PA + PB + PC PT = VA-DIA + VB-DIB + VC-DIC Since.www. Assume the following conditions: Voltage: 480-3-60 Currents: IA = 7 amp IB = 11 amp IC = 15 amp Calculate total power.PDHcenter.228 watts 4B2b. PT = VP [IA + IB + IC] VP = 480/ = 277.128 volts According to Equation 4B2a.PDHonline.

VL-CA = VL-AB = VL-CA = VL PT = (1/ VLIL-A + (1/ VLIL-B +(1/ VLIL-C PT = (1/ ) VL [IL-A + IL-B + IL-C] … Equation 4B2b Example 4 Assume the parameters of Example 3 and calculate total power using line parameters.0 PDA = {[1/( ] VL-CA} [IA] (1.com PDH Course Exxx www. PT = VP [IA + IB + IC] = 277. θP-A = 0º θP-A = θL-A + 30º = 0º θL-A = –30º cos (θL-A + 30º) = cos (–30º + 30º) = cos 0º = 1.org IP-A = IL-A = IA VP-DA = [1/( ] VL-CA θP-A/AD = θL-A/CA + 30º PA = VDAIA cos θP-AD = {[1/( ] VL-CA} [IA] cos (θL-A/CA + 30º) For resistive loads. PT = VP [IA + IB + IC] VP = 480/ = 277.0) = (1/ VL-CAIL-A For Phase B-D. Fleckenstein Page 23 of 69 .128 [7 + 11 + 15] = 9145.PDHcenter.228 watts © Joseph E.128 volts According to Equation 4B2b. PB = (1/ VL-ABIL-B For Phase C-D. In wye circuits phase currents equal line currents.PDHonline. PC = (1/ VL-CAIL-C The net power then is. Voltage: 480-3-60 Currents: IA = 7 amp IB = 11 amp IC = 15 amp Calculate total power. PT = PA + PB + PC Since.www.

8 + 8.60) + (12) (.205.PDHonline.8] = (277. Therefore.60 IB = 12 amp.128) [26] = 7.80.60. VA-D = VB-D = VC-D = VP PT = VP [IA cos θP-AD + IB cos θP-BD + IC cos θP-CD] … Eq.128) [4. PFB = . cos θP-AD = 0. lagging VP = VL/ PT = VP [IA cos θP-AD + IB cos θP-BD + IC cos θP-CD] PT = [480/ ] [(8) (. PT = PA + PB + PC PT = VA-DIA cos θP-AD + VB-DIB cos θP-BD + VC-DIC cos θP-CD Since. 4B3a Example 5 Assume the following conditions for an unbalanced wye circuit: Voltage: 480-3-60 Currents: IA = 8 amp. Using Line Parameters PA = VADIP-A cos θP-AD © Joseph E.PDHcenter.www.80)] PT = (277.org 4B3. lagging cos θP-BD = 0. PFC = . Power factors are descriptive of the lag/lead of phase current with respect to phase voltage.80 Calculate total power. Calculating Power in Unbalanced Three Phase Wye Circuits – Inductive or Capacitive Loads 4B3a. Fleckenstein Page 24 of 69 . PFA = .33 watts 4B3b.com PDH Course Exxx www.70) + (16) (.4 + 12.70 IC = 16 amp.70. lagging cos θP-CD = 0. Using Phase Parameters PA = VA-DIA cos θP-AD PB = VB-DIB cos θP-BD PC = VC-DIC cos θP-CD The net power is.

cos θP-AD = 0. Power factors are descriptive of the lag/lead of phase current with respect to phase voltage. Voltage: 480-3-60 Circuit: wye Currents: IA = 8 amp. 4B3b Example 6 Assume the same circuit parameters used in above Example 3 for a wye circuit and calculate total circuit power using line parameters. PFA = . Therefore.70 θP-BD = +45. lagging IB = 12 amp.60 θP-AD = +53.80 θP-CD = +36. PB = [1/( ] VL-AB IB cos (θL-B/AB + 30º) PC = [1/( ] VL-BC IC cos (θL-C/BC + 30º) Since. PT = (1/ VL [IA cos (θL-A/CA + 30º) + IB cos (θL-B/AB + 30º) + IC cos (θL-C/BC + 30º)] θP-A/AD = θL-A/CA + 30º = +53.80. Fleckenstein Page 25 of 69 .70.com VA-D = [1/( ] VL-CA IP-A = IA θP-A/AD = θL-A/CA + 30º PA = VADIP-A cos θP-AD = [1/( PDH Course Exxx www.130º – 30º = +23. lagging IC = 16 amp.www.869º According to Equation 4B3b. PFC = . VL-CA = VL-AB = VL-BC = VL PT = PA + PB + PC PT = (1/ VL [IA cos (θL-A/CA + 30º) + IB cos (θL-B/AB + 30º) + IC cos (θL-C/BC + 30º)] … Eq. lagging Calculate total power using line values.130º cos θP-BD = 0. PFB = .PDHcenter.130º © Joseph E.PDHonline.130º θL-A/CA = +53.org ] VL-CA IA cos (θL-A/CA + 30º) Similarly.60.572º cos θP-CD = 0.

Calculating Power in Unbalanced Three Phase Delta Circuits Resistive Loads 4C2a. of course.869º PT = (1/ VL [IA cos (θL-A/CA + 30º) + IB cos (θL-B/AB + 30º) + IC cos (θL-C/BC + 30º)] PT = (1/ (480) [(8) cos (+23.869º + 30º)] PT = (1/ (480) [(8) (.572º θP-C/CD = θL-C/BC + 30º = +36. The alternate method is to determine circuit power from the properties of the line currents.8)] PT = 7205.572º + 30º) + (16) cos (+6.869º – 30º = +6.www. Fleckenstein Page 26 of 69 .0 PAB = VL-ABIP-AB PBC = VL-BCIP-BC PCA = VL-CAIP-CA © Joseph E.869º θL-C/CD = +36.0.130º + 30º) + (12) cos (+25. 4C. General Much as with a wye circuit. 4C2.org θP-B/BD = θL-B/AB + 30º = +45.7) + (16) (. total power in an unbalanced three phase delta circuit can be determined by treating the circuit as a combination of three single phase circuits.PDHcenter.6) + (12) (. PBC = VB-CIP-BC cos θP-BC & PCA = VC-AIP-CA cos θP-CA For a circuit with all loads resistive. This method. assumes that the values of the currents and the respective leads/lags are available. cos θP-BC = 1.33 watts This computed value of power is in agreement with the calculation of total circuit power using phase parameters which confirms the validity of both methods. Calculating Power in Unbalanced Three Phase Delta Circuits 4C1.572º θL-B/AB = +45.PDHonline. Using Phase Parameters PAB = VA-BIP-AB cos θP-AB. cos θP-AB = 1.0 & cos θP-CA = 1.572º – 30º = +25. The power of each of the three phases is separately determined and the total of the three becomes the three phase power of the circuit.com PDH Course Exxx www.

VL-AB = VL-BC = VL-CA = VL. 4C2a 4C2b. Voltages: VA-B. VB-C & VC-A Currents: IA – Current in conductor A IB – Current in conductor B IC – Current in conductor C Lead/lag (currents with respect to line voltages): θL-A/CA – lead/lag of line current A with respect to line voltage C-A θL-B/AB – lead/lag of line current B with respect to line voltage A-B θL-C/BC – lead/lag of line current C with respect to line voltage B-C The applicable equation for circuit power as a function of line parameters with all resistance loads would be the same as that for inductive or capacitive loads as treated in below Section 4C3b.PDHcenter. 4C2b 4C3. or PT = VL-ABIP-AB + VL-BCIP-BC + VL-CAIP-CA Since.www. Calculating Power in Unbalanced Three Phase Delta Circuits – Inductive or Capacitive 4C3a. VA-B = VB-C = VC-A = VL = VP PT = VPIA-B cos θP-AB + VPIB-C cos θP-BC + VPIC-A cos θP-CA © Joseph E.PDHonline. Using Line Parameters Line parameters are identified as. Using Phase Parameters PAB = VA-BIA-B cos θP-AB. PBC = VB-CIB-C cos θP-BC & PCA = VC-AIC-A cos θP-CA PT = PAB + PBC + PCA. PT = VL (1/ ) [IL-A cos (θL-A/CA + 30º) + IL-B cos (θL-B/AB + 30º) + IL-C cos (θL-C/BC + 30º)] … Eq. or PT = VA-BIA-B cos θP-AB + VB-CIB-C cos θP-BC + VC-AIC-A cos θP-CA Since.com PDH Course Exxx www. Fleckenstein Page 27 of 69 . PT = VLIP-AB + VLIP-BC + VLIP-CA = VL [IP-AB + IP-BC + IP-CA] PT = VL [IP-AB + IP-BC + IP-CA] … Eq.org PT = PAB + PBC + PCA.

PDHcenter.www.90 lagging Ica = 15 amps @ PF = 0.86989º According to Equation 4C3a. Fleckenstein Page 28 of 69 . This method is treated and confirmed in Appendix C.PDHonline.com PDH Course Exxx www. Voltages: VA-B. PA-D = VP-AD IP-A cos θP-A/AD VP-AD = (1/ ) VCA © Joseph E. VB-C & VC-A Currents: IA – Current in conductor A IB – Current in conductor B IC – Current in conductor C Lead/lag (currents with respect to line voltages): θL-A/CA – lead/lag of line current A with respect to line voltage C-A θL-B/AB – lead/lag of line current B with respect to line voltage A-B θL-C/BC – lead/lag of line current C with respect to line voltage B-C Total circuit power can be determined by assuming that there is a single user and that user is a wye circuit. Using Line Parameters Line parameters are identified as. Solution: –1 θP-AB = cos 1.80 leading Find line currents in conductors A.80)] PT = (480) [5 + 9 + 12] = (480) [26] = 12480 watts 4C3b.90) + (15) (.84193º –1 θP-CA = –cos 0.80 = –36.org PT = VP [IA-B cos θP-AB + IB-C cos θP-BC + IC-A cos θP-CA] … Equation 4C3a Example 7 Assume the following conditions for an unbalanced delta circuit: Line potential: 480 -3-60 volts Iab = 5 amps @ PF = 1. B and C.00 Ibc = 10 amps @ PF = 0.90 = 25. PT = VP [IA-B cos θP-AB + IB-C cos θP-BC + IC-A cos θP-CA] PT = (480) [(5) (1) + (10) (.00 = 0 –1 θP-BC = cos 0.

Next.90 lagging Ica = 15 amps @ PF = 0.90 = 25. and PC-D = (1/ ) VBC IL-C cos (θL-C/BC + 30º) PT = PA-D + PB-D + PC-D.PDHonline. Solution: –1 θP-AB = cos 1. ½ IA = {(XA)2 + (YA)2} θL-A = (120º – λ) where. © Joseph E.org IP-A = IL-A θP-A/AD = θL-A/CA + 30º PA-D = (1/ ) VCA IL-A cos (θL-A/CA + 30º) Similarly. Line potential: 480 -3-60 volts Iab = 5 amps @ PF = 1.00 Ibc = 10 amps @ PF = 0.com PDH Course Exxx www.84193º –1 θP-CA = –cos 0.www.00 = 0 –1 θP-BC = cos 0. 4C3b Example 8 Assume the same delta phase values as were used in above Example 5.80 = –36. From Equation 9-1 and Equation 9-2 (contained in Appendix F). compute the associated line parameters and then compute total power using line values. or PT = (1/ ) VCA IL-A cos (θL-A/CA + 30º) + PB-D = (1/ ) VAB IL-B cos (θL-B/AB + 30º) + PC-D = (1/ ) VBC IL-C cos (θL-C/BC + 30º) Since VL-AB = VL-BC = VL-CA = VL PT = VL (1/ ) [IL-A cos (θL-A/CA + 30º) + IL-B cos (θL-B/AB + 30º) + IL-C cos (θL-C/BC + 30º)] … Eq. PB-D = (1/ ) VAB IL-B cos (θL-B/AB + 30º). B and C. Fleckenstein Page 29 of 69 . the associated line parameters are determined.80 leading Find line currents in conductors A.PDHcenter.86989º Next.

6) – (0.PDHcenter.892304 ÷ 19.696250 amps λ = sin–1 (YA IA) = sin1 [5.6)] = 5.892304)2}1/2 = 19.794228 Yca = Ica (1/2) [( (–36.86989º) – cos (–36.5929º From Equation 9-3 and Equation 9-4.5) [( (–0.84193º] = (5) [( (0.5) [( (.435889] = 5. ½ IB = {(XB)2 + (YB)2} –1 θL-B = tan (YB ÷ XB) where XB = Xab + Xcb YB = Yab + Ycb Xab = Iab cos θP-AB = (5) cos 0 = 5 Yab = –Iab sin θP-AB = – (5) sin 0 = 0 Xcb = Ibc (1/2) [( sin θP-BC + cos θP-BC] = (10) (1/2) [( sin 25.892304 = 5.www.5) [–1.55884 – 0.8] = –13.274917 YB = Yab + Ycb = 0 + 5.5929º) = –42.274917) = 13.794228) = –18.86989º)] = (7.892304 XA = Xba + Xca = –5 + (–13.86989º) + sin (–36.com PDH Course Exxx www.274917 Ycb = Icb (1/2) [( cos θP-BC – sin θP-BC] = (10) (1/2) [( cos 25.435889)] = (5) [1.754983) + (.5) [( sin (–36.794229)2 + (5.696250] = sin–1 .84193º] = (5) [( – (0.61475 = 5.8)] = (7.9] = (5) [(.2991586 IA is in quadrant II λ = sin–1 . Fleckenstein Page 30 of 69 .84193º + cos 25.80) + (–0.84193º – sin 25.5929º θL-A = (120º – λ) = (120º – 162.794228 YA = Yba + Yca = 0 + 5.9)] = 8.61475 XB = Xab + Xcb = 5 + (8.org Xba = –Iab cos θP-AB = – (5) cos 0 = –5 Yba = Iab sin θP-AB = Iba (0) = 0 Xca = Ica(1/2) [( sin θP-CA – cos θP-CA] Xca = (15) (1/2) [( sin θP-CA – cos θP-CA] = (7.86989º)] = (7.4358898) + (.892304 ½ IA = {(XA)2 + (YA)2} = {(–18.PDHonline.299158 = 162.61475 © Joseph E.039230 – 0.

6244º Summary of calculated values for the delta circuit: Line Current Lead/lag IA = 19.8) + (–0.9) – (. IC = {(XC)2 + (YC)2} ½ where.754983 + 0.61478 Xac = –Ica (1/2)[( sin θP-CA – cos θP-CA] = – (15)(1/2) [( sin –36.www.PDHonline.84193º] = –(5) [( (0.50708)2}1/2 = 12.385640 – 0.89230) = –11.com PDH Course Exxx ½ www.PDHcenter.8)] = –(7.50708 ½ IC = {(XC)2 + (YC)2} = {(5.274917)2 + (5.86989º + sin –36.6244º = –55.27491 Ybc = –Ibc (1/2) [( cos θP-BC – sin θP-BC = –(10) (1/2)[( cos 25.61478 + (–5.5)[1.435889)] = –(5)[1.61475)2} = 14.61475 ÷ 14.762278 amps θL-C = (240º – φ) IC is in Quadrant IV φ = sin–1 (YC ÷ IC) = sin–1 (–11.8] = 13.86989º] = –(7.794228 = 5.6962506 amps θL-A/CA = –42.41349) = –22.762278 amps θL-C/BC = –55.5) [–1.519318)2 + (–11.6)] = –(7.84193º + cos 25.413495 amps –1 –1 θL-B = –sin (YB ÷ IB) = –sin (5.6244º © Joseph E. Fleckenstein Page 31 of 69 .5)[ (.6244º θL-C = 240º – φ = 240º – 295.5) [– ( – (.86989º – cos –36.55884 – .9] = –8.89230 XC = Xbc + Xac = –8.435889) + (0.9263º IC = 12.5929º IB = 14.413495 amps θL-B/AB = –22.76227) = 295.435889] = –5.50708 ÷ 12.039230 – .6)] = –5. Xbc = –Ibc (1/2) [( sin θP-BC + cos θP-BC = –(10) (1/2) [( sin 25.84193º – sin 25.27491 + 13.86989º] = –(7.519318 YC = Ybc + Yac = –5.org ½ IB = {(XB)2 + (YB)2} = {(13.9)] = –(5) [.794228 Yac = –Ica (1/2) [ cos θP-CA + sin θP-CA] = –(15)(1/2)[ cos –36.9263º From Equation 9-5 and Equation 9-6.84193º] = –(5)[( (.

PDHonline.6244º)] PT = (277. There could also be single phase loads.12812) [(19.5929º + 30º) + (14.413495) cos (7. 4D3. This total could be determined from either phase parameters or line parameters of the users. This would also be true of single phase loads.5929º) + (14. 4D2.12812) [45. The total power is then the sum of the individual loads.0334] = 12480.Using phase data For wye loads the power can be determined by one of the applicable equations presented above for wye loads using phase data.413495) cos (–22.org According to Equation 4C3b. 4D.PDHcenter. Similarly the individual loads for delta circuits can be determined with an applicable delta equation.6244º + 30º] PT = (277. It can also be determined if adequate line data is available for the common feeder. These line currents are then added in accordance with Equation 11 to determine the line © Joseph E.com PDH Course Exxx www.762278) cos (–55.0737º) + (12. obviously. If data is available for all of the users then.50719] PT = (277. PT = VL (1/ ) [IL-A cos (θL-A/CA + 30º) + IL-B cos (θL-B/AB + 30º) + IL-C cos (θL-C/BC + 30º)] PT = (480) (1/ ) [(19.6962506) cos (–12.762278) cos (–25.6962506) cos (–42.02 watts ≈ 12480 watts Thus. General It is common to find a three phase feeder that serves a mix of both wye and delta circuits.22243 + 14.Using line data In order to determine total power from line data.30378 + 11. it is seen that the computation yields the same result that was obtained using phase parameters.12812) [19. the total power consumption is the sum of the power of all of the users.9263º + 30º) + (12. Calculating Power in a Three Phase Circuit with Mixed Wye and Delta Loads 4D1.www. the line currents and the respective lead/lag of the separate loads must be determined. Fleckenstein Page 32 of 69 .

three wattmeters. General Power in a single phase circuit is typically measured by means of a wattmeter. including: © Joseph E. θP > –90º and θP < +90º 6. delta loads and single phase loads. where V = potential (voltage) I = current (amps) θP = phase lead/lag angle between phase current and phase voltage (degrees or radians) (for lagging current. It is possible to measure power of a three phase three wire circuit by any one of several methods. voltage and the lead or lag of the current with respect to the measured voltage.PDHcenter. have a permanently installed three phase watt-hour meter that is provided by the utility for billing purposes. A watt-hour meter integrates watts with time to determine total energy consumer by the customer. 5. θP < 0) In a single phase circuit. By one means or another.org currents in the common feeder. θP > 0. This can be done with one wattmeter. Measuring Power in a Single Phase Circuit A. of course. two wattmeters. The concern here is not so much permanently installed meters. The task can be carried out by means of single phase watt meters. The wattmeter essentially performs the calculation. Fleckenstein Page 33 of 69 . The total power can then be calculated using Equation 4C3b. Rather. The selection of meters and the method depends on several conditions.com PDH Course Exxx www.PDHonline. a wattmeter measures current. and these are the subject treated here. a power analyzer or other instruments. total power can be calculated from line data by assuming the entire load is a wye circuit in which case Equation 4C3b is applicable. As explained in Section 4C3b. By this means. for leading current. This task would normally be performed by means of portable instruments of some sort. the concern is with measuring power use within a structure. P = VI cos θP. General A building that has a three phase service will. total power can be calculated for any mix of wye loads.www. Measuring Power in a Three Phase Three Wire Circuit 6A.

Often black conductors are used and the ends taped with colored tape.com a. Frequency at which readings are to be made. If the load is balanced. it is advisable to take readings of all three phases to confirm that the load is actually balanced. Required accuracy. Phase sequence meters are commonly used by electricians to confirm the sequence of three phase conductors. © Joseph E. that would be the first clue of the phase sequence. color coding around the world vary. Fleckenstein Page 34 of 69 . Frequently in the USA the sequence „brown-orange (or violet)-yellow‟ is followed for three phase circuits 480 VAC conductors. color coded conductors may not accurately reflect the true phase sequence. When taking readings of power with a wattmeter or a power analyzer. These meters are especially helpful to confirm that a three phase motor has been wired properly. However. PDH Course Exxx www. a power analyzer may be the better selection. On the other hand.PDHonline. At the other end of the spectrum where there is a frequent need for measurements and the loads change rapidly. If the conductors under consideration followed a color coding. b. a single wattmeter can usually provide adequate results. check the phase sequence with a phase sequence meter. The possible methods of measuring three phase power with wattmeters and power analyzers are treated below. Of course. a single wattmeter will usually suffice. c.org Types and number of meters on hand. it is important to know the phase sequence of the conductors. If only a single wattmeter is on hand. as A-C-B. An unbalanced load presents a more demanding set of requirements and may require more than one wattmeter. as in the case if the load is a three phase motor. the motor will rotate reverse to the intended rotation and in some cases may result in significant damage. For example. T2-T3-T1 or T3-T1-T2 to ensure proper rotation of the motor. If the sequence is different.www. d. there is only an occasional need for wattage measurements and the loads change slowly. a large motor may require conductors A-B-C to be wired respectively to terminals T1-T2-T3. Cost can also be a factor in the selection of instrumentation.PDHcenter. Rate of change of load. When in doubt.

org Although not commonly done. This method will provide adequate readings if the currents and voltages change very little between the time the first reading is taken and the time the second reading is taken. In position #2 the current in Conductor C is measured as well as voltage C-B. The current in Conductor A is measured as well as voltage C-A.PDHcenter. voltmeter and an oscilloscope for measuring lead/lag. The meter is first connected as shown in Position #1. Total power is determined at any selected instant by the addition of the readings indicated on the two wattmeters.com PDH Course Exxx www. Fleckenstein Page 35 of 69 . 9 shows a typical configuration that could be used to determine total power. Alternate positions for measuring total power would involve the use of different conductors as explained below. This would be possible with. Using Two Wattmeters to Measure Power in a Three Phase Three Wire Circuit An effective. A reading is taken and the meter then moved to Position #2. The arrangement of Fig. 6C. i. Using a Single Wattmeter to Measure Power in a Three Phase Three Wire Circuit Under some circumstances.PDHonline. say. power can also be determined by any means that permits measuring current. 6B. The wattmeters measure power by measuring line parameters. The two wattmeters are located in the three phase lines as shown in © Joseph E. an ammeter.www. voltage and current lead/lag. common and practical means of measuring power in unbalanced three phase three wire circuits involves the use of only two wattmeters. a single portable wattmeter can provide adequate readings in an unbalanced three phase three wire circuit. rather than in the phases.e. potentials and currents.

12. In one possible configuration. Meter #1 measures the current in Conductor A as well as voltage C-A.PDHonline. The positive voltage lead is connected to Phase B and the negative lead is connected to Phase C. This would be true. Alternate two meter configurations are shown in Fig 11 and Fig. 10.org Fig. © Joseph E.com PDH Course Exxx www. 11 and Fig. Only two currents are measured and the voltages are measured as shown in the figure. the two meter configuration is often the preferred means of measuring total power of a three phase three wire circuit. 10 the two wattmeters are designated Meter #1 and Meter #2. Fleckenstein Page 36 of 69 .PDHcenter. 12 is discussed in Appendix D. The positive voltage lead of Meter #1 is connected to Phase A and the negative voltage lead is connected to Phase C. Since it is often not possible or convenient to measure currents in the phases. In Fig. Meter #2 measures current in Conductor B as well as voltage C-B. The validity of using the arrangements of Fig.www. Since a wattmeter measures current with respect to voltage it is important that the voltage leads be properly positioned. for example. of a delta wound motor. Generally it would be difficult to measure motor phase currents but not the line currents.

com PDH Course Exxx www.www. The total circuit power is the sum of the phase powers. This would necessarily be the case. Fleckenstein Page 37 of 69 . 13. it is important to ensure that all connections are made correctly.org Measuring three phase power with only two meters may at first seem inadequate since current in one of the lines is not measured. the proof of the method is presented in numerous texts on the subject. the three wattmeters could be connected as shown in Fig. Nevertheless. In the case of a wye circuit. with a wye wound motor © Joseph E. it is assumed that the circuit is balanced. Using Three Wattmeters to Measure Power in a Three Phase Three Wire Circuit At times. with a wye wound motor. 6D.PDHonline. Yet there is only one set of connections that will provide correct readings. For this reason. it may become desirable to measure circuit power with three wattmeters. It is to be noted that for a three phase three wire wye circuit. This may be the case if it is necessary to determine phase power in either a delta or a wye circuit. However. for example. It is important to note that with the two meter method it is possible to have some 20 or more possible incorrect connections.PDHcenter.

12).PDHonline. 14. A circuit could be balanced or unbalanced. The total power would be the sum of the readings of the three wattmeters. More specifically. the two wattmeter method described above is one method that could be used. In the configuration of Fig. there are few applications that would involve use of three wattmeters as represented in Fig. A common method to measure power in an unbalanced three phase four wire circuit involves the use of three wattmeters arranged as shown in Fig. The more common usage of three wattmeters in a wye circuit would be in a three phase four wire circuit.com PDH Course Exxx www. 14. 13.www.PDHcenter. In the arrangement of Fig. the circuit need not necessarily be balanced. 15. General Very often a three phase circuit under consideration will be the four wire type.org there may be no convenient access to the neutral connection (Point „d‟ in Fig. a delta wound motor can be assumed to have a balanced circuit in which case. in the case of a delta wound motor. The two wattmeter method cannot be used to measure power in a three phase four wire circuit. As indicated in Fig. in practice. 15 the wattmeters are used to measure line voltages and © Joseph E. In some instances it may be either difficult or impossible to locate the current pickups to detect phase currents. the leads of the phases would not be accessible. To measure the power of each phase of a three phase three wire delta circuit. 14. Fleckenstein Page 38 of 69 . 7. Measuring Power in a Three Phase Four Wire Circuit 7A. So. the current pickups are located in the phases. three wattmeters could be used as represented in Fig. as explained below. On the other hand. For example. the power can be determined by other means.

If the circuit is balanced. The total power is the sum of the readings of the three wattmeters.www. power analyzers can provide numerous details characteristic of a circuit including parameters as currents. VA. sizes. the total power can be determined by merely measuring only one meter. in many instances the greater cost of a power analyzer is justified by the greater amount of data that is provided. therefore. VARS.com PDH Course Exxx www. Information at a power analyzer is available on a single panel of a single instrument which is generally preferable to the use of two or three separate wattmeters. Some can transmit data serially over a cable to remote locations. power factors. Although more costly than wattmeters. © Joseph E. power. phase sequence and lead/lag angle. In general. prices and with a wide variety of features. 8. voltages. frequency.PDHonline.PDHcenter. the arrangement is generally more practical than arrangements that require the measurements of phase values. Many power analyzers can be used to make a print-out of the measured parameters. the total power then is the power of one phase times three. A measurement arrangement using a power analyzer is shown in Fig. 16. A power analyzer has all of the leads required for voltages and currents joined to a single instrument. Some are ruggedized and suitable for use at any number of locations around a building. Others seem more suited for duty on a bench. Power analyzers come in a wide variety of shapes. Measuring Power with a Power Analyzer Power analyzers are very versatile instruments that can be used to analyze single phase circuits although these instruments are intended primarily for the analysis of three phase circuits.org currents and. Some can show a circuit‟s phasor diagrams. Fleckenstein Page 39 of 69 .

org Page 40 of 69 .PDHcenter. Fleckenstein PDH Course Exxx www.www.PDHonline.com © Joseph E.

PDHonline. Symbols Following is a summary of the symbols used in this course: Δ = symbol for (three phase) delta loads vi = instantaneous voltage (volts) viX = value of instantaneous voltage vi at time “X” (volts) viXY = instantaneous value of voltage measured from “X” to “Y” (volts) vPK = peak value of instantaneous voltage vi (volts) V(t) = voltage expressed as a function of time (rms volts) V(t)ab = voltage A-B expressed as a function of time (rms volts) V = (absolute) numerical value of DC voltage or (rms) AC voltage (volts) VL = line voltage (rms volts .used in reference to a three phase source) VP = voltage (rms volts . Fleckenstein Page 41 of 69 .org Summary of Symbols and Equations 9A.com 9. PDH Course Exxx www.used in reference to a phase of a three phase load) VXY = AC voltage with positive direction measured from “X” to “Y” (rms volts or voltage vector) ii = instantaneous current (amps) iiX = value of instantaneous current ii at time “X” (amps) iPK = peak value of instantaneous current ii (amps) I = (absolute) numerical value of DC current or (rms) AC current (amps) I(t) = current expressed as a function of time (rms amps) I(t)ab = current A-B expressed as a function of time (rms amps) IL = line current (rms amps) (used in reference to a three phase source) IL-X = current in line conductor X (rms amps) IP = phase current (rms amps) (used in reference to a three phase load) IP-XY = current in Phase X-Y (rms amps) IXY = AC current vector with positive direction measured from “X” to “Y” (rms amps or current vector) L = general representation of an electrical load (which could be resistive. inductive or any combination thereof) © Joseph E. capacitive.PDHcenter.used in reference to a three phase source) VL-XY = line voltage between phase X and phase Y (rms volts .www.

θL > 0. θP > 0.PDHcenter. These equation are identified in accordance with the numbers used in Course E336. Fleckenstein Page 42 of 69 . Equations Below is a summary of applicable equations. θL < 0) θL-CA – lead/lag of line current A with respect to line voltage C-A θL-AB – lead/lag of line current B with respect to line voltage A-B θL-BC – lead/lag of line current C with respect to line voltage B-C θP = phase lead/lag angle between phase current and phase voltage (degrees or radians) (for leading current.com PDH Course Exxx www. 3. for lagging current. Equations pertinent to current calculations are repeated from PDH Online Course E336 and are numbered from „Equation 5‟ to „Equation 12‟. © Joseph E. Equations introduced in this course are numbered Equations 101 to 109. The equations are contained in Appendix F. 2. Power equations are referenced according to the paragraph in which they are identified (3B2a to 4C3b).PDHonline. θP < 0) θP-A/AD = lead/lag of phase current A with respect to line voltage A-D θP-B/BD = lead/lag of phase current B with respect to line voltage B-D θP-C/CD = lead/lag of phase current C with respect to line voltage C-D PF = power factor = cos θP (for balanced delta or balanced wye loads) ω = 2πf (radians) 9B. There are three sets of numbers used to identify applicable equations: 1.org R = electrical resistance (ohms) P = electrical power (watts) PXY = electrical power in circuit “X-Y” (watts) i P = instantaneous power (watts) t = time (seconds) tX = time at “X” (seconds) f = frequency (hz) θSP = single phase lead/lag angle between current and voltage (degrees) θL = lead/lag angle between line current and line voltage (degrees or radians)(for leading current. for lagging current.www. all of which are tabulated below.

Equation 106 .Instantaneous current expressed as a function of time: ii = iPK sin (ωt – θSP) … Equation 102 ………………………………………………………………….org Following is a summary of the equations introduced in this course (Equations 101 to 109): ………………………………………………………………….RMS voltage as a function of time: V(t) = V sin (ωt) … Equation 103 …………………………………………………………………. Equation 103 .PDHcenter..www.Instantaneous voltage expressed as a function of time: vi = (vPK) sin ωt … Equation 101 …………………………………………………………………. Equation 101...Computation of power in a three phase wye circuit: P = 3VPIP cos θP … Equation 108 ………………………………………………………………….com PDH Course Exxx www. Equation 107 . Equation 105 . Equation 104 . Equation 102 ....Alternate expression of instantaneous power as a function of time: i P = [(vPK)(iPK)/2] cos θSP – [(vPK)(iPK)/2] cos (2ωt – θSP) …..Instantaneous power as a function of time: i P = (vPK)(iPK) (cos θSP) (sin2 ωt) – (vPK)(iPK) (sin θSP) (sin ωt) (cos ωt) … Equation 105 …………………………………………………………………. Equation 108 ..Relationship between phase voltage and line voltage in a wye circuit: VL = ) VP … Equation 109 © Joseph E..PDHonline. Fleckenstein Page 43 of 69 . Equation 109 .RMS current as a function of time: I(t) = I sin (ωt – θ) … Equation 104 ………………………………………………………………….Equation 106 ………………………………………………………………….General expression of power in a single phase AC circuit P = VI cos θ … Equation 107 …………………………………………………………………..

www.PDHcenter.org Summary of Three Phase Power Equations Wye Circuit Power Equations Type Circuit Equation Number Balanced Resistive Balanced Inductive or Capacitive Unbalanced Resistive Unbalanced Inductive or Capacitive + 3B2a ‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾ Phase parameters* ‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾ Line parameters PT = 3VPIP ‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾ 3B2b PT = 3B3a PT = 3VPIP cos θP ‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾ V L IL ‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾ 3B3b PT = 4B2a PT = VP [IA + IB + IC] ‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾ VL IL cos (θL + 30º) ‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾ 4B2b PT = (1/ ) VL [IA + IB + IC] 4B3a PT = VP [IA cos θP-AD + IB cos θP-BD + IC cos θP-CD] ‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾ 4B3b ‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾ PT = (1/ VL [IA cos (θL-A/CA + 30º) + IB cos (θL-B/AB + 30º) + IC cos (θL-C/BC + 30º)] * . Fleckenstein Page 44 of 69 . © Joseph E.In a wye circuit. VP = (1/ ) VL + .The equation number is the same as the associated paragraph number.PDHonline.com PDH Course Exxx www.

10. 2nd Ed. pp 305-314 2..PDHonline. Fleckenstein.www. Prentice-Hall.com PDH Course Exxx www. Calculating Currents in Balanced and Unbalanced three Phase Circuits. Del Toro.J. DeFrance. PDH Online Course E336.PDHcenter.In a delta circuit VP = VL + . References 1.The equation number is the same as the associated paragraph number. pp 604-621 3. 2nd Ed. Electrical Fundamentals. PrenticeHall.org Delta Circuit Power Equations Type Circuit Equation Number Balanced Resistive Balanced Inductive or Capacitive Unbalanced Resistive + 3C2a ‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾ ‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾ Line parameters PT = 3VPIP ‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾ 3C2b PT = 3C3a PT = 3VPIP cos θP ‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾ L IL ‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾ 3C3b PT = 4C2a PT = VP [IP-AB + IP-BC + IP-CA] ‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾ 4C2b Unbalanced Inductive or Capacitive Phase parameters** 4C3a ‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾ 4C3b VL IL cos (θL + 30º) ‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾ PT = (1/ ) VL [IL-A cos (θL-A/CA + 30º) + IL-B cos (θL-B/AB + 30º) + IL-C cos (θL-C/BC + 30º)] PT = VP [IA-B cos θP-AB + IB-C cos θP-BC + IC-A cos θP-CA] ‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾ PT = (1/ ) VL [IL-A cos (θL-A/CA + 30º) + IL-B cos (θL-B/AB + 30º) + IL-C cos (θL-C/BC + 30º)] ** . Electrical Engineering Fundamentals. Fleckenstein Page 45 of 69 . Joseph E. V.. J. © Joseph E.

18: cos (2ωt – θ) = cos 2ωt cos θ + sin 2ωt sin θ Thus.PDHonline.PDHcenter.. P. Fleckenstein Page 46 of 69 . P.D. i P = [(vPK)(iPK) /2] cos θ – [(vPK)(iPK) /2] [cos 2ωt cos θ + sin 2ωt sin θ] i P = [(vPK)(iPK) /2] cos θ – [(vPK)(iPK) /2][cos 2ωt cos θ] – [(vPK)(iPK) /2][sin 2ωt sin θ] 2 Since.E. Reference: Handbook of Mathematical Tables and Formulas. i P = (vPK)(iPK) (cos θSP) (sin2 ωt) – (vPK)(iPK) (sin θSP) (sin ωt) (cos ωt) … Equation 105 According to the text „Electrical Engineering‟. the equation of instantaneous power is: i P = [(vPK)(iPK)/2] cos θ – [(vPK)(iPK)/2] cos (2ωt – θ) …. by Vincent DelToro. cos 2ωt = 1 – 2 sin ωt i 2 P = [(vPK)(iPK) /2] cos θ – [(vPK)(iPK) /2] [1 – 2 sin ωt] cos θ] – [(vPK)(iPK) /2][sin 2ωt sin θ] i P = [(vPK)(iPK) /2] cos θ – [(vPK)(iPK) /2] cos θ + [(vPK)(iPK)/2] 2 [2 sin ωt cos θ] – [(vPK)(iPK) /2] [sin 2ωt sin θ] i 2 P = [(vPK)(iPK)] cos θ sin ωt – [(vPK)(iPK) /2] [sin 2ωt sin θ] Reference: Handbook of Mathematical Tables and Formulas.org Appendix A Demonstration that Equations 105 is the equivalent of Equation 106 Equation 105 states. Q.www. 18: sin 2ωt = 2 sin ωt cos ωt i 2 P = [(vPK)(iPK)] cos θ sin ωt – [(vPK)(iPK) /2] [(2 sin ωt cos ωt) sin θ] i 2 P = [(vPK)(iPK)] cos θ sin ωt – [(vPK)(iPK)] [sin θ sin ωt cos ωt]. © Joseph E.com PDH Course Exxx www.Equation 106 These two equations are equivalent as demonstrated below. Equation 106 becomes.

50 -1425.15 7263.54 55º 4508.57 105º 6268.48 3427.06 -1417.22 -969.87 1713.92 595.e.50 2893.17 -1288.35 -1172.59 20º 785.22 -2968.28 -599.org Appendix B Table of Computed Values of Instantaneous Power for Example 1 Column I is Function A minus Function B.93 75º 6268. Fleckenstein Page 47 of 69 .48 3220.41 120º 5039.82 3375.96 0 6718.99 2203.11 3375.03 595.08 1713.91 2625.47 3220.22 5344.82 60º 5039.com PDH Course Exxx www.19 40º 2776.17 8007.www.99 -2203.67 7982.77 90º 6718.66 1287.12 10º 202.15 -544.54 110º 5932.06 3729.62 15º 450.41 70º 5932. ωt Function A Function B Function A less Function B 0º 0 0 0 5º 51. i.28 567.17 2071.92 -595.22 2968.PDHcenter.67 4552.22 7688.15 6072.PDHonline.43 35º 2210.91 -2625.10 25º 1200.05 65º 5518.35 1172.60 1172.96 2203.20 80º 6516.96 95º 6667.67 -1263.39 © Joseph E.87 -1713.35 -67.05 115º 5518.46 30º 1679.07 100º 6516.87 50º 3942.66 -1010. Phase A-B power throughout one complete cycle.13 85º 6667.74 2968.17 45º 3359.50 8144.04 2625.06 8136.

12 190º 202.PDHcenter.96 -2203.04 -2625.77 270º 6718.66 5431.74 -2968.35 1172.15 7263.48 -3220.12 135º 3359.20 260º 6516.06 -1417.28 -599.84 -3375.56 235º 4508.13 150º 1679.39 145º 2210. Fleckenstein www.15 -544.10 205º 1200.67 7982.96 275º 6667.17 2071.22 1374.35 -67.18 180º 0 0 0 185º 51.92 595.67 2163.06 3729.03 595.28 567.50 3825.54 290º 5932.17 -1288.93 255º 6268.74 2968.11 3375.19 220º 2776.96 2203.87 -1713.50 2893.08 1713.13 265º 6667.91 2625.15 646.06 8136.83 140º 2776.62 195º 450.PDHonline.05 © Joseph E.48 3427.22 5344.67 -1263.28 6151.75 170º 202.22 2968.67 4555.22 7688.08 -1713.57 285º 6268.43 215º 2210.04 2625.02 165º 450.22 -969.com PDH Course Exxx 125º 4508.84 3375.15 6072.99 -2203.05 245º 5518.17 4647.35 -1172.59 200º 785.06 2989.www.66 1287.41 250º 5932.17 225º 3359.35 6786.50 -1425.48 -3427.03 -595.96 0 6718.org Page 48 of 69 .99 2203.92 -595.60 1172.11 -3375.46 210º 1679.07 280º 6516.66 7729.47 3220.48 3220.87 1713.28 7318.14 130º 3942.47 -3220.91 155º 1200.54 160º 785.87 230º 3942.82 175º 51.66 -1010.82 240º 5039.60 -1172.

48 -3220.54 340º 785.13 330º 1679.www.22 -2968.39 325º 2210.91 -2625.PDHcenter.91 335º 1200.03 -595.org Page 49 of 69 .22 1374.75 350º 202.08 -1713.11 -3375.82 355º 51.17 8007.04 -2625.67 2163.84 -3375.66 5431.15 646.96 -2203.48 -3427.39 305º 4508.83 320º 2776.50 3825.28 6151.74 -2968. Fleckenstein www.28 7318.41 300º 5039.47 -3220.35 6786.50 8144.18 360º 0 0 0 © Joseph E.66 7729.06 2989.14 310º 3942.12 315º 3359.PDHonline.60 -1172.com PDH Course Exxx 295º 5518.17 4647.02 345º 450.

Part 1 First Demonstration that Circuit Power of an Unbalanced Delta is Equivalent to an Assumed Wye Circuit Assume the following conditions for an unbalanced delta circuit: Line potential: 480-3-60 volts Iab = 5 amps @ PF = 1. Next.84193º –1 θP-CA = –cos 0.8 = –36.0 Ibc = 10 amps @ PF = 0.86989º These are the same line parameters that were assumed in Example 8 in Section 4C3b. Fleckenstein Page 50 of 69 .com PDH Course Exxx www.9 lagging Ica = 15 amps @ PF = 0. the total power of the circuit is the same as that of an assumed delta user. in Part 2. © Joseph E. Solution: –1 θP-AB = cos 1. Calculations repeated in that section determined that the line parameters corresponding to the assumed phase parameters shown in the following summary.PDHcenter.www. The first step of the demonstration is to calculate the power of a delta circuit when the phase values of the delta circuit are known. Two demonstrations are performed and these are shown below.8 leading Find line currents in conductors A. Finally. B and C. in Part 1.PDHonline. the line parameters of the delta circuit are calculated.9 = 25. first.0 = 0 –1 θP-BC = cos 0. and secondly.org Appendix C Demonstration that Total Power of an Unbalanced Delta Circuit is Equivalent to that of an Assumed Wye Circuit It is demonstrated here that the power of a delta circuit can be determined from line parameters by assuming that the user is a wye circuit instead of a delta circuit. it is shown that by assuming the user to be a wye circuit.

97594) + (14.50710] PT = (277.762278 amps θL-C/BC = –55.41349) cos 7.0737º + (12. 4C3b Assume VL = 480 VAC PT = (480) (1/ ) [(19.8) = 5760 PA-B = VPIP cos θP-B/AB = (480) (5) (1) = 2400 PB-C = VPIP cos θP-C/BC = (480) (10) (.03322] = 12479.41349) (. Fleckenstein Page 51 of 69 .90165)] PT = (277.6244º + 30º)] PT = (480) (1/ ) [(19. PT = VL (1/ ) [IL-A cos (θL-A/CA + 30º) + IL-B cos (θL-B/AB + 30º) + IL-C cos (θL-C/BC + 30º)] … Eq.6244º] PT = (277.5929º IB = 14.6962506) cos (–42.41349) cos (–22.97 ≈ 12480 watts Thus.9263º IC = 12.9) = 4320 PT = 5760 + 2400 + 4320 = 12480 watts Assume that the user is a wye circuit instead of a delta circuit: Equation 4C3b is applicable.5929º + (14.22235) + 14.6244º The power of the delta circuit is: PC-A = VPIP cos θP-A/CA = (480) (15) (.6962506 amps θL-A/CA = –42.PDHcenter.76227) (.1281) [(19.992388) + (12.com PDH Course Exxx www. © Joseph E.1281) [(19. it is seen that the power calculation yields the same value as that which was calculated by adding the wattages of the three parts of a delta circuit.30377 + 11.413495 amps θL-B/AB = –22.PDHonline. This calculation tends to confirm that the power of a delta circuit can be determined by assuming the user to be a wye circuit.1281) [ 45.696250) (.76227) cos –25.76227) cos (–55.www.org Summary of calculated values for the delta circuit: Line Current Lead/lag IA = 19.9263º + 30º) + (12. A second calculation is performed below as a second confirmation.696250) cos –12.5929º + 30º) + (14.

lagging.05397531)2 + (37.55893016 ½ ½ IA = {(XA)2 + (YA)2} = {(3.760 watts Pca = VI (PF) = (480) (30) (. Xba = –Iab cos θP-AB = –(10) (.400 watts Pbc = VI (PF) = (480) (20) (.7) = 10. lagging. PF = .89867612 = 37.org Part 2 Second Demonstration that Circuit Power of an Unbalanced Delta is Equivalent to an Assumed Wye Circuit Assume the following conditions for an unbalanced delta circuit: Potential: 480 -3-60 volts Iab = 10 amps.00º = 8.05397531 = 3.714142843) – . θP-CA = +45.68288736 amps θL-A = (120º – λ) λ = sin–1 (YA ÷ IA) = sin–1 (37.240 watts Use the stated currents for the delta circuit and calculate the power if the currents and voltages were descriptive of a wye circuit.PDHcenter.714142843)] = (15) [1.www.66025404 + 28.5369316] = 8. Reference: Equations 9-1 to 9-6 of Appendix F.9265784] = 28.6) = 5.5729º – cos 45.PDHonline. Fleckenstein Page 52 of 69 .71414)] = (15) [1.21243 + (. θP-BC = +53. PF = .2369316 – . θP-AB = +60.55893016)2} = 37.5) = –5 Xca = Ica (1/2) [( sin θP-CA – cos θP-CA] = (30) (1/2) [( sin 45.55893016 ) = sin–1 (.9967105) IA is in Quadrant I © Joseph E.5) = 2.1301º Ica = 30 amps.5729º Pab = VI (PF) = (480) (10) (.080 watts Total delta power: 18.05397531 XA = Xba + Xca = –5 + 8.0000º Ibc = 20 amps.05397531 Yba = Iab sin θP-AB = (10) sin 60. PF = .com PDH Course Exxx www.700000] = (15) [1.5.70000] = (15) [.89867612 YA = Yba + Yca = 8.5729º] = (15) [( + (. lagging.66025404 Yca = Ica (1/2) [( θP-CA + sin θP-CA] = (30) (1/2) [( 45.7.5729º + sin 45.5729º] = (30) (1/2) [( (. The first step is to calculate line currents for the delta circuit.6.

6485827 º Xab = Iab cos θP-AB = (10) cos 60º = (10) (.5729º – cos 45.8)] = (10) [1.38564 + (.267954 = –sin–1 (–.PDHcenter.com PDH Course Exxx www.856406)2 + (–6.6602540 Ycb = Ibc (1/2) [( cos θP-CB – sin θP-CB] = (20) (1/2) [( cos 53.1301º + cos 53.267954)2} = 25.60000) = –(10) [1.660254 + 2.2445) = 14.23693 – .1301º – sin 53.856406 Xac = –Ica (1/2) [( sin θP-CA – cos θP-CA] = –(30) (1/2) [( sin 45.5729º] = –(15) [( (. Fleckenstein Page 53 of 69 .80000) + (.0392304 – .267954 ½ ½ θL-B = –sin–1 (YB ÷ IB) = –sin–1 (–6.7141428) – .053975 XC = Xbc + Xac = –19.70000] = –(15) [.1301º] (.85640 = 24.5729º] © Joseph E.www.2445) = –14.000º = –(10)(.15301º Xbc = –Ibc (1/2) [( sin θP-BC + cos θP-BC = –(20) (1/2) [( sin 53.8000) + (.PDHonline.org λ = 85.15301º –sin–1 (.985640] = 19.385640 + (.5) = 5 Xcb = Ibc (1/2) [( sin θP-BC + cos θP-BC] = (20) (1/2) [( = (10) [( sin 53.3514173º θL-A = (120º – λ) = (120º – 85.1301º] = (10) [( – (.53693] = –8.80000] = 2.053975 = –27.70000] = –(15) [1.91038 Yac = –Ica (1/2) [( cos θP-CA + sin θP-CA] = –(30) (1/2) [( cos 45.1301º = –(10) [( ) (.39230 = –6.60000) = –(10) [1.86602) = –8.5729º + sin 45.2445123) 1) IB = {(XB)2 + (YB)2} = {(24.634511 amps IB is in Quadrant IV sin–1 (–.3514173º ) = 34.1301º + cos 53.392304 YB = Yab + Ycb = –8.600)] = (10) [1.98564 = –19.856406 XB = Xab + Xcb = 5 + 19.60000)] = (10) [1.856406 – 8.8564064 Yab = –Iab sin θP-AB = –(10) sin 60.

Equation 4C3b is applicable.929878 amps φ = sin–1 (YC ÷ IC) = sin–1 (–31.PDHcenter.15301º + 30º) + (41.15301º IC = 41.org Yac = –(30) (1/2) [( (.60000) – (.91038)2 + (–31.1301º = –(10) [( (.73176º Summary of calculated values for the delta circuit: Line Current Lead/lag IA = 37.com PDH Course Exxx www.746269) = 228.898676 Ybc = –Ibc (1/2) [( cos θP-BC – sin θP-BC = –(20) (1/2) [( cos 53.634511) cos (+14.634511 amps θL-B = +14.1281) [(37.2392304] = –2.64858º+ 30º) + (25.1281) [(16.929878) (.15301º) + (41.392248) + (31.2124355 + .898676 –2.42817) + (25.81789] = 18239.392304 YC = Ybc + Yac = –28. PT = VL (1/ ) [IL-A cos (θL-A/CA + 30º) + IL-B cos (θL-B/AB + 30º) + IL-C cos (θL-C/BC + 30º)] … Eq.682887) cos +64. 4C3b PT = (480) (1/ ) [(37.80000) = –(10) [1.PDHonline.29098)2}1/2 = 41.039230 – (.392304 = –31.929878) cos +41.130º – sin 53.682887 amps θL-A = +34. and calculate the power.29098 IC = {(XC)2 + (YC)2}1/2 = {(–27.2682º θL-C = (240º – φ) = (240º – 228.682887) cos (+34.13468) + (18.73176º + 30º)] PT = (277.2682º) = 11.746269] PT = (277.64858º IB = 25.1281) [65.64858º) + (25.70000) + .www.290968] PT = (277.634511) cos (+44.80000) –(10) [.746269) IC is in Quadrant III φ = sin–1 (–.929878 amps θL-C = +11.926578] = –28.929878) cos +11.29098 ) = sin–1 (–.73176º Assume that the calculated line currents and the respective lead/lag angles are for a wye circuit.7141428] = –(15) [1.682887) (.7141428] = –(15) [1.71748) + (41. Fleckenstein Page 54 of 69 .73176º)] PT = (277.1281) [(37.634511) (.98 watts ≈ 18240 watts © Joseph E.

com PDH Course Exxx www.org The power calculation yields the same value as that which was calculated by adding the wattages of the three parts of a delta circuit.PDHcenter. © Joseph E.PDHonline. As was the case with the first calculation. this second calculation likewise tends to confirm that the power of a delta circuit can be determined by assuming the user to be a wye circuit.www. The phasors representative of the voltages and currents in the Part 2 calculation are shown drawn to scale in Fig. Fleckenstein Page 55 of 69 . 17.

This part of Appendix E (Part 1) considers the scenario in which currents A and B are measured. Meter #2 has the negative voltage lead on Phase C and the positive lead on Phase B. with the designated potential measurements. 17. For this computation. of course.682887 amps θL-A = +34. Current IC and its lead/lag angle θL-C are not required and are not repeated here. 10 with care taken to position the positive and negative leads as shown. 10 requires measurement of currents A and B as well as voltages C-A and C-B. 10.PDHonline. Assume the current and voltage values of Appendix C. the following line values were determined: Computed values of line currents: Line Current Lead/lag IA = 37.634511 amps θL-B = +14. Fleckenstein Page 56 of 69 . together. The configuration of Fig. © Joseph E. The voltage leads of the two meters must be arranged as described in Fig.com PDH Course Exxx www. as with wattmeters arranged as depicted in Fig.64858º IB = 25. assume that Meter #1 has its voltage connections with the negative lead on Phase C and the positive lead on Phase A. The phasors for the voltages and currents are represented in Fig.org Appendix D Computation to Confirm Two Wattmeter Theory Part 1 of Appendix D It is demonstrated in this appendix that the two wattmeter theory is applicable for measurements of line currents A and B or B and C or A and C.15301º Since only two meters are used and only the currents in Conductors A and B are measured. As demonstrated in the example of Appendix C.www.PDHcenter.

as with wattmeters arranged as depicted in Fig. Since θL-B = +14.64858º.www. VCB and θL-B. or +74.com PDH Course Exxx www. 18 the angle of lag between IB and Vcb is θL-B + 60º.15302 º. IA = 37. This part of Appendix E considers the scenario in which currents A and C are measured.org Reference is made to Fig. As determined in Appendix C.15301º. Therefore. and VCA = 480 VAC Thus the reading of Meter #1 would be: W1 = VCA IA cos θL-A W1 = (480) (37.682887 amps θL-A = +34.15301º).999 watts ≈ 3360 watts The net measured wattage then is: WT = W1 + W2 WT = 14880 watts + 3360 watts = 18240 watts Thus. As illustrated in Fig. Meter #2 measures IB. © Joseph E. VCA and θL-A.64858º W1 = 14879. the reading of Meter #2 would be: W2 = (480) (25. Part 2 of Appendix D Computation to test two wattmeter theory. Meter #1 measures IA. the sum of the measured wattage would be in agreement with the calculated net wattage as determined in Appendix D. 18 which shows the respective currents and the pertinent leads/lags of currents IA and IB. It is demonstrated in this appendix (Appendix D) that the two wattmeter theory is applicable for measurements of line currents A and B. Vcb and the angle between these two parameters. Fleckenstein Page 57 of 69 . B and C or A and C. the angle of lag between IB and Vcb is (60º + 14.PDHonline.682887) cos +34.634511) cos +74.9936 watts ≈ 14.880 watts Meter #2 measures IB.PDHcenter.15302º W2 = 3359. 11.

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**The configuration of Fig. 11 requires measurement of currents A and C as
**

well as voltages B-C and B-A. Assume the current and voltage values of

Appendix D. The phasors for the voltages and currents are represented in Fig.

18.

The voltage leads of the two meters must be arranged as described in Fig. 11

with care taken to position the positive and negative leads as shown.

For this computation, assume that Meter #1 has its voltage connections with

the negative lead on Phase B and the positive lead on Phase C. Meter #2 has

the negative voltage lead on Phase B and the positive lead on Phase A.

As demonstrated in the example of Appendix D, the following line values

were determined:

Computed values of line currents:

Line Current

Lead/lag

IA = 37.682887 amps

θL-A = +34.64858º

IC = 41.929878 amps

θL-C = +11.73176º

Since only two meters are used and only the currents in Conductors A and C

are measured, Current IB and its lead/lag angle θL-B are not required and are

not repeated here.

Reference is made to Fig. 19 which shows the currents and the pertinent

leads/lags of currents IA

and IC. Meter #1

measures IC, VBC and

θL-C, Meter #2 measures

IA, VBA and θL-A. As

determined in

Appendix D,

IC = 41.929878 amps

θL-C = +11.73176º, and

VBC = 480 VAC

© Joseph E. Fleckenstein

Page 58 of 69

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**Thus the reading of Meter #1 would be:
**

W1 = VCA IA cos θL-C

W1 = (480) (41.929878) cos +11.73176º

W1 = 19705.907 Watts ≈ 19706 watts

Meter #2 measures IA, Vba and the angle between these two parameters. As

illustrated in Fig. 19 the angle of lag between IA and Vca is (θL-A + 60º).

Since θL-A = +34.64º, the angle of lag between IB and Vba is +94.64º.

Therefore, the reading of Meter #2 would be:

W2 = (480) (37.682887) cos +94.64858º

W2 = –1465.907 watts ≈ –1466 watts

The net measured wattage then is:

WT = W1 + W2

WT = 19706 watts – 1466 watts = 18240 watts

Thus, the sum of the measured wattage would be in agreement with the

calculated net wattage as determined in Appendix C.

Part 3 of Appendix D

Computation to test two wattmeter theory. It will be demonstrated that the

theory is applicable for measurements of line currents A and B, B and C or A

and C. This part of Appendix E considers the scenario in which currents B

and C are measured, as with wattmeters arranged as depicted in Fig. 12.

The configuration of Fig. 12 requires measurement of currents B and C as

well as voltages A-B and A-C. Assume the current and voltage values of

Appendix C. The phasors for the voltages and currents are represented in Fig.

12.

The voltage leads of the two meters must be arranged as described in Fig. 12

with care taken to position the positive and negative leads as shown.

For this computation, assume that Meter #1 has its voltage connections with

the negative lead on Phase A and the positive lead on Phase B. Meter #2 has

the negative voltage lead on Phase A and the positive lead on Phase C.

As demonstrated in the example of Appendix C, the following line values

were determined:

© Joseph E. Fleckenstein

Page 59 of 69

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PDH Course Exxx

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**Computed values of line currents:
**

Line Current

Lead/lag

IB = 25.634511 amps

θL-B = +14.15301º

IC = 41.929878 amps

θL-C = +11.73176º

Since only two meters are used and only the currents in Conductors B and C

are measured, Current IB and its lead/lag angle θL-B are not required and are

not repeated here.

Reference is made to Fig. 20 which shows the currents and the pertinent

leads/lags of currents IB and IC. Meter #1 measures IB, VAB and θL-B. Meter

#2 measures IC, VAC and θL-C. As determined in Appendix C,

IB = 25.634511 amps

θL-B = +14.15301º

VAB = 480 VAC

Thus the reading of

Meter #1 would be:

W1 = Vab IB cos θL-B

W1 = (480) (25.634511)

cos +14.15301º

W1 = 11931.07 Watts ≈

11931 watts

Meter #2 measures IC,

Vac and the angle

between these two parameters. As illustrated in Fig. 20 the angle of lag

between IC and Vac is θL-C + 60º. Since θL-AC= +11.73176º, the angle of lag

between IC and Vac is +71.73176º.

Therefore, the reading of Meter #2 would be:

W2 = (480) (41.929878) cos (+71.73176º)

W2 = 6308.92 watts ≈ 6309 watts

The net measured wattage then is:

WT = W1 + W2

WT = 11931 watts + 6309 = 18240 watts

Thus, the sum of the measured wattage would be in agreement with the

calculated net wattage as determined in Appendix C.

© Joseph E. Fleckenstein

Page 60 of 69

44 10078.44 10078.10 -1425.43 10078.PDHonline.77 6718.17 -67.44 10078.39 7729.13 4647.43 -1010.93 4555.02 2163. Column I plus Column II plus Column III.com PDH Course Exxx www.17 8007.44 10078.93 4555.13 6072.19 -599.07 7688.46 -1288.42 10078.12 -969.44 10078. ωt Phase AB Phase BC Phase CA Total Power Power Power Power I II III IV 0º 5º 10º 15º 20º 25º 30º 35º 40º 45º 50º 55º 60º 65º 70º 75º 80º 85º 90º 95º 100º 105º 110º 115º 120º 125º 130º 135º 140º 145º 150º 155º 160º 0 -544.44 10078.87 567.43 -1010.44 10078.41 3729.82 2071.41 8007.54 8136.54 1287.43 10078.77 6718.02 2163.05 2893.77 6718.54 2989.17 -67.e.41 10078. i.42 10078.12 6786.05 8144.20 5344.42 10078.42 10078.12 6786.18 0 -544.59 -1417.43 10078.82 646.87 567. Fleckenstein 2071.54 2989.39 5431.43 10078.41 10078. Column II is Phase BC power.75 1374.96 7263.42 10078.44 10078.44 10078.07 7688. Column III is Phase CA power.62 -1263.05 2893.14 7318.42 10078.39 7729.41 10078.75 1374.83 6151.46 -1288.96 7263.39 5431.57 10078.91 3825.02 © Joseph E.41 3729.43 10078.42 10078.82 2071.44 10078.41 8007.59 -1417.org Appendix E Table of Typical Three Phase Power Values vs ωt for One Cycle The values are for the assumed conditions of Example 2.13 6072.83 6151.14 7318.20 5344.91 3825.62 -1263.43 -1010.43 10078.42 10078.10 -1425.05 8144.57 7982.93 4552.12 -969.13 6072.39 7729.82 646.42 Page 61 of 69 .10 -1425.12 -969.59 -1417.12 6786.PDHcenter.42 10078.43 10078.20 5344.13 4647.41 3729.19 -599. Column I is Phase AB power.44 10078.www.14 7318.18 0 -544.44 10078.54 2989.05 2893.54 8136.42 10078.62 -1263.07 7688.46 -1288.83 6151. Column IV is total three phase power.13 4647.19 -599.96 7263.91 3825.57 7982.39 5431.56 1287.

82 2071.43 -1010.41 8007.43 -1010.13 6072.62 -1263.43 10078.82 646.42 10078.02 2163.13 4647.13 6072.75 1374.43 10078.44 10078.44 10078.44 10078.44 10078.07 7688.77 6718.82 2071.41 8007.43 10078.82 646.05 8144.59 -1417.10 -1425.20 5344.19 -599.42 10078.43 10078.44 10078.96 7263.42 10078.56 1287.41 10078.54 8136.59 -1417.44 10078.75 1374.42 10078.41 8007.17 -67.75 1374.42 10078.05 8144.17 -67.42 10078.43 10078.05 7982.42 10078.39 www.10 -1425.42 10078.05 2893.44 10078.77 6718.41 8007.43 10078.82 2071.39 7729.62 -1263.44 10078.54 8136.41 10078.42 10078.44 10078.93 4555.PDHonline.75 1374.17 -67.57 7982.43 10078.www.54 2989.41 10078.41 3729.56 1287.93 4555.com 165º 170º 175º 180º 185º 190º 195º 200º 205º 210º 215º 220º 225º 230º 235º 240º 245º 250º 255º 260º 265º 270º 275º 280º 285º 290º 295º 300º 305º 310º 315º 320º 325º 330º 335º 340º 345º 350º 355º 360º 2163.87 567.12 6786.05 8144.18 0 -544.43 10078.18 0 -544.12 6786.82 646.20 5344.91 3825.56 1287.54 2989.10 -1425.54 2989.43 10078.77 6718.12 6786.12 -969.39 5431.42 10078.59 -1417.39 5431.83 6151.57 7982.39 7729.13 6072.18 0 © Joseph E.42 10078.07 7688.54 8136.91 3825.91 3825.44 10078.83 6151.org 10078.02 2163.14 7318.96 7263.19 -599.57 7982.96 7263.46 -1288.44 Page 62 of 69 .41 3729.13 4647.41 3729.87 567.02 2163.05 8144.14 7318.14 7318.82 2071.56 1287.93 4552.87 567.42 10078.41 10078.82 646.46 -1288.19 -599.12 -969.43 -1010.13 4647.PDHcenter.05 2893.87 567. Fleckenstein PDH Course Exxx -67.41 10078.44 10078.83 6151.20 5344.07 7688.39 5431.44 10078.44 10078.46 -1288.12 -969.18 0 -544.39 7729.54 8136.05 2893.62 -1263.

and Ya = –[I1 sin θ1 + I2 sin θ2 + … In sin θn] –1 θa = –sin (Ya ÷ Ia) Equation 5B For balanced three phase circuits: The magnitude and lead/lag of line current IL-B resulting from the addition of line current I1 at lag/lead angle θ1 (to line voltage) and line current I2 at lead/lag angle θ2 (to line voltage) and up to …line current In at lead/lag angle θn (to line voltage): ½ IL-B = {(XB)2 + (YB)2} … Equation 5B where. © Joseph E.www. IL-B = IL-A = IL-C) ……………………………………………………………………. XB = I1 cos θ1 + I2 cos θ2 + … In cos θn.PDHonline. Equation 5A For single phase circuits (Reference Fig.com PDH Course Exxx www. The equation numbers used below are the same as those found in Course E336. and YB = –[I1 sin θ1 + I2 sin θ2 + … In sin θn] θL-B/AB = –sin –1 (YB ÷ IB) (Note: For a balanced three phase circuit. Fleckenstein Page 63 of 69 . the three line currents are equal.PDHcenter. Calculating Currents in Balanced and Unbalanced Three Phase Circuits.org Appendix F Convenient Three Phase Equations The below equations are repeated from PDH Online Course E336. 11) : The magnitude and lead/lag of line current Ia resulting from the addition of line current I1 at lag/lead angle θ1 (to line voltage) and line current I2 at lead/lag angle θ2 (to line voltage) and …line current In at lead/lag angle θn (to line voltage): ½ Ia = {(Xa)2 + (Ya)2} … Equation 5A where Xa = I1 cos θ1 + I2 cos θ2 + … In cos θn. These equations are especially convenient for calculating three phase currents. Equation 6 Power consumption of a balanced three phase wye or balanced three phase delta load: P=( VLIL cos θP … Equation 6 …………………………………………………………………….

θP-AB is the lead/lag of current in phase A-B. Ibc is the current in phase b-c. B and C.com PDH Course Exxx www. IB and IC are the line currents in. 13 – where Iab is the current in phase a-b. IA.PDHonline.PDHcenter. Iac is the current in phase a-c.org Equation 7 Line current of a balanced three phase delta load: IL = ( IP … Equation 7 …………………………………………………………………….www. ½ IA = {(XA)2 + (YA)2} … Equation 9-1 θL-A/CA = (120º – λ) … Equation 9-2 where XA = Xba + Xca YA = Yba + Yca Xba = –Iab cos θP-AB Yba = Iab sin θP-AB Xca = Ica (1/2) [( sin θP-CA – cos θP-CA] Yca = Ica (1/2) [( ) cos θP-CA + sin θP-CA] λ = sin–1 (YA ÷ IA) © Joseph E. is the lead/lag of the line current in phase A with respect to line voltage C-A. and θL-C/BC is the lead/lag of the line current in phase C with respect to line voltage B-C. respectively. conductors A. θL-B/AB is the lead/lag of the line current in phase B with respect to line voltage A-B. θP-CA is the lead/lag of current in phase C-A. θP-BC is the lead/lag of current in phase B-C. Fleckenstein Page 64 of 69 . With reference to Fig. Equation 8 Phase voltage in a balanced three phase wye load or an unbalanced three phase load with a grounded neutral: VL = (1/ VP … Equation 8 ……………………………………………………………………. θL-A/CA. Equations 9-1 to 9-6: Equations for calculating line currents when the phase currents in an unbalanced delta circuit are known.

© Joseph E. valid range of θL-A/CA: –120º to +60º ½ IB = {(XB)2 + (YB)2} … Equation 9-3 –1 θL-B/AB = –sin (YB ÷ IB) … Equation 9-4 where XB = Xab + Xcb YB = Yab + Ycb Xab = Iab cos θP-AB Yab = –Iab sin θP-AB Xcb = Ibc (1/2) [( sin θP-BC + cos θP-BC] Ycb = Ibc (1/2) [( cos θP-BC – sin θP-BC] Valid range of θP-AB & θP-BC: ± 90º. valid range of θP-AB & θP-CA: ± 90º.org Valid range of λ: 60º to 240º. valid range of θL-C/BC: –120º to +60º ……………………………………………………………………. valid range of θL-B/AB: –120º to +60º ½ IC = {(XC)2 + (YC)2} … Equation 9-5 θL-C/BC = (240º – φ) … Equation 9-6 where φ = sin–1 (YC ÷ IC) XC = Xbc + Xac YC = Ybc + Yac Xbc = –Ibc (1/2) [( Ybc = –Ibc (1/2) [( Xac = –Ica (1/2) [( Yac = –Ica (1/2) [( sin θP-BC + cos θP-BC] cos θP-BC – sin θP-BC] sin θP-CA – cos θP-CA] cos θP-CA + sin θP-CA] Valid range of φ: 180º to 360º. valid range of θP-BC & θP-CA: ± 90º. Fleckenstein Page 65 of 69 .com PDH Course Exxx www.PDHcenter.PDHonline. Equations 10-1 to 10-6: Equations for determining line currents in an unbalanced delta circuit when the loads on all three phases are resistive.www.

PDHonline. respectively. IB and IC are the line currents in.com PDH Course Exxx www. ½ IA = {(XA)2 + (YA)2} … Equation 10-1 θL-A/CA = (120º – λ) … Equation 10-2 where. θP-AB is the lead/lag of current in phase A-B with respect to line voltage A-B. © Joseph E. Fleckenstein Page 66 of 69 . and θL-C/BC is the lead/lag of the line current in phase C with respect to line voltage B-C. θL-B/AB is the lead/lag of the line current in phase B with respect to line voltage AB.www. Ibc is the current in phase b-c.PDHcenter. θP-BC is the lead/lag of current in phase B-C with respect to line voltage BC.org With reference to Fig. B and C. IA. XC = (1/2) Ica – (1/2) Ibc YC = – Ibc ( – Ica ( –1 φ = sin (YC ÷ IC) ……………………………………………………………………. θP-CA is the lead/lag of current in phase C-A with respect to line voltage C-A. XA = – Iab – (1/2) Ica YA = Ica ( ) λ = sin–1 (YA ÷ IA) ½ IB = {(XB)2 + (YB)2} … Equation 10-3 –1 θL-B/AB = –sin (YB ÷ IB) … Equation 10-4 where. conductors A. Iac is the current in phase a-c. θL-A/CA is the lead/lag of the line current in phase A with respect to line voltage C-A. 13 – where Iab is the current in phase a-b. XB = Iab + (1/2) Ibc YB = Ibc ( ½ IC = {(XC)2 + (YC)2} … Equation 10-5 θL-C/BC = (240º – φ) … Equation 10-6 where.

respectively. θL-A/CA is the lead/lag of the line current in phase A with respect to line voltage CA. IB and IC are the line currents in.com PDH Course Exxx www. and XA = Σ (XA-1 + XA-2 + XA-3 … + XA-N) YA = Σ (YA-1 + YA-2 + YA-3 … + YA-N) XA-1 = IA-1 (1/2) [( ) sin θA-1 – cos θA-1] XA-2 = IA-2 (1/2) [( ) sin θA-2 – cos θA-2] … to XA-N = IA-N (1/2) [( ) sin θA-N – cos θA-N] YA-1 = IA-1 (1/2) [( ) cos θA-1 + sin θA-1] … to YA-N = IA-N (1/2) [( ) cos θA-N + sin θA-N] IA-1 = line current in branch of conductor A to load #1 IA-2 = line current in branch of conductor A to load #2 … to IA-N = line current in branch of conductor A to load #N θA-1 = lead/lag of line current IA-1 with respect to line voltage Vca θA-2 = lead/lag of line current IA-2with respect to line voltage Vca … to θA-N = lead/lag of line current IA-N with respect to line voltage Vca ½ IB = {(XB)2 + (YB)2} . where … Equation 11-4 XB = Σ (XB-1 + XB-2 + XB-3 … + XB-N) YB = Σ (YB-1 + YB-2 + YB-3 … + YB-N) XB-1 = IB-1 cos θB-1 … to XB-N = IB-N cos θB-N © Joseph E. where κ = sin–1 (YA ÷ IA). B and C. Iac is the current in phase a-c.PDHonline. conductors A. 13 – where Iab is the current in phase a-b.www. θL-B/AB is the lead/lag of the line current in phase B with respect to line voltage A-B. and θL-C/BC is the lead/lag of the line current in phase C with respect to line voltage BC. Ibc is the current in phase b-c. ½ IA = {(XA)2 + (YA)2} .org Equations 11-1 to 11-6: Equations for adding the vectors (phasors) of balanced or unbalanced line currents With reference to Fig.PDHcenter. and … Equation 11-3 –1 θL-B/AB = –sin (YB ÷ IB). IA. Fleckenstein Page 67 of 69 . and … Equation 11-1 θL-A/CA = (120º – κ) … Equation 11-2.

Fleckenstein Page 68 of 69 .org YB-1 = –IB-1 sin θB-1 … to YB-N = –IB-N sin θL-N IB-1 = line current in branch of conductor B to load #1 IB-2 = line current in branch of conductor B to load #2 … to IB-N = line current in branch of conductor B to load #N θB-1 = lead/lag of line current IB-1 with respect to line voltage Vca θB-2= lead/lag of line current IA-2with respect to line voltage Vca … to θB-N = lead/lag of line current IA-N with respect to line voltage Vca IB-1 = line current in branch of conductor B to load #1 IB-2 = line current in branch of conductor B to load #2 … to IB-N = line current in branch of conductor B to load #N θB-1 = lead/lag of line current IB-1 with respect to line voltage Vab θB-2 = lead/lag of line current IB-2 with respect to line voltage Vab … to θB-N = lead/lag of line current IB-N with respect to line voltage Vab ½ IC = {(XC)2 + (YC)2} .PDHonline.PDHcenter. and … Equation 11-5 θL-C/BC = 240º – ζ … Equation 11-6 ζ = sin–1 (YC ÷ IC) XC = Σ (XC-1 + XC-2 + XC-3 … + XC-N) YC = Σ (YC-1 + YC-2 + YC-3 … + YC-N) IC-1 = current in branch of conductor C to load #1 IC-2 = current in branch of conductor C to load #2 … to IC-N = current in branch of conductor C to load #N XC-1 = –IC-1 (1/2) [( sin θC-1 + cos θC-1] XC-2 = –IC-2 (1/2) [( sin θC-2 + cos θC-2] … to XC-N = –IC-N (1/2) [( sin θC-N + cos θC-N] YC-1 = –IC-1 (1/2) [( cos θC-1 – sin θC-1] YC-2 = –IC-2 (1/2) [( cos θC-2 – sin θC-2] … to YC-N = –IC-N (1/2) [( ) cos θC-N – sin θC-N] θC-1 = lead/lag of line current IC-1 with respect to line voltage Vbc θC-2= lead/lag of line current IC-2 with respect to line voltage Vbc … to θC-N = lead/lag of line current IC-N with respect to line voltage Vbc © Joseph E.www.com PDH Course Exxx www.

www.PDHonline. for leading current. Equations 12-1: Equation for relationship of phase current and line current lead/lag angle in a balanced delta and a balanced or unbalanced wye circuit θP = θL + 30º … Equation 12-1 where θL = line lead/lag angle between line current and line voltage (degrees or radians)(for lagging current. θL > 0. for leading current.PDHcenter. θP > 0. Fleckenstein Page 69 of 69 .org ……………………………………………………………………………. θL < 0) θP = phase lead/lag angle between phase current and phase voltage (degrees or radians) (for lagging current. For balanced delta circuits: θP-CA = θL-A/CA + 30º θP-AB = θL-B/AB + 30º θP-BC = θL-C/BC + 30º For balanced or unbalanced wye circuits: θP-A/AD = θL-A/CA + 30º θP-B/BD = θL-B/AB + 30º θP-C/CD = θL-C/BC + 30º © Joseph E. θP < 0) Specifically.com PDH Course Exxx www.

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