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Trng i hc Nha Trang

Khoa Cng ngh Thc phm

Bi ging

PHAN TCH THC PHAM


S tn ch: 4 (2 TC l thuyt, 2 TC thc hnh)

GV: Ths. Trn Th M Hnh


Email: myhanhtt@ntu.edu.vn
Website: https://sites.google.com/site/tranthimyhanhntueduvn/home

Nha Trang, nm 2014

* Thc pham la g?

Mo dau

CHAT LNG THC PHAM?


Theo TCVN 5814 1994 ISO / DIS 8042 Cht lng l tp
hp cc c tnh ca sn phm, to cho sn phm kh nng
tha mn nhng nhu cu c th hoc tim n ca ngi tiu
dng

* Cc bn lin quan en chat lng:


- Ngi tiu dng : Yu cu cht lng cao nht vi gi r nht.
- Nh sn xut : p ng yu cu cht lng nhng phi c
li nhun
- Nh nuc : Quy nh mc cht lng ti thiu phi t v
gim st vic thc hin cht lng.
Mo dau

Cac yeu to cau thanh chat lng


thc pham?
Chat lng
Dinh dng

Ve sinh

Cam quan
Cong nghe

Thuan tien

Mo dau

Thc pham tot phai at yeu cau g?

Mo dau

Thc pham tot phai at yeu cau g?

* Chat lng dinh dng


* Chat lng ve sinh
* Tnh chat cam quan
* Chat lng s dung
* Chat lng cong nghe

Mo dau

* KIEM TRA CHAT LNG LA G?

* VAI

TRO CUA KIEM TRA CHAT LNG


THC PHAM?

Mo dau

Mc tiu hoc phn


SV nam c:
* Ky thuat lay mau, x ly mau trong phan tch thc
pham
* Phng php nh gi cm quan thc phm
* Phng phap phan tch mot so thanh phan hoa hoc cua
thc pham
* Tieu chuan ky thuat mot so san pham thc phm

T o SV co the kiem nghiem chat lng nguyen


lieu, ban thanh pham va thanh pham trong qua trnh san
xuat thc pham.
Mo dau

NOI DUNG HC PHN


Ch 1: Nguyn tc an ton trong phn tch thc phm
Ch 2: K thut ly mu, x l mu trong phn tch thc phm
Ch 3: nh gi cm quan thc phm

Ch 4: Phn tch mt s thnh phn v c trong thc phm


Ch 5: Phn tch mt s thnh phn hu c trong thc phm
Ch 6: Kim nghim mt s sn phm thc phm v nguyn
liu ph dng ch bin thc phm
Mo dau

1.

TAI LIEU THAM KHO

Sch, gio trnh


Phn tch kim nghim thc phm thu sn : (ng Vn Hp), Minh
Phng, V Ngc Bi, Nguyn Thun Anh, Nh xut bn Khoa hc v K
thut, 2010.

2.

Ti liu Thc tp Phn tch thc phm: Nguyn Thun Anh, Trn Th M Hnh,

Trn Th Bch Thy, ng Th T Uyn - i hc Nha Trang, nm 2012.

3.

Kim nghim lng thc, thc phm: Phm Vn S, Bi Th Nh Thun


sch, trng H Bch khoa H Ni, 1991

4.

K thut phn tch cm quan thc phm, H Duyn T, NXB Khoa hc & k
thut, 2006

Mo dau

5.

TAI LIEU THAM KHO

Sch, ti liu tham kho

Qun l v kim tra cht lng thc phm: H Duyn T gio trnh, trng H
Bch khoa H Ni , nm 1996.

6.

H thng cc tiu chun v QLCL sn phm hng ha, Hng Anh, NXB Thng K, 2008.

7.

Vn bn hng dn v QLCL sn phm v tiu chun k thut cht lng trong sn


xut, quy chun quc gia v mi trng, NXB Lao ng, 2008.

8.

Cc tiu chun v cht lng v an ton v sinh thu sn: Trung tm kim tra cht

lng v v sinh thu sn - B thu sn, NXB Nng nghip, 1996.


9.

Cc tiu chun Vit Nam, cc nc, QCVN,

10. Cc ti liu lin quan n ha phn tch, phng php sc k (c th xem danh mc

cc ti liu trn trang web ca b mn BCL v ATTP).

Mo dau

TAI LIEU THAM KHO


11. Hartmut Rehbein, Jrg Oehlenschlger, 2009, Fishery products
Quality, safe and authenticity, Willey Blackwell, A John Wiley & Sons,
Ltd., Publication.
12. Nielsen, S. Suzanne, 2010, Food analysis, Springer.
13. Somenath Mitra, 2003, Sample preparation techniques in analytical
chemistry, A John Wiley and Sons, INC, Publication.
14. Roger Wood, Lucy Foster, 2004, Andrew Damant and Pauline Key,
15. Analytical method for food additives, CRC Press, Boca Raton Boston
New York Washington, DC.

Ti liu tham kho


16. Sensory Evaluation Techniques, Meilgaard Civille - Carr, CRC
Press Boca Raton London New York Washington, D.C, 2006.
17. Sensory Evaluation Practices, Herbert Stone and Joel L. Sidel,
Elsevier Academic Press, USA, 2004.

18. Lawless, H.T., Heyman, H., Sensory Evaluation of Food:


Principles and Practices, 2004 Nguyn Hong Dng bin dch
(2007)
19. Statistics for Sensory and Consumer Science, TORMOD NS,
PER B. BROCKHOFF and OLIVER TOMIC, A John Wiley & Sons,
Ltd., Publication, 2010.
20. Sensory Evaluation of Food: Statistcal Method and Procedures,
Micheal OMahony, Marcel Dekker, 1986.

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Cc trang web
21.QIM Eurofish website:
http://www.qim-eurofish.com/

22. Sensory computeur systems:


http://www.sims2000.com/

23.Seafoodplus:
http://www.seafoodplus.org
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Cc t kha tra cu ti liu


cm quan, phn tch thc phm
nh gi cm quan thc phm
x l s liu: SPSS, R, Excel
sensory, food analysis,
sensory evaluation of food
QIM, QDA, PCA,

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KIM TRA?

THI KT THC HC PHN?

Mo dau

Ch 1: Nguyn tc an ton trong


phn tch thc phm

Ch 1: Nguyn tc an ton trong phn tch


thc phm

1.1. Cc ha cht nguy him


1.2. Cc mi nguy khc trong phng th
nghim

Bi tp tnh hung ch 1
1. Tm hiu cc k hiu cnh bo nguy him, ch dn v
mc an ton ca cc loi ha cht
2. Cc c tnh cn c i vi KNV lm vic trong phng
th nghim phn tch thc phm
3. Cch gi an ton khi lm vic trong phng th nghim
phn tch thc phm
4. xut cch ghi nhn ha cht s dng v phn
loi (sp xp) cc loi ha cht trong t bo qun.

1.1. Cc ha cht nguy him

Ngun phi nhim


Bo qun ha cht
Cc quy nh chung i vi nhng ha cht k nhau
nh hng c hi ca ha cht
Ha cht gy n
Kh nn v kh ha lng

1.2. Cc mi nguy khc trong


phng th nghim

An ton thit b phn tch


Nguy c v ha hon
Cc nguy him v in
Ting n
Phng x ion.

Ch 2: K thut ly mu, x l mu
trong phn tch thc phm thc phm

Ni dung ch 2

2.1 Mot so khai niem chung


2.2. Phng phap lay mau va gi mau, nhan mau
2.3 X ly mau th hoa hoc

Cu hi chun b - ch 2

1. ngha ca vic ly mu?


2. Nguyn tc ly mu? Cc phng php ly
mu? u, nhc im ca tng phng
php?
3. Quy trnh ly mu, gi mu, nhn mu?
4. Phng php x l mu thc phm chun b
phn tch?
5. Quy nh v ly mu nguyn liu, sn phm
thc phm

Ch 2: K thut ly mu, x l mu
trong phn tch thc phm thc phm
2.1. Mot so khai niem c bn
- Mau: la mot n v hay nhom n v san pham lay t mot tap hp
(tong the) e cung cap thong tin va co the lam c s quyet nh oi
vi tap hp o.
VD:
- Phep lay mau: la thu tuc lay mau hoac tao mau
VD:
- Lo hang ong nhat: la lo hang co cung ten, cung hang (loai), cung
kieu bao goi, cung khoi lng trong mot n v san phamc san
xuat theo cung mot qui trnh cong nghe, san xuat trong cung mot
n v thi gian, do cung mot c s san xuat, van chuyen cung mot
phng tien va giao nhan mot lan.
- n v ch nh lay mau: la mot n v cha trong lo hang ma ta
tien hanh lay mau o

Mau ban au: la mau c lay ra t mot


n v ch nh lay mau, mau nay ai dien ung
thc chat chat lng san pham n v cha no.
- Mau chung: la mot phan cua lo hang sau khi a
hp cac mau ban au
- Mau trung bnh: la mot phan mau c lay ra t
mau chung sau khi a tron eu. Mau nay ai
dien ung thc chat chat lng cua san pham
trong lo hang ong nhat.

V DU

c phep lay a thung e kim tra, lay mau

c a mau ban au

100 thung

Tron eu = mau chung

Lay mot phan cua mau chung= mau th trung bnh

em kiem nghiem

Ket luan

2.2. PHNG PHAP LAY MAU VA GI MAU,


NHAN MAU

2.2.1. Phng phap lay mau:


* ngha cua viec lay mau
La khau au tien trong phan tch kiem nghiem,
nhng co vai tro rat quan trong, neu lay mau
ung nguyen tac, se ai dien cho lo hang can
kiem tra, lam cho ket qua phan tch va ket luan
ve lo hang chnh xac va ngc lai.

* Nguyen tac lay mau

Mau trung bnh lay t lo hang phai ai dien ung


thc chat ve chat lng cua lo hang o:
- Xac nh tnh ong nhat cua lo hang: can c vao
cac giay t kem theo lo hang oi chieu thc t tren
lo hang, loai bo nhng n v cha co bao b khong
con nguyen ven, so n v cha con lai xep thanh
lo hang ong nhat roi tien hanh lay mau tren lo o.
VD: Lo hang tom the bo au , nhng trong o co
tom tht..?

Xac nh so n v ch nh lay mau trong lo hang:

+ Neu lo hang co n = 1 - 3 n v cha: So


VCLM = so VC

+ Neu n 4: so VCLM = k n

Trong o: n: so dn v cha co trong lo hang

k: he so phu thuoc vao loai san pham (s)


va (n).

Xac nh mau ban au: lng mau ban au phai


c lay eu cac n v ch nh lay mau.
V du: khoi lng mau chung la 50 kg, so n
v ch nh lay mau la 10, Khoi lng mau ban
au la: 50/10 = 5kg.

Khi tien hanh lay mau ban au, tuy dang san pham tien hanh lay mau:

1.
Neu thc pham dang ri, khong bao goi:
Khi lay mau the ran ng trong toa xe, thung xe (thung co
hnh dang hnh hop ch nhat) ta chia iem e lay mau nh sau
(hnh a), tai cac v tr a chia con phai chu y lay cac o sau khac
nhau:

(a)
- Khi lay mau the ran c o (xep) thanh ong hnh non, ta
chia iem theo ng sinh e lay mau va lay cac o sau khac
nhau (hnh b)

(b)

2. Neu san pham dang ong nhat:


- Neu trong thung, be (bia, nc mam, nc,):
khuay eu, lay mau bon iem sat thanh bnh

- Neu van chuyen trong ng ong: m voi cho


chat long chay ra 5 phut roi mi lay mau, e bao
am tnh ong eu, lay mau nhieu thi iem
khac nhau

3. Neu san pham va ran va long: lay ca


phan ran va long theo ung ty le cua chung
trong san pham:
VD: Ca p muoi ty le cai nc la 80 : 20
vay: neu muon lay 1kg mau?

4. Neu san pham dang set (pate, mt , mat,


mam ruoc, mam tom,) cach lay mau giong
dang long, khuay, lay 4 iem.

5. San pham ong goi, hop, chai,..: lay mau


lay luon ca bao b.

- Sau khi lay mau ban au ta nhap chung cac


mau ban au trong mot dung cu kho, sach, tron
eu, ta c mau chung, lay mot phan mau chung
ta c mau th trung bnh

- Khoi lng mau trung bnh c quy nh rieng


cho tng loai san pham nhng phai u e th tat ca
cac ch tieu, va lu mau

2.2.2. Gi mau:
- Mau gi i kiem nghiem phai c gi trong
bao b ban au cua no.
- Thc pham de b h hong phai am bao gi en
ni kiem nghiem trong thi gian thc pham con tot
- Thc pham gi en kiem nghiem phai co yeu cau
kiem nghiem kem theo, nhan dan gom:
+ C quan hoac nha may san xuat
+ Ngay, gi, ni lay mau
+ C quan lay mau va ly do lay mau
+ Ni gi kiem nghiem
+ Bien ban lay mau...\BIN BN LY MU.doc

2.2.3. Nhn mu

Mau trung bnh khi gi en phong kiem nghiem can tien hanh
nhng trnh t cong viec sau:
-

Kiem tra bao b xem co hp le khong.

Kiem tra lai phieu gi kiem nghiem, bien ban lay mau, nhan dan, xac
nh loai thc pham

Xac dnh yeu cau kiem nghiem.

Ghi vao so nhan mau vi nhng li ch dan can thiet.

Tien hanh kiem nghiem. Trng hp co nhieu mau hang cha kiem
nghiem c ngay mot luc th phai bao am ieu kien bao quan e
thc pham khong b thay oi cho en khi kiem nghiem.

Neu mau gi en khong phu hp vi giay t kem theo hoac b mat dau
niem phong, mat bth khong c nhan mau e phan tch.

2.2.4. K thut ly mu

Ly mu ngu nhin n gin?

Ly mu ngu nhin h thng?

Ly mu nhiu mc?

2.3. X LY MAU TH HOA HOC:

Mau dang ran: x ly e loai bo phan khong an c.


VD:
+ ca: loai bo: au, xng, vay, vay, noi tang..

Sau o em mau i nghien nhuyen

+ Ngheu, so,vm: loai bo vo, noi tang

- Mau dang long:


+ nu mu trong sut khng mu: ly V(ml) kim tra cc
ch tiu
+ neu mau sm mu: loc qua giay loc, pha loang mau:
lay 10 ml mau cho vao bnh nh mc 250 ml, cho nc
cat en vach mc, lac eu, o mau ra coc kho, sach.
ay la dung dch th cac ch tieu hoa hoc.
Cach tnh he so pha loang:

V2
F =

V1
+ Nu mu c: loi b tp bng Zn(CH3COO)2, hoc
Pb(CH3COO)2

- Mau dang set: neu can kiem tra ch tieu


cua cac chat hoa tan trong nc (ng hoac
muoi an), ta phai co thao tac hoa tan & chiet
cac chat tan trong nc cat.

Vd: xac nh ham lng muoi an trong mam


ruoc

- Mau va ran va ac khong ong nhat (o


hop, ca p muoi): tach rieng hai phan long
va set sau o x ly nh tren.

Chu y: + mau sau khi chuan b xong, tot nhat


la nen kiem nghiem ngay, neu khong kiem
nghiem ngay phai tien hanh bao quan nhiet o
thap.

+ Khi nghien mau phai s dung dung cu


c che tao t nhng vat lieu khong co phan
ng vi mau.

Ch 3:
nh gi cm quan thc phm

Ni dung ch 3
1. Khi qut v GCQ
2. C s khoa hc ca GCQ
3. Cc php th cm quan

4. Mt s yu cu trong GCQ
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Cu hi chun b - ch 3
1. nh gi cm quan thc phm l g? ng dng
ca nh gi cm quan thc phm?
2. Tnh khch quan v ch quan trong nh gi
cm quan thc phm?
3. Cc php th cm quan thng c ng dng
hin nay?
4. Cch tin hnh mt bui th cm quan thc
phm, thu thp s liu, x l s liu, bo co kt
qu th nghim?
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3.1. Khai quat ve anh gia


cam quan thc pham

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Cc ni dung chnh
Khai quat ve anh gia cam quan TP
Khai niem GCQ TP
Tnh chu quan va khach quan trong anh gia
cam quan
Tai sao va lam the nao e s dung phng
phap anh gia cam quan?
Vai tr cua anh gia cam quan
Quy hoch thc nghim?
Tin hnh th nghim?
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3.1.1.Khai quat ve anh gia cam


quan thc pham

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GCQ tren the gii

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Tai Viet Nam

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Cc tnh cht cm quan?

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3.1.2.Khai niem GCQ TP


anh gia cam quan la phng phap khoa hoc c s
dung e gi len, o ac, phan tch va giai thch cac cam
giac von c nhan biet bang cac giac quan: th giac,
khu giac, xuc giac, v giac va thnh giac.
Scientific method used to evoke, measure, analyse, and interpret
those responses to products as perceved through the senses of sight
,smel, touch, taste and hearing.
(Stone & Sidel,1993)

Khoa hoc thc pham


GI LN

O C

PHN TCH

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

GII THCH
59

+ Khoa hoc?
+ Gi y, phan anh?

+ o ac?

+ Phan tch?

+ Giai thch?
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Cc php th cm quan?

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Cc php th cm quan?
+ Nhm php th phn bit
+ Nhm php th m t v nh lng
+ Php th ngi tiu dng

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3.1.3.Tnh chu quan va khach quan


trong anh gia cam quan
Phng phap chu quan?

Phng phap khach quan?

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Tai sao va lam the nao e s dung


phng phap anh gia cam quan?

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ANH GIA CAM QUAN

Thc pham

Thi gian

Cac giac quan

Khong gian

Thong tin
Thong ke

Tam sinh ly

Yeu to
khach quan

Yeu to
Chu quan

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

Yeu to
khach quan

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3.1.4.Bien phap thu c ket qua


anh gia cam quan ang tin cay
- Xac nh muc ch anh gia va s dung phng
phap thch hp
- Kiem soat cac ieu kien:

+ Huan luyen thanh vien


+ Xac nh nhng thuoc tnh cam quan

+ Co ke hoach ro rang
- Lien ket vi cac phep o lng trong nghien cu
- Phan tch thong ke chnh xac

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3.1.5.Vai tr cua anh gia cam


quan
- Trong kim tra sn phm v kim sot qu
trnh sn xut?

- Trong chin lc pht trin sn phm?

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ng dung cua anh gia cam quan

Nghien cu tnh chat


va thanh phan cua thc pham.

anh gia
cam quan

am bao va cai tien cong nghe san xuat

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

Phat trien san


pham mi.

- Nghien cu th trng
- Th hieu cua ngi tieu dung
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3.1.6. QUY HOCH THC NGHIM?

3.1.7. Tin hnh th nghim?

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X l s liu
Thng k 1-2 bin:

Thng k a bin: PCA, MFA,


Phn mm: Excel, SPSS, R,

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3.2. C S KHOA HOC CUA


ANH GIA CAM QUAN

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3.2. C S KHOA HOC CUA


ANH GIA CAM QUAN
Thong tin cam giac
V va v giac
Mui va khu giac
Mau sac va hnh dang

Trang thai, cau truc va xuc giac


m thanh va thnh giac

Ngng cam giac


Cc yu t nh hng n php o cm quan
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3.2.1. Thong tin cam giac

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3.2.1. Thong tin cam giac


- Viec nhan c nhng tnh chat cam quan la nh hoat

ong cua cac giac quan.


- Cac bo phan chu yeu cua nao:

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3.2.1. Thong tin cam giac

*Cau tao cua mot te bao


than kinh (nron)
- Cac nron co hnh dang va kch
thc khac nhau nhng tat ca
chung eu co cau truc c ban
giong nhau. Giong nh moi te
bao, chung co mot nhan hay iem
gia c cha trong mot phan
gan nh hnh cau cua nron goi la
than bao. Nhieu si manh giong
nh re nho ra t than te bao. Cac
re nay goi la cac uoi gai. Mot si
n dai cung trai ra t te bao goi
la si truc, si dan chnh trong
mot day than kinh. au xa cua
no, si truc chia thanh nhieu
nhanh, moi nhanh ket thuc bang
mot so au (au mut than kinh)
nho be.

- Moi au gan sat nhng


that s khong cham vao uoi
gai cua mot nron khac .
khoang cach nay goi la lien
hp than kinh, qua o cac
thong tin c truyen i do
cac hoa chat c goi la chat
dan truyen than kinh.

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3.2.1. Thong tin cam giac


- Moi nron c gii han bi
mot mang ban tham mong goi
la mang nron, no ong mot vai
tro quan trong trong viec dan
truyen cac tn hieu. Cac tn hieu
luon luon c bat au bang s
kch thch cua mot hay nhieu
uoi gai cua nron va trc tien
oc chuyen ve than bao. Sau
o, chung c truyen ra xa
than bao doc theo si truc. e
tang toc s dan truyen cac tn
hieu, nhieu si truc co mot lp
bao boc goi la myelin.

- Khi mot tn hieu i en


cac au mut cuoi si truc,
trong hoan canh nao o,
no co the nhay qua lien
hp than kinh en uoi
gai cua mot nron ke tiep
va c tiep tuc cuoc hanh
trnh cua no en vo nao.

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3.2.1. Thong tin cam giac

* Nguyen ly chung cua viec tiep nhan, truyen


va x ly thong tin t cac giac quan

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Tom tat:

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3.2.2. V v v gic

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3.2.2. V va v giac

* Khai niem

V la mot cam giac hhoc gay ra bi cac phan t hay ion


trong dung dch khi tiep xuc vi c quan thu cam v.
ngi cac c quan nay nam tren mat li, trong vom
mieng va yet hau.

*Cau tao c quan v giac:


- V c tiep nhan chu yeu va nhay nhat
tren be mat li. Bang mat thng chung
ta cung co the nhan thay be mat li c
bao phu bi cac nhu co hnh dang, kch
thc khac nhau. o la cac gai v giac. Co 4
loai gai v giac phan bo tren be mat li
tng ng vi cac vung cam nhan cc ai
cua bon v c ban. Tren moi gai cha hang
tram en hang nghn to hp chat che goi la
choi v giac. Tong so choi tren be mat li
khoang 7000 en 8000.

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

80

3.2.2. V va v giac

* Choi v giac:. Choi v giac c cau tao t 4 loai te

bao c ban. Trong o cac loai te bao 3 ong vai tro trc
tiep nhan tn hieu kch thch goi la te bao nhan hay te bao
thu cam. o chnh la c quan thu cam v, ngi co
khoang na trieu c quan thu cam nh vay.

Gai hnh i
Gai hnh (l)
Gai hnh nm

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

Gai hnh si

81

* C che nhan v

Mat cat ngang qua li


Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

82

Cac v c ban

- Co 4 loai gai v giac phan bo tren be mat


li tng ng vi cac vung cam nhan cc
ai cua bon v c ban.
- V ngot: la do s co mat cua nhom
CH2OH, - CO, - CHOH, - NH2, ...cac chat
cho v ngot la cac loai ng, metyl clorua,
chloroform, nitro etan, glyxerin, saccarin.
ng sacharose c dung lam chat ngot
tieu chuan.

- V man: phu thuoc vao s co mat cua


muoi kim loai, LiCl va NaBr co v man gan
giong NaCl. Cac muoi n co trong lng
phan t cang ln th cang ang, v du: KCl,
MgCl2Cac muoi vo c khac cung co v man
nhng khong ac trng nh muoi an. NaCl
la chat co v man tieu chuan.

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

83

Cac v c ban:

+ V chua:

phu thuoc vao s co mat


cua nhom H+, v vay cac loai axit hu
c va vo c eu co v chua. o chua
giam dan theo th t cua cac loai axit
nh sau:
clohydric > lactic > malic > tactric>
axetic > xitric.
Axit xitric c lam chat co v chua
tieu chuan.

+ V ang: phu thuoc vao s co mat


cua nhom NO2. N =, = N =, - SN =,
- S - ,S -. Cac chat co v ang la:
kinin, cafein, cocain, nicotin, mocphin,
trionin, trinitrotoluen
Cafein c dung lam chat ang tieu
chuan.

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

84

*Cac yeu to anh hng en kha nang


cam nhan v cua v giac
+ Nhiet o va hp chat
+ o tuoi
+ Thi gian trong ngay
+ Tnh trang sc khoe:
Thuoc la: anh hng oi vi v ang
Thieu ngu: anh hng oi vi v chua
C the thieu nc: anh hng oi vi
v man
oi, benh eu co anh hng
+ Moi trng anh gia
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

85

oi vi v giac can lu y mot


so hien tng sau
VD1: Khi uong nc, au tien cam thay co
mui hoi kho chu, nuot va uong lien tuc, cam
giac o se mat i dan.
Hien tng thch nghi: la hien tng giam kha
nang nhay cam nhat thi cua c quan v giac.
Vi mot nong o khong oi tac dung lien tuc en
mot luc nao o, li se khong phan biet c va
en khong phan xa v giac, cung co trng hp khi
nong o nho tac dung lien tiep, khi tang nong o
len mot chut, c quan cam giac khong phan xa

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

86

oi vi v giac can lu y mot so hien


tng sau

VD2: Nem v qua man


Hien tng met moi: la hien tng ma chat kch
thch co nong o ln se tao nen s huy hoai than
kinh. S huy hoai nay khong phuc hoi ngay c.
Hien tng met moi phu thuoc vao trang thai c the,
trnh o ren luyen v giac, yeu to moi trng, ieu
kien va thi gian lam viec

VD3: khe chua an vi muoi se thay ngot hn,


ng them t muoi se co v ngot am hn.
Hien tng bu tr: la hien tng khi phoi hp hai v
c ban nong o ln hn nong o ngng cam. Tang
nong o mot trong hai v o se xay ra hien tng v
nay lan at v kia hoac kch thch v kia.
87
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

oi vi v giac can lu y mot so


hien tng sau

VD4: dau, m b oi, ang, phi len va cho


gng vao se mat cam giac cac v nay.
Hien tng tan cam giac: la do hai v tac
ong ong thi tren li, trong o mot v b chm
i du nong o cao hn nong o ngng.
VD5: dung dch axit xitric pha ng co v
kem chua hn khi cha cho ng
Hien tng ngu trang ve v la s giam cng
o hoac thay oi cng o cua mot v bi mot v
khac.

88
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

3.2.3. MUI VA KHU GIAC

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

89

3.2.3. MUI VA KHU GIAC


* Khai niem: Mui la cam giac hoa hoc gay ra bi s tac
ong cua cac phan t chat bay hi sau khi vao mui b hoa tan
trong chat long cua niem dch mui vi nhng c quan thu cam
nam tren long mao cua mang nhay khu giac

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

90

*Cau tao c quan khu giac:

Cac thu the cam giac ve mui c thay trong


vom cua khoang mui, ngay ben di thuy
tran cua nao. ay c goi la vung khu giac
va c xep chat bang hang trieu te bao nho,
cac te bao khu giac.
Moi te bao khu giac co khoang mot chuc
long nho- long rung - nho ra trong mot lp
dch nhay. Dch nhay gi cho long rung am
va co nhiem vu nh mot thiet b bat cac
chat co mui, trong khi o long rung m rong
hieu qua vung cua moi te bao khu giac va
nh vay tang them tnh nhay cam cua chung
ta oi vi mui.

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

91

C che nhan mui:

la cac chat
nay hoa tan trong cac dch nhay bao
quanh cac long rung. Luc o, mot phan
ng hoa hoc xay ra kch thch cac te bao
khu giac dan en hoat ong ien. Cac
thong tin nay c a ngay qua xng
sang qua cac si than kinh cam giac va i
vao hanh khu giac trong nao. Tai ay
thong tin c tap hp, x ly va khi o
chuyen theo mot tuyen phc tap thuoc cac
day than kinh khu giac en vo nao.
ay thong tin c nhan dang va mui tr
nen mot d lieu co y thc.
- Kha nang nhan biet va cng o mui
nhan c phu thuoc trc tiep vao nong
o chat bay hi cha tren be mat chat
mang khi so sanh cng o mui cua cac
mau, san pham phai c cha trong
dung cu co cung hnh dang, kch thc.
The tch khong kh tren be mat thoang
phai nh nhau. Khi ngi, mui phai e
cach san pham mot khoang cach nh
nhau oi vi tat ca cac mau.

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

- Mui co the nhan biet mui


cua nhng chat bay hi co
nong o rat thap khoang t
107 - 1017 phan t trong 1ml
khong kh.
92

* Co the phan biet mot so khai niem


ve thuat ng mui:
+ Mui ngi
+ Mui chnh
+ Mui thoang
+ Mui khuyet
* Co 7 mui c ban:
+ Mui bang phien (Camphor)
+ Mui xa hng (Pentadezanolacton)
+ Mui hoa (Phenylmetylcacbizol)
+Mui bac ha (Mentol)
+ Mui ete (Dicloetilen)
+ Mui cay (hng) (axit focmic)
+Mui thoi (Butilmercaptan)
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

93

ac iem cua khu giac:


+ Cac hp chat khac nhau co ngng cam giac khac
nhau.
+ Thch nghi va met moi.
+ Co s khac nhau trong ngay.
+ Khac nhau theo o tuoi va kinh nghiem.
+ Cac yeu to anh hng en kha nang cam nhan cua khu
giac:

.
.
.
.
.

gii tnh
tnh trang sc khoe
s tap luyen
hoat ong cua cac giac quan khac
ieu kien moi trng.
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

94

3.2.4. MAU SAC VA HNH DANG

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

95

3.2.4. MAU SAC VA HNH DANG


Mau sac: Cam giac mau nhan c la do tac ong cua chum ta sang
len mat. Mat ngi nhan chum tia sang co bc song trong khoang
380nm - 740nm.
T ngoai manh

380nm (tm)

Nhn thay

Hong ngoai (nang lng yeu)

740nm (o)

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

96

*C che nhn thay: Mat trai va mat


phai co tam nhn hi khac nhau. Moi
th trng (vung nhn) c tach thanh
mot ben phai va mot ben trai. Khi tia
sang i en hai vong mac chung c
oi cho va ao ngc. Cac tia nay i
xuong cac day than kinh th giac en
giao thoa th giac, ni ma s giao thoa
nhau xay ra. Moi thong tin t pha ben
trai cua moi mat i xuong ng th
giac qua the cong ben va bc xa th
giac en vo th giac, ben phai va ngc
lai. Ve sau cac hnh anh c nao ket
hp va giai thch.

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

97

* Cac chat mau trong thc pham co nguon goc t t nhien:


+ Clorophin, diep luc hay sac to xanh la cay.
+ Carotenoit: co trong luc lap, lam cho qua va rau co mau da cam, mau
vang va oi khi mau o.
+ Cac sac to flavonoit co trong cac khong bao, co mau o, xanh va vang
* Cac phan ng tao mau:

+ Phan ng gia ng va axit amin


+ Phan ng dehydrat hoa cac ng (phan ng caramen hoa )
+ Phan ng phan huy axit ascocbic, lomonic, maleic, tactric va mot so
axit hu c khac.
+ Phan ng hp chat phenol va axit amin (quinonamin)
+ Phan ng oxy hoa cac hp chat cua sat va tao thanh phc co mau.
+ Phan ng tao nen cac sunfua kim loai co mau.

+ Phan ng oxy hoa phenol, phan ng chay cua lipit.


* ngha ch tiu mu sc?

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

98

3.2.5. Trng thi v cu trc

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

99

3.2.5.TRANG THAI, CAU TRUC VA XUC GIAC


* Khai niem: Trang thai va cau truc vat chat nhan biet
c la do cac kch thch ve c hoc va nhiet len cac c
quan xuc giac. Nhng kch thch c hoc khi tiep xuc vi
san pham a lam thay oi hnh dang phan c va cho ta
cam giac ve hnh dang, cau truc cua vat. Kch thch nhiet
cho ta biet s khac biet ve nhiet o cua vat oi vi da.
- Da va niem mac nhn thay la c quan xuc giac. Trong o
ban tay vi cac au ngon tay rat nhay cam vi nhiet, vi
hnh dang cau truc cua vat ran va nht. Trong mieng, be
mat li va phan c xung quanh vong mieng nhay cam vi
hnh dang cau truc vat khi nhai. e xac nh o cng hay
mem cua san pham co the xac nh bang cach bam, be,
bop bang au ngon tay hay trong mieng nh cac san pham
bot nhuyen hay cac loai siro.
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

100

101
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

* Cau tao:

Bao phu quanh chan cua cac


long la cac mut than kinh
t do, chung phan ng lai
bat ky s kch thch nao cua
long. Cac thu the xuc giac
nay co cau truc t phc tap
nhat va cham dt nhanh
chong cac kch ong neu
long lien tuc b kch thch.
Cac thu the c thay nhieu
hn vung da khong co
long, v du tren cac au
ngon tay va moi, c hnh
thanh trong cac a nho be.
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

102

3.2.6. AM THANH VA THNH GIAC

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

103

3.2.6. AM THANH VA THNH GIAC:

Khai niem: Am thanh nhan biet c la ket qua cua mot


song am truyen trong moi trng an hoi ong nhat va tac ong
len mang nh tai. Tai ngi nhan biet am thanh co tan so trong
khoang 20 20000 Hz
Nghe thay
20Hz

20 000Hz

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

104

* Cau tao c quan thnh giac:

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

105

* Am thanh c nghe nh the nao?

Am thanh i vao ong tai khien cho mang nh rung ong. Cac dao
ong c truyen qua cac xng nho tang cng ap suat cua song am
thanh va truyen nhng dao ong en ca so bau duc - mot mang
tren loi vao oc tai. ong thi cac chuyen ong rung ong cua ca so
tron lam on nh ap suat ben trong tai trong. Chat dch cha ay oc
tai truyen cac lan song doc theo ong xoan tien nh va vong vao ong
xoan mang nh, lam cho la nen phan cach chung rung ong. La nay
co cha cac te bao thu cam dang long (cac c quan corti: cha ng
cac thu the thnh giac) cac te bao nay tao ra nhng xung lc than
kinh c a doc theo day than kinh oc tai en nao.

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

106

* Y NGHA?

* Cc yu t nh hng?

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

107

3.2.7. NGNG CAM GIAC (NC)

Vd?
* Ngng cam giac?

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

108

* NH NGHA NGNG CM:


Ngng cam giac la gia tr cua mot kch thch
cam giac can thiet e at en mot cam giac ac
trng nao o. oi vi mui, v, cac gia tr ngng
c o bang nong o cua chat kch thch tren mot
chat mang nao o.
Co 4 loai ngng cm:

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

109

* VD1?
Ngng phat hien: la gia tr cua mot kch
thch cam giac can thiet e gay ra c mot
cam giac.
* VD2?
Ngng xac nh (ngng nhn bit): La gia
tr cua mot kch thch cam giac nho nhat
cho phep xac nh ban chat cua kch thch
110
o.
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

VD3 ?
Ngng phan biet: la gia tr khac nhau nho
nhat ve cng o vat ly cua mot kch thch e
co the nhan biet c s khac nhau o. Ga tr
ngng cm ny khc nhau nhng nng
khc nhau.
VD4?
Ngng cuoi cung: la gia tr toi a cua kch
thch, ma vt qua o cng o cam giac
khong tang na (ta khong cam thay s khac
biet nhau na).
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

111

3.2.8 Cc yu t nh hng n
php o cm quan

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

112

3.2.8. Cc yu t nh hng n
php o cm quan?
Cc yu t lin quan n sinh l ngi th
Cc yu t lin quan n tm l ngi th

Cc yu t khc

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

113

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

3.3. CAC PHEP TH


CM QUAN

114
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

Cc ni dung chnh
Mot so phep th khi tnh chat CQ c ch ra trc:
phep th cap oi
phep th cho iem
phep th so hang
phep th mo ta

Mot so phep th khi tnh chat CQ khong c ch ra:


phep th tam giac
Php th 2-3
phep th A khong A

Phep th th hieu
Phng phap cho iem chat lng theo TCVN 3215-79

nh gi cm quan thy sn
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

115

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH
Cap oi

TONG QUAN

Mo ta

So hang

Tam giac

2-3

PHEP
TH

A not A

c lng
o ln

Tiep th

Cho iem

TCVN
3215-79
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

116

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.3. MOT SO PHEP TH


KHI TNH CHAT CAM QUAN
C CH RA TRC

117
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.1.1. PHEP TH CAP OI

590

316

118
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.1.1. PHEP TH CAP OI


a.Gii thieu ve phep th:
- So sanh s khac nhau gia
hai mau A va B ve mot
tnh chat cam quan
- So sanh gia hai san pham
co s khac biet ve mot
tnh chat cam quan cu the
nao o, song s khac biet
nay rat nho, khong de
nhan ra.

590

316

119
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.1.1. PHEP TH CAP OI


b. Phng phap tien hanh
- Nguyen tac?

- Phieu chuan b?
590

316

- Phieu tra li?


120
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH
Phong th nghiem anh gia cam quan
PHIEU CHUAN B TH NGHIEM
Phep th: so sanh cap oi
Tnh chat: o ngot

Ngay th:

Mt qua A

Ma so s dung: 279, 781 va 972

Mt qua B

Ma so s dung: 191, 373 va 637

Ngi
th

Trnh bay
mau

Ma so

AB, BA

279,191: 373, 781

BA, AB

637,279: 972, 191

10

Cau tra
li nhan
c

Cau tra
li ung

Nha
n xet

121
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH
Phong th nghiem anh gia cam quan
PHIEU TRA LI
Phep th: so sanh cap oi
Ten san pham: Mt qua
Ho va ten ngi th:

Ngay th:

Hai mau mt qua ky hieu 590 va 316 c gii thieu. Ban hay nem
t trai sang phai va cho biet mau nao ngot hn?
Tra li:

Mau

ngot hn

Nhan xet:

..
122
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.1.1. PHEP TH CAP OI


c. X ly ket qua:

VD:
Ket qua:
Mau

So lan mau c anh gia


Ngot hn

Nhat hn

Mau A

27

13

Mau B

13

27

2= (Q-T)2/T
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

123

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

Cach 1: tra bang 2(n, )


Bang gia tr

2
(n, )

vi P ( 2>

2
(n, ))=

0.01

0.05

6.64

3.85

9.21

5.99

11.35

7.82

13.28

9.49

15.09

11.07
124

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

Cach 2: tra bang


So lng toi thieu cau tra li oi vi phep th cap oi
mc y ngha = 5%
So cau tra li
m

So lng toi thieu n


Mot pha

Hai pha

30
35

21
23

22
24

40

27

26

45
50

29
32

30
33
125

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.1.1. PHEP TH CAP OI

d. Bao cao?

Phong th nghiem anh gia cam quan

BAO CAO TH NGHEM


Phep th: So sanh cap oi

Muc ch:..
Mo ta th nghiem: ..
Ket qua:..
Phu luc: .
126
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

3.3.1.2. Php th cho im

127
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.1.2. PHEP TH CHO IEM

a.

Gii thieu phep th:


So sanh s khac nhau
gia nhieu mau ve nhieu
tnh chat cam quan
nhieu mc o khac nhau.

419

172

386

Khong co mui thm : 0


Vd: So sanh cng o hng
thm theo thang:

Thm rat nhe

:1

Thm nhe

:2

Thm ro

:3

Thm manh

:4

Thm rat manh : 5


Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

128

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.1.2. PHEP TH CHO IEM


a. Gii thieu ve phep th:
- Ngi th nhn ng thi tt
c cc sn phm
- Ngi th l nhng chuyn
gia cm quan, c thi gian
di hun luyn v lm vic
trong lnh vc ny
-

Thang im thng dng


trong php th cho im l
thang 6 im

419

172

386

Khong co mui thm : 0


Thm rat nhe

:1

Thm nhe

:2

Thm ro

:3

Thm manh

:4

Thm rat manh

:5

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

129

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.1.2. PHEP TH CHO IEM

b. Phng phap tien hanh:

- Nguyen tac?
- Phiu chun b th nghim?

- Phiu tr li?LINK\tra loi.cho diem.doc


130
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.1.2 PHEP TH CHO IEM

c. X ly ket qua LINK\ket qua.doc


Dung phng phap phan tch phng sai ANOVA:
- Dung chuan F e kiem nh xem lieu 3 mau co
khac nhau khong?( Neu F Ftc mot mc y ngha
nao o th s khac nhau ve yeu to o c coi la co
y ngha mc y ngha o)
- Neu co th dung chuan tstudent e xac nh
mau nao khac mau nao?
131
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.1.2. PHEP TH CHO IEM


Cach tnh bang phan tch phng sai:
1. Yeu to hieu chnh (HC) La bnh phng cua tong
chia cho so cau tra li:
HC = ?

132
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.1.2 PHEP

TH CHO IEM

Cach tnh bang phan tch phng sai:


2. Tong cac bnh phng cua cac mau (TBFM) la tong

cac bnh phng cua cac tong iem cua moi mau
chia cho tong so cau tra li cho mot mau, tr i
yeu to hieu chnh.
TBFM = ?

133
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.1.2 PHEP TH CHO IEM

Cach tnh bang phan tch phng sai:

Tong cac bnh phng cua cac thanh vien(TBFTV) la tong cac
bnh phng cua cac tong iem cho bi moi thanh vien chia
cho tong so cau tra li cua mot thanh vien, tr i yeu to
hieu chnh.

TBFTV = ?
134
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.1.2 PHEP

TH CHO IEM

Cach tnh bang phan tch phng sai:

Tong cac bnh phng toan phan (TBFt) la tong


cac bnh phng cua iem cua cac thanh vien
tr i yeu to hieu
TBFt= ?
135
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.1.2 PHEP TH CHO IEM


Cach tnh bang phan tch phng sai:
Tong bnh phng sai s (TBFs) la tong cac bnh
phng toan phan tr i tong bnh phng cua cac
mau va cua cac thanh vien.
TBFs = ?

136
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.1.2 PHEP TH CHO IEM

3. So bac t do cua mau (BTD

M)

bang tong so mau tr i 1

BTDTV =?
BTDTP = ?
BTDS = ?
4. Bnh phng trung bnh (BFTB): gia tr bnh phng trung bnh

cua mot bien nao o la thng cua tong cac bnh phng (TBF) cua no
chia cho so bac t do tng ng.

BFTBM = ?
BFTBTV = ?
BFTBS = ?

137
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.1.2 PHEP TH CHO IEM

5. Tng quan phng sai (gia tr F) cua mot bien nao o la


thng cua BFTB cua no chia cho BFTBS
Tng quan phng sai mau:
FM = ?
Tng quan phng sai thanh vien:
FTV =?

138
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.1.2 PHEP TH CHO IEM


Bang 2 : phan tch phng sai
BTD

TBF

BFTB

+ Mau
+Thanh vien
+ Sai so

2
11
22

9,72
17,22
8,28

4,86
1,57
0,38

12,79**
4,13**

Toan phan

35

35,22

Nguon
goc
phng
sai

Tra bang ta c F(0,05,2,22)=?LINK\BANG F.doc


Ket luan?

139
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.1.2 .PHEP TH CHO IEM


Muon biet mau nao khac mau nao can tnh gia tr khac nhau
nho nhat co ngha (KNCN) t cac so lieu tren mc y ngha
nao o. Neu s khac nhau cua hai gia tr trung bnh cua hai
mau bat ky ln hn hoac bang KNCN, th hai mau o khac
nhau mc y ngha a la chon.
Cong thc tn KNCN:
BFTBs
n

KNCN t b

t322 = 3,55LINK\bang t.doc


LINK\ket qua cho diem.doc
140
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.1.2 PHEP TH CHO IEM


d. BAO CAO TH NGHIEM?

141
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

3.3.1.3. PHEP TH SO HANG

142
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.1.3. PHEP TH SO HANG


a.Gii thieu phep
th:
- So sanh va sap xep
mot loat mau theo
cng o hay mc
o cua mot tnh
chat

372

527

337

245

Vd: sap xep theo th t ngt t cao en thap

4
143

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.1.3. PHEP TH SO HANG


b. Phng phap tien hanh:

- Nguyen tac?

372

527

337

245

- PHIEU CHUAN B?
- PHIEU TRA LI?LINK\tra loi so hang.doc

144
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.1.3. PHEP TH SO HANG


c. X ly ket qua:

372

527

337

245

d. Bao cao?

145
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

3.3.1.4. PHEP TH MO TA (PROFILE)

146
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.1.4. PHEP TH MO TA (PROFILE)


a. Gii thieu phep th
- Xac nh xem cac mau
khac nhau ac tnh nao
va mc o khac nhau gia
hai hay nhieu mau nay
bang bao nhieu?
- Dung mo ta chi tiet cac
tnh chat cam quan cua
san pham e nghien cu
tnh chat ac trng cua
san pham o

372

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

245

147

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.1.4. PHEP TH MO TA (PROFILE)

372

245

Vd: xac nh cng o cua cac tnh chat cam quan


- lng tam bot
Cng o thap
1

Cng o ca
2

9
148

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.1.4. PHEP TH MO TA (PROFILE)

b. Phng phap tien


hanh: - La chon cac
ac tnh can anh gia
- Thc hien phep th s
bo

372

245

- anh gia cng o cua


cac ac tnh a chon
tren thangVd: xac nh cng o cua cac tnh chat cam quan
- lng tam bot

Cng o thap
1

Cng o cao
4

9
149

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.1.4. PHEP TH MO TA (PROFILE)


- Phieu chuan b?

- Phieu tra li?


372

245

Vd: thang cng l thang khng cu trc

Cng o thap
0

Cng o cao
10
150

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.1.4. PHEP TH MO TA (PROFILE)


Cng o thap nhat

Mau vang:
Mui hoa huolong
V ang
Hau v
o tao bot
Lng tam bot
Mui aldehyde
Mui con

Cng o cao nhat


8

151
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.1.4. PHEP TH MO TA (PROFILE)


c. X ly ket qua?
th dng hoa gi

Kt qu tng hp
Tnh cht

Sn
phm A

Sn phm B

Mu

Mi hoa
houblon

V ng

Hu v

to bt

Lng tm
bt

Mi aldehyd

Mi cn

8 Mi cn

1 Mu
10
5

7 Mi aldehyd

6 Lng tm bt

2 Mi hoa houblon
3 V ng

Sn phm A
Sn phm B

4 Hu v
5 to bt

152
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.1.4. PHEP TH MO TA (PROFILE)


c. X ly ket qua?

d. Bo co?
th dng gp khc

Kt qu tng hp

V ng

Hu v

to bt

Lng tm
bt

Mi aldehyd

Mi cn

..

Sn phm B

Mi cn

Mi
aldehyd

Sn phm A

Lng
tm bt

Mi hoa
houblon

to
bt

Mu

Hu v

V ng

Sn phm B

9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Mi hoa
houblon

Sn phm
A

Mu

Tnh
cht

153
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.2. MOT SO PHEP TH


KHI TNH CHAT CAM QUAN
KHONG C CH RA

154
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.2.1. PHEP TH TAM GIAC

475

519

781

155
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.2.1. PHEP TH TAM GIAC


a. Gii thieu phep
th:
- Xac nh s khac
nhau gia 2 san
pham ma khong
can biet ban chat
s khac nhau o
-

475

519

781

- Ngi th se nhan c 3 mau trong o co


S khac nhau gia hai mau giong nhau (goi la cac mau lap lai)

2 san pham
tng oi nho

la - Ngi th c mi th cac mau va tm ra


mau nao khong lap lai (mau nao khac vi 2
mau con lai)
156

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.2.1. PHEP TH TAM GIAC


V du:

+ Co the thay nguyen lieu


mi ma san pham khong thay
oi chat lng?

475

519

781

+ anh gia mc o on nh
cua mot day chuyen bang
cach so sanh san pham thu
c t day chuyen vi 1 san
pham tieu chuan.
157
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.2.1. PHEP TH TAM GIAC


b. Phng phap tien
hanh:
- S ln th?
- S ngi th?
- S ln lp?

475

- K hoch gii
thiu mu?

519

781

-Phieu chuan b?
- Phieu tra li?
- X ly ket qua?LINK\Ph lc 4.doc
- Bao cao?

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

158

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.2.2. PHEP TH 2 - 3

519

781

Mau kiem chng R

159
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.2.2. PHEP TH 2 - 3
a.Gii thieu phep th:

- Xac nh s khac nhau mot cach tong the


gia hai san pham ma khong quan tam en
chung khac nhau au?

Mau kiem chng R

519

781
160

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.2.2.PHEP TH 2 - 3

Mau kiem chng R

519

781

b. Phng phap tien hanh:


- Mot trong hai mau c gii thieu co mot mau giong vi mau R

- Ngi th c mi th nem va tm ra mau giong vi mau R

161
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.2.2. PHEP TH 2 - 3

Mau kiem chng R

519

781

- Phieu chuan b?
- Phieu tra li?

c. X ly ket qua?LINK\phu luc 5.doc


d. Bao cao?
162
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

3.3.2.3. PHEP TH A KHONG A


(Phep th phu hp)

163
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.2.3. PHEP TH A KHONG A


(Phep th phu hp)

a. Gii thieu phep th:


- Xac nh lieu mot san pham co giong vi
mot mau chuan hay khong?

372

527

337

245
164

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.2.3. PHEP TH A KHONG A


(Phep th phu hp)

b. Phng phap tien hanh :


- Ngi th hoc cach nhan biet mau A
- Tiep theo ngi th nhan mot day mau a c ma hoa bao
gom ca mau A va not A
-Ngi th xac nh mau nao la mau A mau nao la notA

372

527

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

337

245

165

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.2.3. PHEP TH A KHONG A


(Phep th phu hp)

372

527

337

245

- Phieu chuan b?
- Phieu tra li?
c. X ly ket qua?
d. Bao cao?

166
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.3. IEU TRA TH HIEU PHEP TH TIEP TH

167
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.3. PHEP TH TH HIEU


a. Gii thieu phep th:

- Xac nh thai o cua ngi s dung oi vi mot san pham nhat


nh.
- Phep th da tren kha nang cam nhan va kinh nghiem s dung
san pham cua ngi tieu dung e o mc o hai long, chap nhan,
a thch cua ho

817

738

123

542
168

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.3. PHEP TH TH HIEU


- Phep th u tien: ngi tieu dung co quyen chon la la thch
mot san pham hn san pham khac (cap oi th hieu)

817

738

169
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.3. PHEP TH TH HIEU


-Phep th mc o chap nhan ghi lai mc o a thch tren
thang iem (cho iem th hieu)

817

738

123

cc ky chan
1

542

trung bnh
2

cc ky hai long
9
170

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.4. Phng phap


cho iem chat lng

theo TCVN 3215-79

171
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.4. TCVN 3215-79


anh gia tong quat mc chat lng cua mot san pham so vi tieu
chuan hoac so vi mot san pham cung loai tren tat ca cac ch tieu
cam quan

Trong phng phap cho iem cac kiem nghiem vien da vao viec anh
gia e cho iem theo mot thang iem thong nhat a c qui nh.
- Trong TCVN 3215 79 s dung he 20 iem xay dng tren mot thang
thong nhat co 6 bac (t 0 en 5) va iem 5 la cao nhat con iem 0 la
thap nhat cho mot ch tieu.
172
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP


He so quan trong
- Y ngha cua he so quan trong: cho ta
biet mc o quan trong cua mot ch tieu
nao o so vi toan bo gia tr cam quan
cua san pham o.
He so quan trong cua thc pham phu
thuoc vao th hieu ngi tieu dung va
do cac chuyen gia e ngh cho tng
san pham cu the.
V du 1: he so quan trong cua cac ch
tieu cam quan cua san pham nc mam
nh sau :

Mau sac (K1 = 0,5); V (K2 = 1,0);


o trong (K3 = 1,0); Mui (K4 = 1,5)
Chu y tong he so quan trong la 4 = 20/5
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

173

3.3.4. TCVN 3215 - 7

CACH TNH HE SO QUAN TRONG


Xac nh he so quan trong da vao mot so
phng phap sau ay:
+ Co the da vao nguyen tac gia tr: chi ph e
am bao mot ch tieu cang cao, ch tieu o cang co gia
tr.
+ Phng phap u tien xep th t:
+ Phng phap cap oi
+ Phng phap chuyen gia:
. xin y kien mot so chuyen gia ve san pham, yeu cau
ho tra li nh lng, cho y kien bang so.
. Sau moi lan cong bo y kien, thao luan giai thch.
. Lam nhieu lan, cuoi cung x ly va thong nhat.
174
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

Phng phap chuyen gia e


tnh he so quan trong

He so quan trong cua mot ch tieu bat ky c xac nh bi


r
cong thc:

mi

W
k 1
n
r

ik

ik
i 1 k 1

Trong o:
Wik: so th t ma thanh vien th k at cho ch tieu th i
n: la so ch tieu cua san pham
r: so thanh vien tham gia anh gia
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

175

Ten
ch
tieu (n=4)

Y kien cac thanh vien

Trang thai
Mau sac
Mui
V

4
1
2
3

4
3
2
1

2
3
4
1

2
1
4
3

4
1
2
3

Cong

Wik

mi

k 1

16
9
14
11
n

ik 50

0,32
0,18
0,28
0,22
1

i 1 k 1

T o se tnh c he so quan trong cac ch tieu cam quan


nh sau:
He so quan trong

Ten ch tieu

Tren 4

Trang thai
Mau sac
Mui
V

32
18
28
22

1,28
0,72
1,12
0,88

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

176

- iem cha co trong lng?

- iem trung bnh cha co trong


lng cua mot ch tieu chat lng ?

- iem co trong lng?

- iem chung?

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

177

Sau bac anh gia phai tng ng vi noi dung mo ta trong bang sau:
BG

CCTL

C s anh gia

Trong ch tieu ang xet, san pham co tnh chat tot ac trng, va ro
ret cho ch tieu o, san pham khong co sai loi va khuyet tat nao.

San pham co khuyet tat nho hoac sai loi nho hoac ca hai nhng
khong lam giam gia tr cam quan cua san pham o.

San pham co khuyet tat hoac sai loi hoac ca hai. So lng va mc
o cua khuyet tat, sai loi o lam giam gia tr cam quan cua san
pham. Nhng san pham van at theo tieu chuan.

San pham co khuyet tat hoac sai loi hoac ca hai. So lng va mc
o cua khuyet tat, sai loi o lam cho san pham khong at mc chat
lng quy nh trong tieu chuan, nhng con kha nang ban c.

San pham co khuyet tat hoac sai loi mc o tram trong khong
at muc ch s dung chnh cua san pham o. Song san pham van
cha b coi la hong. San pham o khong the ban c, nhng sau
khi tai che thch hp co the s dung c.

San pham b khuyet tat va sai loi mc o rat tram trong, san
pham b coi la hong va khong s dung c na.
178
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

Ch tieu

Mau sac

V du minh hoa ve thang iem cua ch


tieu mau sac cua nc mam.
iem

Yeu cau

Vang, vang nau en nau vang,


nau o ep ac trng

Vang, nau vang

Vang rm hoac vang nau

Vang nhat, vang xam, nau xam

Vang tai, xam cua nc mam


hong

Xam, en

Tng t nh vay, se lap c thang iem cho


cac ch tieu khac.
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

179

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.4.TCVN 3215-79
anh gia tong quat mc chat lng cua mot san
pham so vi tieu chuan hoac so vi mot san pham
cung loai tren tat ca cac ch tieu cam quan
Tnh theo he 20 iem, thang 6 bac 5 iem

Mc

iem

Mc

iem

Tot

18.6-20.0

Kem

7.2-11.1

Kha

15.2-18.5

Rat kem 4.0-7.1

Trung
bnh

11.2-15.1

Hong

0.0-3.9
180

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.4.TCVN 3215-79
- Phieu chuan b ?
-Phieu tra li?
-X ly ket qua?
-Bao cao?
181
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.4. TCVN 3215-79

Chu y?

182
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

H s quan trng ca mt s
sn phm
Ru

Bia

Nc gii
kht c CO2

- trong
v mu sc:
0,8
- Mi: 1,2
- V: 2

- Bt: 0,8
- Trong, mu
sc: 0,4
- Mi: 0,8
- V: 2,0

- Trong: 0,6
- Mu: 0,4
- Mi: 1,2
- V : 1,8

Nc qu

Qa nc
ng

- Mu: 1,2
- Mi, v: 2,0
- Hnh thi:
0,8

- Mu sc
ci: 1,2
- Hnh thi:
1,2
- Mi, v: 1,6
- Nc: 0,4

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

183

H s quan trng ca mt s
sn phm (tt)
Bnh ngt

- Mu: 0,6
- Hnh trng
ngoi: 0,4
- Hnh trng
trong: 1,0
- Mi: 0,5
-V: 1,5

Ko

- Hnh thi:
0,8
- Trng thi
trong: 1,0
- Mi,v: 2,2

Bnh trung
thu

Ch

Thuc l u
lc

- Hnh dng
v mu sc
ngoi: 0,5
- Cu trc v
mu sc bn
trong: 1,0
- Mi: 1,0
- V : 1,5

- Ngoi hnh: 0,8


- Mi: 1,2
- V: 1,2
- Mu nc: 0,4
- B: 0,4

- Mu si: 0,8
- Mi: 1,0
- V: 1,2
- Nng sc:
0,6
- Chy: 0,4

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

184

H s quan trng ca mt s
sn phm (tt)
Sa c c
ng

Chui sy

- Mu sc: 1,2
- Trng thi:
0,8
- Mi, v: 2,0

- Mu sc: 1,0
- Hnh thi:
1,2
- Mi: 0,8
- V: 1,0

Mt

- Mu sc:
0,6
- Hnh thi
bn ngoi:
0,8
- Cu trng
bn trong:
1,0
- Mi, v: 1,6

Sn phm
ng lnh

- Bng: 0,5
-Tp: 0,5
-Mu: 0,8
- Mi, v: 1,2
-Trng thi vt
l: 1,0

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

Nc mm

- Mu sc: 0,5
- Mi: 1,5
- V: 1,0
- trong: 1,0

185

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

3.3.5. Nhng bc la chon


phep th

186
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

Ta m uon
xac nh

Ly do
a thch

S khac nhau
Cac phep th
pha n biet

Ca c phep th
mo ta

15-30 TV c huan luyen

S a thch

Xu hn g
m ua han g

Cac phep th
th hieu

Ca c phe p th
ng i tie u thu

>36 TV

>100 TV

PP sa n pham
ly tn g
>30 TV
an h gia cam quan

Phep th th hieu

Th trn g
187

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

TYPES OF TESTS

Php th phn bit

Mc ch: Xc nh s khc nhau v cm quan


gia hai hay nhiu sn phm
Triangle

Paired comparison
Duo-trio
Thnh vin khng qua hun luyn
Ngi tiu dng
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

188

TYPES OF TESTS
Php th a thch

Mc ch: nh gi s a thch hay chn, ght ca


i tng ngi th vi sn phm
Ranking

Hedonics
Paired comparison

Focus group

Thch Chn/ght
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

189

TYPES OF TESTS
Php th m t

Mc ch: Xc nh cc tnh cht cm quan, lng


ha v so snh cc sn phm
Simple descriptive tests
Quantitative descriptive
& sensory profile tests

Thnh vin phi qua hun luyn Chuyn


gia
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

190

La chn php th
Ti c 2 sn phm v ti mun bit chng c
khc nhau hay khng?
Php th cp i & tam gic
Ti c 1 sn phm v ti mun bit sn phm
ny c ph hp vi sn phm mu hay khng?
Php th ph hp (A- not A)
Ti c nhiu sn phm khc nhau v mt tnh
cht bit; ti mun sp xp chng theo tnh
cht ny Php th so hng
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

191

La chn php th
Ti c nhiu sn phm v ti bit chng khc
nhau v mt hay nhiu tnh cht; ti mun dn
chng vo nhng nhm xc nh trc
Php th phn nhm
Ti c nhiu sn phm khc nhau nhiu tnh
cht, ti mun xc nh mc khc nhau

Php th cho im
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

192

ANH GIA CAM QUAN THC PHAM

CAC PHEP TH

CAC BC TIEN HANH?

193
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

Xc nh mc
ch

La chn php
th

La chn ngi
th

Tin hnh th
nghim
X l s liu & biu din kt
qu

Kt lun
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

194

nh gi cm quan thy sn

195
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

Cc ni dung chnh
Thang phn loi EU (E, A, B)

Thang im TORRY
SHEWAN, 1953
H im t 10 1
Phng php QIM
BREMNER,1985
H im t 0 3
Tiu chun Vit nam (TCVN 3215-79)
H im 20
196
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

nh gi cm quan thy

sn

Thy sn nguyn con


Nguyn tc phn loi EU
Phng php QIM
Tiu chun Vit Nam

C fillet
Cha nu, phn loi theo mu sc, mi v cu trc
C nu, phn loi theo thang im Torry

Tiu chun Vit Nam


197
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

Thang phn loi EU

C 3 mc v cht lng trong thang phn loi EU:

- E (thng hng): cht lng cao nht


-

A: tt

B: Di B l mc m c b vt b khng th tiu th

Thang phn loi EU c chp nhn thng thng cc nc


Chu u v nh gi cm quan.
ti theo EU phn loi sn phm c (c tht trng, c nhm

gc, c trch v c thu c pht trin)

198
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

Thang phn loi theo tiu chun EU


HNG TI

KHNG T TIU
CHUN

EXTRA

DA

Sng ng nh, nhiu


sc t hoc trng c
khng bin i mu sc

Mu da sng nhng khng


bng lng, chi ngi

Mu da bin i tr nn
khng mu v tr nn m
nht i

Mu da m nht

NHT

trong sut

c nhng khng ng k

c nh sa

Hi vng, xm, khng trong

MT

Li, en, con ngi


sng, gic mc trong
sut

Li, mt hi trng xung


rt t, mt en, con ngi
m, gic mc c nh

Phng, gic mc c, con


ngi khng trong sut.

Lm gia, con ngi xm,


gic mc c nh sa.

MANG
C

Mu sc sng, khng
c nht

Khng mu, c nht trong


sut

Nu/xanh/tr nn khng
mu, dy, khng trong
sut

Hi vng, nht c nh sa.

MNG
NHY

Nhng, sng, kh tch


khi tht

M nh, c th tch ra
khi tht

C nhng m nh, mch


mu xa ra d dng tch
khi phn tht.

Cha phnh bng

MI
CA
MANG
V
BNG

Rong bin

Khng c mi rong bin

Hi c mi hi thiu

Hi thiu khng ti

Nhn nh du, c mi
cay

Mi bnh thng, nhn


nh du, mi rong bin,
hoc hi ngt

Nhn nh du, hi c mi
thiu, i nh

Hi thiu khng ti

PHN
THT

Chc v n hi, nhn


b mt

Khng c tnh n hi

Hi mm, khng n hi,


b mt m.

Mm, vy d dng199
tch khi
da, b mt hi nhn.

Nhc im ca thang phn loi EU

Nhiu nhm ch tiu, mi nhm cn thut ng

cm quan cng m t mt cp cht lng

c im cm quan khng ging vi s m t


ca cp cht lng

Gim tnh khch quan khi nh gi

Gy nhm ln trong vic phn loi, tn thi


gian

Khng lin quan n loi

200
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

S thay i thuc tnh cm quan trong


sut thi gian bo qun ca c r bin
Mt trong v li
ra

Mang c c mu
c trng, khng c
nc nhy

Mt m v lm

Mang c b mt mu
vi nhiu nc nhy
s

201

Thang im Torry
cho nh gi cm quan c Tuyt nu chn

Mi

Odour

Flavour

Score

Nhiu nc, tht chc

10

Mi t

Sweet, cooked milk

Shellfish, cooked meat


m

Watery, metallic

Mi rong, mi tht nu Ngt, v ca tht


Mi th

Sweet, meaty
t

Ngt nh

Sweet but more faint


m

Faint, neutral

Mi g, mi vani

Nht

Wood, vanilla

Neutral

Mi khoai ty nu

V nht nho

Cooked potatoes

Insipid

Mi hi

6
i

Boiled clothes
T

A little sour, faint TMA

Mi sa chua, TMA

ng, chua,TMA

Sour milk, TMA

Bitter,sour, TMA,

4
202

Thang im Torry
theo s ngy bo qun trong nc

10

Torry-score

im Torry

9
8 Odour and flavour characteristic
of the species diminishes
Mi c trng
t nhin

Odour and flavour


neutral Mi bnh thng

Spoilage odour and


flavour increases Mi h hng

5
4
0

10

Days in ice

Ngy trong

203
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

15

Phng php QIM


(Quality Index Method)
Miu t tng thuc tnh cm quan
Mi thuc tnh c nh gi ring r v cho
im t 0-3
im cc ch tiu c cng vo to thnh
ch s cht lng
Thit lp mi quan h tuyn tnh vi s thay i
cht lng, t c th c on thi hn bo
qun.
Thnh vin phi nh gi tng thuc tnh
Khng quan tm n mc quan trng ca
cc ch tiu cm quan.
S sai lch nh trong vic nh gi mt ch tiu
khng nh hng n tng s im
Hu dng i vi vic dy v hun luyn
204
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

QIM cho tm s nguyn liu

(Source: Lin et al., 2011)

205

QIM cho c chm chu (Lates calcarifer) fillet

(Source: Hanh et al., 2011)

206

QIM cho c tra fillet cn da

(Source: Bao et al., 2006)

207

QIM cho c Artic charr fillet

208

QIM c pht trin cho cc loi hi sn


v cc sn phm

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

209

QIM c pht trin cho cc loi hi sn


v cc sn phm (tt)

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

210

S dng QIM trn mng internet

211
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

http://www.dfu.min.dk/QIMRS/Default.asp

Cc trang web
1. QIM Eurofish
eurofish.com/

website:

2. Sensory
computeur
http://www.sims2000.com/

http://www.qimsystems:

3. Seafoodplus: http://www.seafoodplus.org

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

212

10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2

15
10
5
0
0

10

Storage time (days)


Thi gian bo qun (ngy)

15

im Torry

Quality index-QI

20

Torry score

Bin i ch s cht lng v cht lng n c


trong qu trnh bo qun c Tuyt trong nc

QI-May
QI-Dec
Torry-May
Torry-Dec

Mi quan h tuyn tnh-QI c


th c s dng c
tnh thang im Torry

QIM s dng cho nguyn liu


cn nguyn c th thay th
nh gi cm quan mu c
nu

Phng php QIM nh gi


nhanh hn v nhn nh sm
trn dy chuyn sn xut

213

Mi quan h tuyn tnh gia QI v


thi gian bo qun trong nc
Pht trin khoa hc v phng php QIM cho
nhiu loi khc nhau
Ch s cht lng gia tng tuyn tnh theo thi gian
bo qun

S dng trong cng nghip


Thi gian bo qun trong nc c nh ngha
l s ngy m c c gi trong nc .

Thi hn s dng c nh ngha l khong thi


gian thu sn cn ph hp cho s dng.
C th c lng thi gian s dng cn li cho c (=
thi gian s dng - thi gian bo qun trong )
214
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

Thi hn s dng ca mt s loi c


bo qun trong nc

Tm Shrimp
C trch Herring
C tuyt Cod
Loi c bt Flatfish species
C minh thi, c hi
Pollock, redfish

C hi Salmon
C vc bin Sea bass

6 ngy 6 days
8 ngy 8 days
15 ngy 15 days
13-14 ngy 13-15 days
18 ngy 18 days
20 ngy 20 days
22 ngy 22 days

Thi hn s dng c tnh da trn vic iu khin tt nhng th nghim vi c


nguyn con b rut bo qun trong nc
.

215

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

Tiu chun Vit Nam


trong nh gi cm quan
Tiu chun Vit Nam 3215-79
Ni dung:
Mi sn phm c nhiu ch tiu cm quan
Mi ch tiu c nh gi theo thang im m t gm 6 bc
tng ng vi im t 0 n 5.
Mi ch tiu c mt h s quan trng theo qui nh.

Cch tnh im theo TCVN

3215-79

Tnh im trung bnh cha c trng lng ca tng ch tiu.


Tnh im trung bnh c trng lng ca tng ch tiu.
Tnh im chung cho tt c cc ch tiu.
Kt qu c nh gi da trn im chung theo qui nh ca
TCVN 3215-79.

216
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

Tiu chun Vit Nam trong nh gi cm quan (tt)


C s xy dng thang im nh gi theo TCVN
im cha c
trng lng

C s nh gi

Trong ch tiu ang xt sn phm c tnh cht tt, c trng v r rt cho ch tiu ,
sn phm khng c sai li v khuyt tt no.

Sn phm c sai li nh hoc khuyt tt nh hoc c hai, nhng khng lm gim gi tr


cm quan ca sn phm

Sn phm c khuyt tt hoc sai li hoc c hai. S lng v mc ca khuyt tt sai


li lm gim gi tr cm quan ca sn phm, nhng sn phm vn t theo tiu chun

Sn phm c khuyt tt hoc sai li hoc c hai. S lng v mc ca khuyt tt sai


li lm cho sn phm khng t mc cht lng qui nh trong tiu chun, nhng sn
phm cn kh nng bn c.

Sn phm c khuyt tt v sai li mc trm trng khng t mc ch s dng


chnh ca sn phm. Song sn phm vn cha b coi l hng. Sn phm khng th
bn c nhng sau khi ti ch thch hp vn c th s dng c.

Sn phm c khuyt tt v sai li mc rt trm trng, sn phm b coi l hng


khng s dng c na.

217
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

Tiu chun Vit Nam trong nh gi cm quan (tt)


C s phn cp cht lng thc phm da trn im chung c trng lng
Cp cht lng

im chung

Yu cu v im trung bnh cha


c trng lng ca cc ch tiu

Loi tt

18,6 20,0

Cc ch tiu quan trng nht ln


hn hoc bng 4,7

Loi kh

15,2 18,5

Cc ch tiu quan trng nht ln


hn hoc bng 3,8

Loi trung bnh

11,2 15,1

Mi ch tiu ln hn hoc bng 2,8

Loi km (khng t mc cht lng qui


nh trong tiu chun nhng cn kh
nng bn c)

7,2 11,1

Mi ch tiu ln hn hoc bng 1,8

Loi rt km (khng c kh nng bn


c nhng sau khi ti ch thch hp
cn s dng c)

4,0 7,1

Mi ch tiu ln hn hoc bng 1,0

Loi hng (Khng cn s dng c)

0,0 3,9

218
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

nh gi cm quan tm theo FDA


nh gi cm quan tm
da vo tnh cht mi
Thang im t 0 - 10

0 -5 : pass
6-10: fail

219
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

19 Mui cua tom


A. Cac ac tnh pham chat co chap
nhan c
1. Briny (mui v muoi man)
2. Fresh air, ozone, clean ocean (khong kh
trong lanh, bien khong b o nhiem)

220

3. Cucumber/fresh grassy(da chuot/ti


non)
4. Melon (da hau)
5. Cooked rice (mui cm chn)
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

19 Mui cua tom


B. Cac ac tnh khac
6. Indoform (mui man tham iot)
7. Musty/muddy (mui moc/bun)

C. Ranh gii gia ac tnh chap nhan va loai bo:

8. Carboard/stale/ storage (mui ba carton/ oi


thiu/ lu kho)
9. Fishy (mui ca)
10. Oxidize (oxy hoa, r set)
221
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

19 Mui cua tom

222

D. Cac ac tnh loai bo:


11. Sour (co mui chua)
12. Yeasty Mui (nam men)
13. Rancid, painty (b oi, b bien oi mau)
14. Chessy (co mui phoat)
15.Turnipy (co mui cu cai)
16.Ammonia (mui amoniac)
17. Indole (hac, thoi)
18. Putrid (thoi ra)
19. Fecal (mui phan thoi)
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

3.4. T chc nh gi cm quan


& Hun luyn cm quan vin

223
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

Cc ni dung chnh

T chc nh gi cm quan

Hun luyn cm quan vin

224
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

T chc nh gi cm quan
Phng tin nh gi cm quan
Chun b mu
La chn v thnh lp hi ng cm quan
Cch tin hnh, bo co

225
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

Phng tin nh gi cm quan


Phng cm quan (a im, nhit
, nh sng, m, mu tng,

khng c mi l v ting n, cch


b tr bn trong, v.v.)

Phng chun b mu
Phng hp
226

Yu cu v phng tin, dng c


Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

Phng nh gi cm quan?

227
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

Phng nh gi cm quan?

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

228

Hun luyn cm quan vin (a), Arctic charr fillets c m ha


bng s ngu nhin gm 3 ch s (b), nh gi cm quan Arctic
charr fillets bng phng php QIM (c,d).

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

229

Phng chun b mu?

230
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

Chun b mu v m ha mu (a, b), Mu c c hp chn (c),


mu hp chn t trong thit b n nhit chun b nh gi CQ (d),
trng nhm CQ v cc CQ vin tho lun trong nh gi CQ theo
QDA (e), phng nh gi CQ (f).
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

231

Phng hp?

232
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

Yu cu v dng c, thit b?

233
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

Yu cu v dng c, thit b?

234
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

Yu cu v dng c, thit b?

235
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

Yu cu v dng c, thit b?

236
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

Yu cu v dng c, thit b?

237
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

Chun b mu
Chn la dng c v trang thit b
Gi mu th v nh gi mu nhit theo qui nh
Kch c mu
Khng cht ph gia
S mu nh gi trong mt bui
Ghi m s cho mu
Thng thng ngi th c a nh gi cc mu theo s phn
nhm v th tntong mt s nhm l nh sau:
+ C t mi trc, mi nhiu sau
+ Lu v t trc, lu v nhiu sau
+ ngt, mn, bo c tng t thp n cao.
238

Th t tin hnh

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

Thnh kin
Mu nn ghi m s
Th t tin hnh ngu nhin

Cn i gia cc mu nh gi
S tng tc gia cc gic quan (din mo

ca mu c th nh hng n t l mi)
Thch/ khng thch thc phm nh hng

n cc thuc tnh cm quan


239
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

Nhn vin phng nh gi cm quan


1. Chu trch nhm bo qun mu k t khi nhn mu.
2. T chc thc hin nh gi mu theo ng qui trnh
c duyt.
3. Lp bin bn v vic x l kt qu nh gi, thng bo li
cho khch hng
4. T chc kim tra cc kim nghim vin.
5. Bo m tt c cc iu kin ngi th nh gi mt
cch khch quan nht.
240
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

Nhn vin phng nh gi cm quan


6. Tham gia bin son ti liu lin quan n cng tc CQ ti
c s v cc ni lin quan.

7. T chc cc bui tp dt, o to nng cao kh nng th


nm ngi th.
8. Thng xuyn t chc cc bui th nm cc mu chun
ngi th d dng nh gi so snh nht l trong trng
hp cho im
9. Thng xuyn nghin cu qui trnh, ci tin thao tc
vic chun b mu v phc v mu cho nhng ngi nh
gi khch quan v chnh xc.
241
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

Hi ng cm quan

S lng: t nht l 5 ngi, u tin s l.

Thnh phn: Ch tch hi ng, th k v cc


cm quan vin trong hi ng.

Chc nng: hot ng thay th phng th nghim


nh gi cc ch tiu ca thc phm.

242
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

Hi ng cm quan
Kim tra vin c o to
trong kim sot cht lng (1-3)

Chuyn gia cm quan


c o to (8-16)

Ngi tiu dng (100-200)

243
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

Chn la thnh vin cm quan


C sc khe tt
Sn sng tham gia nh gi cm quan.
Nhit tnh

Tn tm
Chnh xc

Nhy cm
Trng ban cm quan nn tch cc, c kin thc
cm quan rng v c uy tn.
244
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

V d: Nguyn l SPENSER, theo nguyn l ny


vic la chn tin hnh 3 bc: nu lm tt bc
trc mi c lm tip bc sau:
1. Ngi th nhn c 4 dung dch: ng 20 g/l; axit
citric 0,7 g/l; mui n 2 g/l v cafein 0,7 g/l. Sau khi th
phi tr li ng bn v c bn nhn c i vi dung
dch tng ng. Khng c php sai.
2. So hng cng v ngt theo nng ca 4 dung dch
ng: 70, 100, 125, v 150 g/l. Khng c php sai
3. Ngi th nhn c mt lc 20 cht thm khc nhau,
ngi v ghi ra giy tn nhng mi nhn c trong 15
pht. Phi nhn ng t nht 11 mi mi c mi vo
nhm th cm quan.
245
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

LA CHN NGI TH :
1. Xc nh tn mi

a. Nguyn liu (cho tng ngi th):


- Mt dy 6 l y np, mi l ch cha mt
mi duy nht, tt c l hiu A, tng l c
m ha bng ch c ba ch s).
- Mt dy mu th hai c 6 l y np, mi l
ch cha mt mi duy nht, tt c k hiu B,
tng l c m ha bng ch c ba ch s.

- Phiu tr li l mt trang trng cho mi A, v


mt danh sch cc tn mi cho mi B.
246
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

LA CHN NGI TH :
1. Xc nh tn mi

b. Tin hnh:
- Ngi th bt u tin hnh th nghim la
chn t do vi dy mu A, yu cu xc nh
tn tng mi bng mt hoc hai t m t c
th v chnh xc nht v vit ln phiu tr li.

- Tip theo ngi th lm th nghim i chiu


(matching), h ngi mi trong dy B, c gng
xc nh tn ca tng mi theo danh sch
xut ca phiu.
- a phiu tr li cho k thut vin ghi kt qu.

247

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

LA CHN NGI TH :
2. So hng cng v

a. Nguyn liu ( cho tng ngi)


- Ba mu nc qu (i, da):
+ Nguyn mu
+ B sung 1% saccharose
+ B sung 2% saccharose
- Ba mu nc qu (i, da):
+ Nguyn mu
+ B sung 0,1% accid citric
+ B sung 0, 2% accid citric
248
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

LA CHN NGI TH :
2. So hng cng v

b. Tin hnh:
- Xp 3 mu nc qu u theo cng
v ngt tng dn

- Xp 3 mu nc qu th hai theo
cng v chua tng dn
- a phiu tr li cho k thut vin ghi
kt qu.
249

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

Hun luyn v o to cm quan vin


Hun luyn:
Hun luyn c bn: v ngng cm gic, v kh
nng nhn bit, phn bit, v.v.
Hun luyn trn sn phm theo cc phng php
khc nhau.
o to
Kin thc v c s khoa hc ca nh gi cm quan
Am hiu cc thang im m t (hiu s thay i
thuc tnh cm quan theo thi gian)
Cung cp cc vn bn hng dn v vic nh gi
cm quan
250

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

Hun luyn nh gi ti ca c (QIM)


Ly mu c cc giai on ti khc nhau c
tn tr trong nc vi thi gian bo qun
c bit(4 giai on, 5 mu/giai on)
Trng ban cm quan nh gi mu trc

c bng ch dn
Tp luyn hoc i chng vi nhng mu bit

v cht lng hoc ti.


251
Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

Hun luyn cm quan vin (a), Arctic charr fillets c m ha


bng s ngu nhin gm 3 ch s (b), nh gi cm quan Arctic
charr fillets bng phng php QIM (c,d).

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

252

Hun luyn nh gi ti ca c (tt)


nh gi mu c ghi m s (2 mu cho mi
ti)
So snh kt qu
S nh gi ca trng ban cm quan
Thi gian tn tr trong

Lp li s nh gi ca cng mt mu c ghi
m s mi
So snh kt qu
Hun luyn lin tip trong 4 ngy/loi c
253

Hun luyn li (2 ln/ nm)


Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

Chun b mu c fillet
nh gi cm quan bng QIM

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

254

Cm quan vin nh gi
Arctic charr fillets theo QIM

Trn Th M Hnh, B mn BCL & ATTP

255

Ch 4: Phng phap phan tch mot so


thanh phan vo c trong thc pham

Ni dung ch 4
4.1.Xc nh hm lng nc v hot nc trong thc phm
4.2. Xc nh hm lng tro trong thc phm.
4.3. Xc nh hm lng mui n ( mn)
4.4. Xc nh hm lng mt s nguyn t khong a lng
trong thc phm
4.5. Xc nh hm lng mt s nguyn t khong vi lng trong
thc phm

4.6. Xc nh hm lng mt s kim loi nng


4.7. Xc nh hm lng cc cht v c gy hi khc

Cu hi chun b - ch 4
1. Phng php xc nh hm lng nc,
hot nc, khong, kim loi nng, cc
cht v c gy hi khc?

2. u, nhc im ca tng phng php


kim nghim. Cc sai s c th xy ra v
cch khc phc cc sai s ?

4.1.Xc nh hm lng nc ( m) v hot


nc trong thc phm

4.1.1. Xc nh hm lng nc

a. Khi qut v hm lng nc

b. ngha ca vic xc nh m

b. ngha ca vic xc nh m

o am (ham lng nc) la mot ch tieu thng c kiem tra oi


vi ban thanh pham thanh pham nhm xac nh:
- Gia tr dinh dng
vd: Ca co ham lng nc cao cac chat dinh dng khac thap.
+ ca kem co W = 79%, th Protein = 19,2%
+ ca lep co W = 81%, th Protein = 17,5%.
+ Gao : W = 14%, th Protein = 7,6%, lipid = 1%, glucide = 76,2%
+ Neu go c W = 20% th Protein = 7,0%, lipid = 0,9 %; glucide =
70,8%
- Kha nang bao qun:
V du : o am toi a cua bot gao la 14%, neu qua 14 % th bot de b
moc, von cuc

Tuy nhien , cac thc pham khac nhau co cung o am lai co mc o


h hong khac nhau ieu nay chng to thong so o am la cha u e
anh gia kha nang h hong.

Cc phng php xc nh hm
lng nc
- Phng phap say.
- Phng phap chng cat kn vi dung moi hu c.

- Phng phap khuc xa ke


- Phng phap Karl Fischer

4.1.1. 1.Phng php sy

a. Nguyn l:
A(g)

H2O

B(g)

t0cao

(A B) (g): lng nc thoat ra


Trong A(g) mau co :
100g mau:

(A B) (g) nc
?(g)

b. Dng c, thit b, ha cht


-Tu say ieu chnh c nhiet (hnh a)

- Can phan tch, o chnh xac


(hnh b)

10-3

10-4g

(a)

- Coc say co nap ay (bang s hoac thuy


tinh).
- ua thuy tinh.
(b)

- Bnh hut am co cha cac hat Silicagen.


- Coi, chay, keo: cat, nghien mau.

c. Tin hnh

*) Say nhiet o 100 105oC


Chun b cc

Cn mu, chun b

G1 (sy 60 800C): 2 gi
G2 (sy 100 1050C): 3 gi
ngui
Cn

Sy n khi lng khng i


Tnh kt qu

d.Tnh ket qua:


o am (ham lng nc) cua thc pham c tnh theo
cong thc sau

G
G

G G
1

H 2O

* 100(%)

Trong o:
XH2O: o am (ham lng nc) cua thc pham (%)
G1: khoi lng coc say va mau th trc say (g)
G2: khoi lng coc say va mau th sau say (g)
G: khoi lng coc say (g)

*)Say nhiet o 130oC (tng t say

nhiet o 100 105oC), nhng:

G1: sy 60 800C: 30 pht


G2: sy 1300C: 1 gi
*)Phng phap say nhanh nhiet o cao (2000C
hoac cao hn): Thi gian say t 2 en 15 phut.
Thng c dung nh phng phap kiem tra nhanh
trong cong nghiep.

Mau vat at trong thiet b say en hong ngoai. Phng


phap nay cho ket qua nhanh. Nhng can chu y ieu
chnh nhiet o say tang dan e tranh sai so.

u, nhc im ca
phng php sy?

4.1.1.2. PHNG PHAP CHNG CAT KN VI DUNG


MOI HU C

Deanstark

Phng phap nay e khac phuc nhc iem cua


phng phap say-xac nh o am cua mau co nhieu
chat bay hi, chat beo...

a. Nguyen ly:
Dung dung moi hu c (toluen,cylen)co 3 ac iem:
Nhe hn nc.

Khong tan trong nc.


Co nhiet o soi cao hn nhiet o soi cua nc.

e tron lan vi thc pham roi tien hanh


chng cat trong thiet b kn Deanstark.
Ham lng nc

b. Dng c, thit b, ha cht

- Thiet b Deanstar. (Hnh ve).

- Dung moi : Toluen t0s = 1100C.


Cylen t0s = 1440C.
- Can phan tch chnh xc 10-4 g

c. Tin hnh

c. Tin hnh
Chun b mu cho vo bnh chng ct
Cho dung mi hu c vo bnh chng ct

Cho nc chy vo ng sinh hn


Lp kn thit b

Chng ct cho ht nc
c th tch nc trong ng o
Tnh kt qu

d.Tnh ket qua:

Trong o:

V
W * 100(%).
P
+ V : The tch nc oc c tren ong o (ml)
+ P : khoi lng mau (g)

* Chu y :
+ oc the tch nc 200C (e nhit bnh thng).
dnc 20 C = 1kg/m3.
=> m = V . d = m = V
+ Nu dung mi c nc, ta phi loi b nc trong dung
mi trc khi chng ct mu

* u, nhc im ca
phng php chng cat kn vi
dung moi hu c?

4.1.1.3. PHNG PHAP XAC NH O AM


DUNG KHUC XA KE

4.1.1.3. PHNG PHAP XAC NH


O AM DUNG KHUC XA KE

a. Nguyen ly: Khi i t moi trng khong kh vao mot moi trng khac (chat long)
tia sang se b lech i (khuc xa). Neu chat long la mot dung dch chat tan (dung
dch ng, muoi...), th da vao o lech cua tia sang ta co the xac nh c
nong o cua chat hoa tan va t o tnh ra ham lng nc (%) trong thc pham.

b. Tin hnh:
S dung khuc xa k ham lng chat kho Ham
lng nc.
W = 100 C(%)

u, nhc im ca phng php khc x k?

4.1.1.4. PHNG PHAP Karl Fischer

a. Nguyn l : Da tren phan ng lam


mat mau iot gia nc vi iod va
sulphur dioxide (SO2) trong dung dch
pyridine-methanol
I2+ H2O + SO2 2 HI + H2SO4.
Ham lng nc trong thc pham.
u iem:
Xac nh c lng nc rat nho
o chnh xac cao

Thit b chun Karl Fischer

4.1.2. XAC NH aW

* Y NGHA CUA VIEC XAC NH aW


- Phan tch (aw ) nh mot d bao kha nang phat
trien cua vsv trong thc pham.
- aw the hien phan hoat ong cua nc
- No la thc o cua nc san sang cho vsv phat
trien, cac phan ng sinh hoa va cac enzym

KY THUAT XAC NH aW

- Xac nh RH (Relative Humidity)- o


am tng oi cua khong kh
- Cam ng iem ong sng
- Phng phap noi suy.

KY THUAT XAC NH aW
a. Xac nh RH aw

aw= RH/100

RH (Relative Humidity)- o am tng oi cua khong


kh

KY THUAT XAC NH aW
b. Phng php da vo cm ng im ng sng
1-at mau vao hop ng mau

2-at cc do len hop cha mau


3- o

KY THUAT XAC NH aW

c. Phng phap noi suy


.
Ham lng
nc (g/100
chat kho)

aw

e mau co trong lng nhat


nh trong cac bnh hut am
co o am tng oi khac
nhau.
Sau 2-4 gi, can mau cac
bnh hut am oham lng
nc (g/100 g chat kho).
Ve o th y = f(aw), o th
nay cat truc x tai mot iem,
iem o la aw cua mau
Nhc iem: lau va phc tap

4.2. XAC NH HAM LNG TRO

nh ngha: Tro la phan con lai sau


khi ot chay het cac chat hu c.
Ham lng tro cua thc pham phu
thuoc vao:

Loai thc pham


Phng phap hoa tro.

CAC LOAI TRO


- Tro toan phan.
(Gom : tro that s va tap chat ( at, cat..)
- Tro thc s
(Ham lng muoi khoang)
- Tro khong tan trong nc.
(Tap chat, at cat)
- Tro khong tan trong HCl 4N
(Cat san)
- Tro sunfat ( oi vi mau cha nhieu ng)
Tro thc s=Tro sunfatx 0,9

Muc ch xac nh ham lng tro:

Muc ch xac nh ham lng tro:


Xac nh tong lng tro (khoang)
Xac nh lng tap chat cat san.

4.2.1. Phng php xc nh tro ton phn


a. Nguyn l:
Thc pham (A gr).

nung (550 - 6000C)

tro trang

can (B gr)

Tnh tro ton phn.


b. Dng c, thit b, ha cht

b. Dng c, thit b, ha cht


- Chen nung bang s hoac bang kim loai
(bach kim).

- en con hay bep ien.


- Lo nung ieu chnh c nhiet
(hnh c)
- Can phan tch chnh xc 10-4 g
- Bnh hut am.
- H2O2, HNO3

(c)

Chun b cc
Cn mu
Ha tro en

Nung tro en thnh tro trng


ngui

Cn
Nung n khi lng khng i
Tnh kt qu

c.Tin hnh

d.Tnh ket qua:


G
G
X
G G
2

x100(%)

Trong o:
G1: Khoi lng chen nung va mau (gr).
G2: Khoi lng chen + tro trang (gr).

Ch ?

4.2.2. Tro khong tan trong nc (Tap chat, at

cat)

4.2.3. Tro khong tan trong HCl 4N (Cat san)

4.2.4. Tro sunfat (oi vi mau cha nhieu ng)


Tro thc s = Tro sunfatx 0,9

4.3. XAC NH HAM LNG MUOI AN (O MAN)

4.3.1. Phng phap chuan o trc tiep (phng phap Mohr)

4.3.2. Phng php chun gin tip (phng php Vohlard)

4.3.3. Dng khc x k

4.3. XAC NH HAM LNG MUOI AN (O


MAN)
4.3.1. Phng phap chuan o trc tiep (phng phap Mohr)
a. Nguyen ly
+ AgNO3t/c

TP(cha NaCl)

AgCl
Ch th

Yeu cau phan ng chuan o trong moi trng trung tnh?

Ch ?

4.3. XAC NH HAM LNG MUOI AN (O MAN)


4.3.1. Phng phap chuan o trc tiep (phng phap Mohr)
a. Nguyen ly
Phan ng:
NaCl + AgNO3 =

AgCl + NaNO3 (1)

2 AgNO3 t/c d + K2CrO4 = Ag2CrO4 + 2 KNO3

(2).

T lng AgNO3 ta tnh c lng NaCl.


Yeu cau phan ng chuan o trong moi trng trung tnh?
Ch ?

- Bnh non dung tch 200 250 ml.

b. Dng c, ha cht?

-Bnh nh mc dung tch 100 ml.


- Pheu.
- Buret.
- Pipet.
- Giay loc.

- Dung dch AgNO3 0,1N.


- Dung dch NaHCO3 0,01 N.
- Dung dch CH3COOH 0,01N.
- K2 CrO4 10% trong nc trung tnh.
- Dung dch phenolphtalein trong
con 900

c. Tin hnh
*
Chun b dung dch mu
Chuan b mau th la chiet muoi t thc pham va pha loang thanh dung
dch th. Tuy theo loai thc pham ma co cac phng phap chuan b
khac nhau:
- oi vi thc pham long, lay Vml em pha loang bang nc cat
trung tnh. Ket qua tnh ra (gNaCl/l)
- Trng hp nhng dung dch uc (v du sa, dch ep ca) lay Vml,
kh tap chat bang dung dch ch axetat/hoac kem axetat, loc va pha
loang en the tch nhat nh. Ket qua tnh ra (gNaCl/l)
- oi vi thc pham ran, ac: cat nho hay xay nho, can Pg (10g)hoa
tan va chiet muoi an vi nc nong (50oC) cho en khi het muoi
trong thc pham (th bang AgNO3), pha loang en the tch nhat
nh. Ket qua tnh ra (%)
- oi vi thc pham kho chiet muoi an (san pham kho, t muoi), can
Pg (10g) em nung thanh tro trang, sau o hoa tan tro trang trong
nc cat trung tnh va pha loang en the tch nhat nh. Ket qua tnh
ra (%)

* Tin hnh

Chun b mu th
a dung dch th v mi trng trung tnh
Cho ch th K2CrO4 10%

Chun bng AgNO3 0,1N


c V (AgNO30,1N)?
Tnh kt qu

d.Tnh kt qu
Ham lng muoi an NaCl theo cong thc:
XNaCl =
A.0,00585.F.100/P (%)
XNaCl =
A.0,00585.F.1000/V (g/l)
Trong :
+ A: So ml AgNO3 0,1N a tieu ton khi chuan o

+ F: He so pha loang
+ P: So gam mau th.

+ V: So ml mau th.
+ 0,00585: So g muoi an tng ng 1ml dung dch AgNO3 0,1N?

u, nhc im, cc sai s?

4.3.3.Phng phap chuan o gian tiep.


(Phng phap Vohlard)
a. Nguyn l:
NaCl
A
AgNO3
B

KSCN

4.4. XAC NH MOT SO NGUYEN TO


KHOANG A LNG TRONG THC PHAM
4.4.1. Xac nh ham lng canxi
4.4.2. Xac nh ham lng phospho
4.4.3. Xac nh ham lng Kali

4.4.1. Xac nh ham lng canxi


Phng php oxalat (Phng php th tch,
phng php khi lng)

Phng php complexom III

4.4.1.1.Phng php th tch


a.

Nguyn l:
VCH

TP

(NH4)2C2O4b/h

CaCl2
HCl

CaC2O4

Lc ly k.ta,
ra sch k.ta

t0, pH~5

CaSO4 + H2C2O4

KMnO4t/c

800C, H2SO4

Phn ng?

nh lng canxi?

H2SO4

b. Dng c, ha cht?

c. Tin hnh
Chun b mu:

Cch 1: v c ha mu

Cch 2: dng nc cng thy

Tin hnh

Chun b mu

To mi trng kim (Loc bo (Al(OH)3 hoac Fe(OH)3 neu c)


Axit ha dd, un si dd
Thm (NH4)2CO4 bao hoa (d)

un 1h kt ta hon ton CaC2O4


lng kt ta, lc ly ta
Ra sch ta bng nc ct si (ra n pH=7)
Dng a thy tinh nh ti kt ta
Thm H2SO4
un nng 800C
Chun bng KMnO4t/c

Tnh kt qu

d. Tnh kt qu
X Ca

k N f 100

(mg %)
P

(Mu rn)

k N f 1000
(mg / l )
V

(Mu lng)

X Ca

Trong o:
N : So ml KMnO4t/c 0,1N tieu ton khi chuan o
f : He so pha loang
V : So ml mau th (ml)
P : Khoi lng mau th (g)
k : So mg Caxi tng ng 1ml KMnO4 0,1N t/c.

4.4.1.2.Phng php khi lng

4.4.1.3. Phng php complexom III


a. Nguyn l:
Complexom III t/chun

Mu (Cha Ca2+)

Phc cht c mu c trng


Mi trng kim/
ch th c bit

Phan ng chnh xay ra:


C10H14O8N2Na2 + Ca2+(Mg2+) =
(complexom III)

C10H12O8N2 Na2Ca(Mg) + H2O


(phc chat)

-Cac ch th ac biet phat hien c s co mat cua Ca2+ va Mg2+.


+ Ecriocrom en T (EBT) cho mau o khi co Ca2+, Mg2+ t do va mau xanh
l khi nhng ion ay di dang phc chat.
+ Murexid cho mau o khi co Ca2+ t do va mau xanh l khi ion o dang
phc chat.

b. Dung cu, vat lieu, thuoc th


c. Tien hanh

Sau khi a chuan b mau th nh phng phap oxalat


tren ay, phan nh lng chia lam 2 bc:
Bc 1: nh lng chung Canxi va Magie
- Cho vao bnh non 250ml cac chat sau:

Dung dch th:


10ml.

Dung dch KOH 20%: 1ml

Dung dch em pH = 10: 1ml.

Ecricrom en T:
vai hat
- Lac eu, manh thay dung dch co mau o nho chn (co
canxi/magie) sau o chuan o bang Complexom III 0,01M
cho en khi xuat hien mau xanh l ro ret, oc the tch
Complexom III ( gia s la: Nml).

Bc 2: nh lng rieng Magie


- Loai bo Ca2+ bang cach cho vao ong ly tam:
+ Dung dch th (Ca2+, Mg2+):
20ml
+ Dung dch (NH4)C2O4 bao hoa: 4ml
- Lac eu, e trong noi cach thuy soi trong 1h. Ly tam 10 phut
vi toc o 4000 vong/ phut. Loc lay dung dch, bo ket tua.
e nh lng Mg+2 cho vao bnh non:

Dd loc a loai Ca2+: 12ml (tng ng 10ml dd th)

Dung dch KOH 20%


: 1ml

Dung dch em pH = 10
: 1ml

Ecricrom en T
: vai hat

- Lac eu, thay dung dch co mau o nho chng to co Magie.


Chuan o bang complexom III 0,01M cho en khi co mau
xanh l ro ret. oc the tch complexom III (gia s la: n ml).

d. Tnh ket qua


Xca = 0,4 . (N n) . F . 100/P (mg%)
XMg = 0,24 . n . F . 100/P (mg%)

Trong o:
N: So ml Complexom III 0,01M dung nh lng chung Ca2+ va M
n: So ml Complexom III 0,01M dung nh lng Mg2+

P: Khoi lng mau th (g),


F: He so pha loang.

0,4: So mg Ca2+ tng ng 1ml Complexom III 0,01M.


0,24: So mg Mg2+ tng ng 1ml Complexom III 0,01M.

4.4.2. Xac nh ham lng phospho


4.4.2.1. Phng phap ket tua di dang muoi kep amonimagie phosphat (phng phap khoi lng)

4.4.2.2. Phng phap so mau xeruleo molipdic

4.4.2.1. Phng phap khoi lng


a. Nguyen ly
Thc phm
Loc.

t0
HNO3/H2SO4
Ra sach

H3PO4
Nung.

Mg2+/NH4Cl
Mg2P2O7

MgNH4PO4
Can.

Phn ng:

t0 cao
2MgNH4PO4

Mg2P2O7 + 2NH3 + H2O

b. Dung cu, vat lieu, thuoc th?

c. Tin hnh
+ Dung dch th cha PO43- : 50 ml.
+ Hon hp dd Mg2+ /NH4+: 20 ml.
+ Dung dch NH4OH 220Be : 50 ml.
+ NH4OH 1/3 (1 NH4OH/3 H2O).

YN 12 GI

Lc, ra ta
bng NH4OH/3

Cho vo cc, sy
kh

Cn, tnh k.qu

Nung kh n khi
lng khng i

d. Tnh ket qua


XP = 279,2.(G1 G).F.100 / P (mg%)

Trong o:
- P: khoi lng mau th (g).
- G1: khoi lng coc nung va muoi Mg2P2O7 (g).
- G: khoi lng coc nung (g).
- 279,2: so mg phospho co trong 1 g Mg2P2O7.
- F: he so pha loang.

4.4.2.2. Phng phap so mau xeruleo molipdic

4.4.3. Xc nh hm lng kali

4.5. XAC NH HAM LNG MOT SO KHOANG


VI LNG TRONG THC PHAM

4.5.1. Xac nh ham lng sat

4.5.2. Xac nh ham lng iot

4.5.1. Xac nh ham lng sat

a.

4.5.1.1. Phng php th tch


Nguyn l:
VCH
H2O2 3%
KI
TP
FeCl2
FeCl3
FeCl2 + I2
HCl
HCl

Phn ng?
b.Dng c, ha cht:

c. Tin hnh:

Na2S2O3t/c
nh lng
HTB


d. Tnh ket qua
Ham lng sat trong mau th thc pham c tnh
theo bieu thc sau:
Xfe = V.0,5585.100/P (mg%)
Trong o :
+ V: the tch Na2S2O3 0,01 N dung chuan o (ml).
+ P: khoi lng mau th (gr).
+ 1000: he so quy oi t gram ra kilogram.
+ 0,5585: so mg Fe tng ng 1 ml Na2S2O3 0,01 N.

4.5.1.2. PHNG PHP SO MU

4.5.2.Phng php xc nh iot


2.5.2.1. Phng php th tch
a.
Nguyn l:
Vo c hoa
Nc Br2b/h
TP
I-

KI
IO3(H3PO4)

I2

Na2S2O3t/c

Chuan o

Ho TB

Cac phan ng:

KI + 3Br2 + 3H2O
=
KIO3 + 5KI + 2H3PO4 =
I2 + 2Na2S2O3

KIO3 + 6HBr
(1).
3I2 + 2K3PO4 + 3H2O (2)

=
Na2S4O6 + 2NaI
(HTB)

4.5.2.2. Phng php so mu

4.6. Xc nh hm lng mt s kim loi nng

4.6.1.V c ha mu
a. V c ha theo phng php kh?

b. V c ha theo phng php t?

4.6.2. Xc nh hm lng ch bng


phng php chit chun
a. Nguyn l
Trong mi trng trung tnh hoc kim, ion ch
(Pb2+) to vi ditizon thnh ch ditizonat mu
tm tan trong dung mi hu c.

Pb2+

b.Dng c, ha cht

2H2Dz = Pb(HDz) 2 +

2H+

Xc nh hm lng ch bng
phng php chit chun
b. Dng c, ha cht
- Pha dung dch ch tiu chun
25M

- Pha dung dch ditizon 50,0M


trong cloroform
..\HOA CHAT.doc
.
Pheu chiet

c. Tin hnh
Dung dch th
Loi Sn2+
Che du cc ion kim loi khc bng KCN tinh th
Cho dung dch th vo phu chit

iu chnh dung dch n pH = 7,5


Cho ln lt 1ml ditizon/ln
Chit b phn mu tm
Tnh kt qu

Cc phng php khc

My quang ph hp th nguyn t

My so mu UV - VIS

2.6.3. Xc nh cc kim loi Zn, Sn, As, Hg..

4.7. Xc nh cc cht gy hi
khc
4.7.1. Xc nh nitrat

4.7.2. Xc nh nitrit
4.7.3. Xc nh borat
4.7.4. Xc nh Clorine d
4.7.5. Xc nh SO2
4.7.6. Xc nh nc un si hay cha un si

4.7.1. Xc nh nhanh nitrat


a. Nguyn l:
Trong mi trng axit axetic c mt ca km (Zn)
v kali iodua KI, nitrat s b kh thnh NO2 v
KI s b oxy ha gii phng iod t do.
Iod gii phng c pht hin bng mu xanh
tm nh ch th h tinh bt.
b. Dng c, ha cht
c. Tin hnh

c. Tin hnh:
- Ly khong 10g mu hoc hn em ct nh v ngm
trong khong 20ml nc ct, thi gian 15 20 pht, thnh
thong trn u, sau un nng v lc ngay khi si.

- Ra b sn phm bng 2 - 3 ml nc ct, lm sao


cui cng c c 10 ml nc chit tin hnh lm
phn ng trong ng nghim.
- Thm vo 2-3ml dung dch KI 5% hay khong 0,1g tinh
th KI, trn u, lc u.
- Axit ha bng 2ml dung dch axit axetic 50%. Khuy u,
thm 2- 3 git h tinh bt, li trn u.
- Thm tip tc 1-2 ht km. Theo di phn ng v thi
gian bt u xut hin mu xanh tm v khi mu ny r rt
n nh hon ton.

d. nh gi:
- Nu mu xanh tm xut hin ngay lp tc,
trong vng 1 pht r nt, n nh hon ton:
hm lng nitrat cao hn 500mg/kg.
- Nu sau 2-3 pht mi thy xut hin mu xanh
tm v sau 5 6 pht mi n nh hon ton:
hm lng nitrat trong khong 500mg/kg.
- Nu sau 5-6 pht mi thy xut hin mu xanh
tm v sau 20 - 30 pht mi n nh hon ton:
hm lng nitrat vo khong 200 - 250mg/kg.

4.7.2. Xc nh nhanh nitrit


a. Nguyn l:
pH = 2 - 2,5 nitrit s diazo ha axit sulfanilic v
sau kt hp vi anpha naphtylamin cho hp
cht naphtylamino azobenzen sulfonic c mu
khng bn (bn nhit 150C, khng bn nhit
cao).
Phn ng rt nhy vi mu ngay tc thi
nng l x 10-5 v sau 5 pht nng l x 10-8
nu khng c nitrit th phn ng khng c mu .

b. Dng cu, thuc th:


* Dng c: ng nghim hoc cc thy tinh
* Thuc th:
- Thuc th Griess A: cn 0,5 g axit sulfanilic ha vo
150ml axit axetic 30%. Bo qun trong l ti mu c
nt mi. Khi s dng rt vo l nh git bng P.E
tin dng v bo qun.
- Thuc th Griess B: cn 0,1g anpha naphtylamin
ha vo 20ml nc ct, khuy u, un si, lng
gn ly phn nc trong khng mu. Thm vo dung
dch ny 150ml axit axetic 5%. Trn u v bo qun
trong l mu nt mi. Khi s dng rt vo l nh git
bng P.E tin dng v bo qun.

c. Tin hnh th:


Ly 5ml sn phm mu lng phn tch cho vo
ng nghim. thm 5 git thuc th griess A, tip
theo cho 5 git thuc th Griess B.
Lc u v quan st so snh vi mt ng nghim
mu nc ct (khng c nitrit) c tin hnh
song song trong iu kin nh nhau.
d. nh gi:
- Nu thy xut hin mu sau 10 15 pht:
c mt nitrit, vi phm quy nh hin hnh v nitrit
trong ung, thc phm lng.
- Nu khng xut hin mu sau 10 15 pht:
khng c mt nitrit, m bo theo tiu chun quy
nh v nitrit trong ung, thc phm lng.

4.7.3.Xc nh boratlink\BORAT.doc
4.7.4. Xc nh chlorinelink\Xc nh lng
clo.doc
4.7.5. Xc nh SO2 link\SO2.doc
4.7.6. Xc nh nc un si hay cha?
link\nuoc dun soi.doc

4.7.3.Xc nh borat
a. Nguyn l
Axit ha bng HCl
Cam
Hi HCl

Dch chit mu
Giy
ngh

b. Dng c, ha cht

Phc mu cam
Hi NH4OH

Xanh lc

b. Dng c, ha cht
Cn phn tch , chnh xc 0,1g
Bnh tam gic 250ml, 125ml
a thy tinh, bp in, ng nghim, cc
nung, l nung
Giy lc whatman s 02
Giy pH
HCl c, tinh khit.
Etanol 80%
Giy ngh
NH4OH c, tinh khit
Nc vi hoc sa vi

c. Tin hnh:
iu ch giy ngh:

Th s b:
Th xc nhn:

d. c kt qu
Nu c borat trong mu th giy ngh chuyn sang mu cam
c trng. t giy ngh ln ming ng nghim cha dung
dch NH4OH. Giy ngh phi chuyn sang mu xanh lc v tr
li mu khi t giy trn ng nghim cha axit HCl.

4.7.4. Xc nh chlorine
a. Nguyn tc :
+KI 10%/10pht

Cl2

+ Na2S2O3

KT QU

I2
HTB

b. Ho cht, dng c

c. Tin hnh

c. Tin hnh
KT QU:
Lng clo d trong nc theo cng thc sau:
X = (A-B)x0,355x1000/V (mg/lit)
Trong :
A : S ml dung dch Na2S2O3 0,01N dng chun mu th.
B : S ml dung dch Na2S2O3 0,01N dng chun mu trng (mu
kim tra).
V : S ml mu th em th nghim.
0,355 : S mg clo tng ng vi 1 ml Na2S2O3 0,01N

4.7.5. Xc nh SO2
a. Nguyn l
Chun SO2 t do bng dung dch iot tiu
chun vi ch th l h tinh bt trong mi
trng H2SO4
Phn ng :

SO2 + I2 + 2H2O = 2HI + H2SO4

4.7.6. Xc nh nc un si hay cha?


a. Nguyn l:
Mui bicacbonat l nhng mui ha tan trong nc v c
tnh kim yu, di tc dng ca nhit khi un si gii
phng kh CO2 v hnh thnh mui cacbonat c tnh
kim mnh hn ha tan trong nc v mt s kt ta
lng xung lm nc un si c tnh kim mnh hn.
Cc ngun nc thng dng c pH thng t 7,2 n 7,6,
khi un si nc c pH tng ln trn 8,2 nm trong
vng chuyn mu ca cc ch th mu:
- Phenolphtalein c pH vng chuyn mu: 8,2 10
- Bromothymol blue c pH vng chuyn mu: 6 7,6

c. Dng cu, ha cht:

d. Tin hnh:
- Ly 5ml nc cn kim tra cho vo ng
nghim 10 - 15ml
- ng thi ly 5ml nc ngun cng
dung tch un si lm i chng cho
vo mt ng nghim khc cng dung tch.
Cho vo mi ng nghim ni trn 1- 2 git
phenolphtalein 1% v quan st.

. nh gi:
- Kt qu ng mu i chng (cha un
si) vn khng mu nh c, cn ng mu
nc kim tra s c mu hng ti sm
ty theo ngun nc c t hay nhiu mui
bicacbonat kim hay kim th.

Ch 5: PHNG PHP PHN


TCH MT S THNH PHN
HU C TRONG THC PHM

Ni dung ch 5
1. Xc nh axt
2. Xc nh cc dng nit tn ti trong TP
3. Xc nh hm lng protein trong TP
4. Xc nh hm lng lipit trong TP

5. Xc nh mt s cht trong hp phn gluxit


6. Xc nh hm lng ca mt s vitamin
7. Xc nh hm lng cc cht hu c gy hi (Histamine, thuc bo
v thc vt, khng sinh, cc ha cht hu c gy hi khc)

Cu hi chun b ch 5
1. Phng php xc nh hm lng axit,
m, protein, lipit, gluxit, vitamin, cc cht
hu c gy hi?

2. u, nhc im ca tng phng php


kim nghim. Cc sai s c th xy ra v
cch khc phc cc sai s ?

5.1. XAC NH HAM LNG AXIT


TRONG THC PHAM

5.1.1. Khai quat ve o chua cua thc pham

chua?

5.1.1. Khai quat ve o chua cua thc pham

Ngun gc

C sn
C

B sung
sung
B

Hnh thnh
trong ch bin

5.1.1. Khai quat ve o chua cua thc pham

Y ngha cua viec xac nh o chua:

Gi tr
thc phm

Mc
h hng

5.1.1. Khai quat ve o chua cua thc pham


Phn loi:

+ o axit toan phan?


+ o axit de bay hi?
+ o axit co nh?

+ o axit t do cua dau m?

Chu y: Tuy loai thc pham quy ve tng axit ac


trng cua thc pham o e tnh.
- Neu thc pham la sa quy ve axit lactic: K = 0,009
(CH3CHOH-COOH)

- Trai cay, siro, nuc ngot: quy ve a.citric: K = 0,0064


(C6H8O7: co 3 goc axit), hoac quy ve a. malic (C4H6O5:co
2 goc axit), K = 0,0067.
- Dau an quy ve axit oleic (C16H33COOH), K = 0,0282.
- M ong vat: quy ve a. stearic (C16H35COOH), K =

0,0284
- Dam, nc mam quy ve a. axetic (CH3COOH), K = 0,006.

5.1.2. Xc nh hm lng axit ton phn


Nguyn l:
Tin hnh:

Mau

Chun b mu

Chun bng
NaOH 0,1N, ch th
phenolphtalein 1%

Hm lng axit
ton phn

5.1.2. Xc nh hm lng axit ton phn


Chun b mu

Mu rn

Mu lng

5.1.2. Xc nh hm lng axit ton phn


Mau

Chun b mu

Chun bng
NaOH 0,1N, ch th
phenolphtalein 1%

Tnh ket qu:


A k f 100
X a1 1 P (%)

Xa

A k f 1000

(mg / l )
1
V

Hm lng axit
ton phn

5.1.3. Xc nh hm lng d bay hi


Mu
Chng ct axit d bay hi

Chun bng NaOH 0,1 N


c VNaOH 0,1N tiu tn
Tnh kt qu

Xa

A 0,006 100
(%)
P

Thiet b chng cat axt

5.1.3 Xc nh axit d bay hi


Ch
Axit d bay
hi c quy
v axit
axetic,
k=0,006

Loi b CO2
v SO2

5.1.3. Xc nh hm lng axit c nh


Xc =Xa1 Xa2

5.1.4. Xc nh hm lng axit bo t


do ca du m
Mu

Ha tan cht bo
bng ete/cn

Kt qu:

100
X ab A k P (%).

Chun axit bo t do
bng KOH 0,1 N
(pha trong cn)

c th tch kim
t/c tiu tn

Kt qu

5.2. XAC NH HAM LNG


PROTEIN TRONG THC PHAM

5.2. XAC NH HAM LNG


PROTEIN TRONG THC PHAM

Cac phng phap xac nh protein?pp-protein.doc

Method for protein determination

Kjeldahl method
Dumas method (N combustion)
Infrared spectroscopy
Biuret method
Lowry method
Bradford method
Bicinchoninic acid method
Ultraviolet 280 nm Absorption method
Other methods
Source: Nielsen, S. Suzanne, 2010, Food analysis, Springer

5.2. XAC NH HAM LNG PROTEIN


TRONG THC PHAM
5.2.1. Xc nh nit tng qut bng phng phap Kjeldahl

5.2.2. Xc nh hm lng protein tht s trong thc phm

5.2.1. Xc nh nit tng qut bng


phng phap Kjeldahl

Lch s? Page 136- Lich su.docx


Johann Kjeldahl, 1883
Tip tc cp nht, pht trin bi AOAC Association of Official Analytical Chemists (Hip hi cc nh ho
phn tch chnh thng)

5.2.1. Xc nh nit tng qut bng phng phap Kjeldahl

C ch

V ch

5.2.1. Xc nh nit tng qut bng phng phap Kjeldahl

Cac bc xac nh protein bang phng phap Kjeldahl:


Tach chiet va ket tua protein
Xac nh ham lng nit tong so bang phng phap Kjeldahl
Tnh ket qua:

Protein = N.F
Ch :
F = 6,25 (trng, thuy san va cac san pham nguon goc ong
vat)
F = 6,38 (cac san pham t sa)
F = 6,95 (lua m va cac che pham)
F = 6,00 (ngo, ai mach)
F= 5,7 (au o, kho lac)

a. Nguyen ly cua phng phap Kjeldahl

Mau

VCH
(NH4)2SO4

NaOH
ac

NH3

H2SO4/xt

H2SO4t/c

H2SO4t/c d

NaOH t/c

Cac phan ng nh sau:


R1 - CH - CO NH CH R2 + H2SO4

COOH
NH2

Xt, to

(NH4)2SO4 + CO2 + H2O + SO2

(NH4)2SO4 + 2NaOHac

Na2SO4 + 2NH3 + 2H2O

2NH3 + H2SO4d

(NH4)2SO4

NaOH + H2SO4con d

Na2SO4 + 2H2O

Ch

(AOAC Method 991.20)

b. Dung cu, vat lieu va thuoc th

Thiet b chng cat n gian

Thit b chng ct Parnas

Thiet b chng cat ban t ong

Thiet b vo c hoa mau

Thiet b chng cat ban t ong

Thiet b chuan o

Hoa chat, thuoc th?

Ha cht
- Dung dch H2SO4 (98%, d=1,84)
- Hn hp xc tc c bit CuSO4 : K2SO4 = 3,5:50
- Dung dch NaOH 30-50%
- Dung dch H2SO4 0,1N
- Dung dch NaOH 0,1N
- Phenolphtalein 1%
- Metyl 0,1% trong cn 900

(Hoc HCl 0,1 N, H3BO3 bo ha c pH = 5.5, Ch


th Tashiro: metyl 0,1%, metyl xanh 1%)

Cac bc tien hanh


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Vo c hoa mau
Suc ra thiet b
Chuan b coc hng
Chng cat
Chuan o

Bc 1: Vo c hoa mau?

Bc 1: V c ha mu
Mu ?

Bnh Kjeldahl

V c ha mu

Bc 2: Suc ra thiet b

Thit b chng ct Parnas

Suc ra thiet b

Cai at thong so

Thi gian

Program Number 0
Addition H3BO3

0s

Addition H2O

13s

Addition NaOH

0s

Reaction time

0s

Destilation time

7min

Steam power

100%

Suction time

20s

Bc 3: Chuan b coc hng?

Bc 4: Chng cat

Cai at thong so

Thi gian

Program Number 1
Addition H3BO3

6s

Addition H2O

2s

Addition NaOH

5s

Reaction time

10s

Destilation time

7min

Steam power

80%

Suction time

25s

Bc 5: Chuan o

Bang tay?

Bang may
chuan o?

Tnh ket qua

tp

0,0014 A B 100

N tp

(%)

0,0014 A B F 1000
V

(gN/lt)

Trong o:

A: la so ml dd H2SO4 0,1N dung trong coc hng.


B: la so ml dd NaOH 0,1N dung trong chuan o.
P: la trong lng mau (g)
V : la the tch mau th (ml)
F : la he so pha loang mau
0,0014: la so g Nit tng ng vi 1ml dd H2SO4 0,1N

Bi tp
Tnh kt qu?

Khi dng H3BO3 trong cc hng?

U NHC IEM CUA PHNG PHAP KJELDAHL

u iem?

Nhc iem?

5.2.2. Xc nh hm lng protein


tht s trong thc phm

5.2.2 XC NH HM LNG PROTEIN


THT S TRONG THC PHM

Cc phng php a lng


Cc phng php bn vi lng
Cc phng php vi lng

A. CC PHNG PHP A LNG


(Khi hm lng Protein ln)

Protein

Ho tan v chit
= nc ct nng

Dd cha Pr ho tan

kt ta = h/c c bit
Kt ta Protein
nh lng Nit
bng phng php Kjeldahl

A.Cac phng phap a lng


A.1. Phng phap ket tua bang CuSO4
A.2. Phng phap ket tua bang axit tricloaxetic
(CCl3-COOH)

A.3.Phng phap ket tua bang Tanin

B.Cac phng phap ban vi lng:


Ap dung vi thc pham co protein mc trung
bnh. VD: bot m, gao, bap,
B.1. Phng phap dung tanin

B.2. Dung axit metaphotphoric

C.Phng phap vi lng

C.1.Phng phap so mau Gornall


Phng phap nay dung e xac nh ham lng
protein rat nho.
* Nguyen ly: Trong moi trng kiem, protein tac
dung vi ion Cu2+ tao ra phc Biure (mau tm),
cng o mau tm phu thuoc vao ham lng
protein.
So mau vi dung dch protein chuan roi suy ra ham
lng protein trong mau thong qua o th chuan a
lam.
* Dung cu, hoa chat

* nh lng
Xay dng bieu o mau:
+ Pha loang cac dung dch protein mau co nong o
th nh sau: 1%, 1,5%, 2%, 2,5%, 3%, 3,5%,
+ Cho vao 12 ong: moi ong 0,1 ml dung dch chuan
tren.
+ Sau o cho vao moi ong 8 ml dung dch Gornall
lac eu va e yen 30 phut, dung dch co mau xanh
vi cng o mau phu thuoc vao nong o protein
+ So mau 12 ong nay tren quang sac ke co bc
song = 550 nm. T o thiet lap c phng trnh:
D = f(C), o th co dang nh sau:

D = f(C), o th co dang nh sau:


D
f(C)
DX

CX

Vi mau trang (khong co protein: Cpr = 0%) so 0 cua o


th.
Cho mot ong nghiem giong 12 ong tren: 0,1 ml dung dch
th va 8 ml dung dch Biure, lac eu e trong 30 phut, so
mau tren quang sac ke co bc song = 550 nm, ta c gia
tr mat o quang DX. dung phng phap noi suy ta tnh c
CX.


C.2. nh lng protein bang phng phap Lowry:
* Nguyen ly:
Co the tnh ham lng protein cua mau nghien cu
da vao ng chuan cua protein va da vao phan
ng mau cua protein vi thuoc th Folin. Cng o
mau cua dung dch ty le thuan vi nong o protein.

PHNG PHP LOWRY


(XC NH HM LNG PROTEIN HO TAN)

Nguyn l
- Phn ng vi thuc th Folin-Ciocalteau
Axit amin vng thm + Folin phc cht mu xanh
tm
Cng mu ca dd t l thun nng Protein
Tnh hm lng Protein da vo ng chun

PHNG PHP LOWRY


(XC NH HM LNG PROTEIN HO TAN)
Ho cht, thit b, dng c

-My so mu
- Dung dch Protein chun(10-100g Protein/ml)
- Dung dch A: Na2CO3 2% trong NaOH 0,1N
- Dung dch B: CuSO4 1% trong Kali natri tartrat 1%
- Dung dch C: A/B = 50/1
(ch pha 20 pht trc khi dng )
- Dung dch Folin nng 0,5N

PHNG PHP LOWRY


(XC NH HM LNG PROTEIN HO TAN)

Cch tin hnh


+ 2ml dd Clc u
Cho vo 2 ng nghim:
+ ng 1: 1ml dd mu th cha Pr
yn 10
(hm lng 0,02-0,32 mg Pr)
+ 1ml Folin lc u
+ ng 2: 1ml nc ct trung tnh
yn 30

So mu
bc sng 750nm

PHNG PHP LOWRY


(XC NH HM LNG PROTEIN HO TAN)

Cch tin hnh


-Dng ng chun Protein:
Ht 1ml dung dch chun c lng protein
ln lt l 10,20,30,40,80 v 100 g vo
cc ng nghim.
Tin hnh y ht nh i vi ng th
nghim
So mu
bc sng 750nm

PHNG PHP LOWRY


(XC NH HM LNG PROTEIN HO TAN)

Tnh kt qu
Hiu s kt qu c trn my
ca ng th nghim v ng kim tra
i chiu vi th chun

D. Phng phap Dumas (phng phap ot)


Jean-Baptiste Dumas, 1831

Ngun l:
- ot chay mau (khong 0,1 0,5g) trong
lo phan ng nhiet o cao (700 -10000C).
- Nit thoat ra c o bang GC co s dung
au do dan nhiet

U NHC IEM CUA PHNG PHAP Dumas

u iem:
Khong dung hoa chat nguy hiem
Nhanh (3 phut)
T ong (150 mau/1lan)
Nhc iem:
Thiet b at
Xc nh c nit phi protein

5.3. Xac nh ham lng NH3

5.3. Xac nh ham lng NH3


-

Phng phap chng cat loi cuon bang hi nc

Phng phap Nessler

5.3.1. Phng phap chng cat loi cuon


bang hi nc
a.Nguyen ly:

Mau

Mg(OH)2

Hi nc

H2SO4t/c

NH3

H2SO4t/c d
Chuan o

NaOH t/c

Phng phap chng cat loi cuon


bang hi nc
b. Thiet b, hoa chat

Dung cu, vat lieu va thuoc th

Thiet b chng cat n gian

c.Tien hanh
1.
2.
3.
4.

Suc ra thiet b
Chuan b coc hng
Chng cat
Chuan o

Bc 1: suc ra thiet b
Suc ra thiet b:

Bc 2: chuan b coc hng


Chuan b coc hng:

Bc 3: chng cat

Ong sinh han

Coc hng

Bnh chng cat

Bc 4: Chuan o
Chuan o:

d.Tnh ket qua

X NH

A B 0,0017 100
P

N NH

A B 0,0014 100
P

(%)

(%)

5.3.2. Phng phap Nessler

*)Nguyen ly :

Hg
(NH4)2SO4 + 4K2(HgI4) + 8NaOH 2O NH2I +Na2 SO4 + 6NaI + 8KI + H2O

Hg (mau vang)

Phng phap nay la li dung phan ng sinh ra mot hp chat co mau


vang khi co s tac ong cua thuoc th Nessler va amoniac. Phan
ng xay ra nh sau:

Tuy theo lng amoniac trong mau th t hay nhieu ma mau cua
phc chat sinh ra la vang, vang nau, o,o nau

5.4. nh lng nit axit amin


-

Phng phap formol

Phng phap Pope va Stevens

PHNG PHAP SAC KY

5.4.1. nh lng nit axit amin (Naa) theo

phng phap formol

a. Nguyen ly :
R CH COOH + HCHO

NH2
R CH COOH + NaOHt/c

N = CH2

R CH COOH + H2O

N = CH2
R CH COONa + H2O

N = CH2

Nu trong mu th c mt cc mui amoni?

b. Chuan b mot so dung dch hoa chat


- Chuan b dung dch formol trung tnh: Cho vao coc (250ml):
50ml formol + 1ml phenolphtalein 1% tien hanh trung hoa
HCOOH bang NaOH 0,1N en khi xuat hien mau hong nhat
th dng lai.
- Chuan b coc mau mau (pH = 9,2): Cho vao coc (250ml) 20ml
dung dch em pH 9,2; 10ml dung dch formol trung tnh va
1ml phenolphtalein 1%. Luc nay coc mau se co mau o ti
dung e so mau vi coc chuan o.

c. Tien hanh
Them 2g BaCl2,
cho t t Ba(OH)2 bao hoa

Nghien nhuyen
mau

Them nuc cat e hoa


tan axit amin

Phenolphtalein 1%

Them 10ml dd formol


trung tnh , e lanh
tO = 5 100C
trong 10 15 phut

Loc bo ket tua phosphate


va carbonate

Lay dung dch loc,


trung ha dd lc

Chuan o bang
kiem tieu chuan
Tnh ket qua

d. Tnh ket qua :

n 0,0014 F 100

Nf
P

(%)

n: la so ml NaOH 0,1N dung trong chuan o.

P: la so gam mau th.

F: la he so pha loang.

0,0014 so g nit tng ng vi 1ml NaOH 0,1N


dung e chuan o.

5.4.2. Phng phap Pope va Stevens:

Nguyen ly
nh lng axit amin cua dung dch nghien cu can cho them vao moi
trng bazo yeu dung dch ong sulfat d trong dung dch ong photphat d
trong dung dch em borat. Muoi dong cua axit amin hoa tan tot trong dung
dch. ong photphat d c loai bo bang cach loc, sau o cho them CH 3COOH
va KI. Xac nh lng ong bang cach chuan o vi dung dch Na
2S2O3 , iot
c tach ra , phan ng xay ra nh sau:

O
COOH

HOOC

+ Cu2+

R CH
NH2

CO
CH R R CH

H 2N

OC
Cu

NH2

CH - R
H 2N

2Cu2+ +

4KI

2CuI

I2

I2

Na2S2 O3

Na2S4 O6

2NaI

Ion I - trong moi trng axit kh ion ong cua phc chat lien ket vi axit
amin va b oxy hoa thanh I 2. T ket qua cua phng trnh tren ta thay 1 ion iot
kh 1 ion ong tao nen s lien ket cua phc chat vi 2 goc axit amin. 1 ion iot
noi nhom axit amin cua axit amin. 1ml dung dch Na 2 S2O3 0,01N tng ng
vi 0,28mg nit amin.

5.4.3 PHNG PHAP SAC KY

GII THIU V PHNG PHP SC K

Khi qut v phng php sc k(PPSK)


Phn loi cc PPSK
Thit b dng trong phn tch sc k
Phng php sc k kh (GC)
Phng php sc k lng hiu nng cao
(HPLC)

KHI QUT V PHNG PHP SC K


nh ngha: Sc k l qu trnh tch lin tc
tng vi phn hn hp cc cht do s phn
b khng ng u ca chng gia pha tnh
v pha ng khi cho pha ng i xuyn qua
pha tnh.
- Pha tnh: Lp cht bt ng trng thi
rn hoc tt lng tm trn cht mang rn
- Pha ng: Cht lng hoc cht kh c kh
nng di ng

KHI QUT V PHNG PHP SC K

SK cn l PP nh tnh
v nh lng mt hn hp
nhiu cu t

KHI QUT V PHNG PHP SC K


Phn tch nh tnh: nh tnh mu bng
cch so snh thi gian lu gia cc cu t
v cc chun.
Phn tch nh lng: So snh chiu cao
hoc din tch cc peak c trng cho cu
t mu vi 1 hoc nhiu chun

PHN LOI
SC K

SC K KH
KH-LNG
PHN B

KH-RN
HP PH

SC K LNG

LNG-LNG
PHN B

LNG-RN
HP PH

TRAO I ION LC GEN

SC K LNG
SC K KH
10

1 mill

1000

Trng lng phn t

SK HP PH

b mt

*
*
*
*
*
Dung mi
*
*
*
* Active sites
*
Mu

SK LC GEN

THIT B
B NP MU
B np mu phi cho php thu nhn chnh
xc lng mu a vo ct sc k vi
lp li cao.
Mu thng c bm bng cc
xylanh(syringe) c th tch thay i t 1/10
n vi chc l

THIT B
CT SC K
Qu trnh tch thng c thc hin
trong cc ct sc k rt a dng v vt liu
ch to, hnh dng v kch thc.
Ct sc k l ni quyt nh thi gian lu
mu

THIT B
U D
C tc dng pht hin s thay i thnh phn
cc cht i qua ct thng qua cc ch tiu
nh:
- dn in
- dn nhit
- Ch s khc x
- Khi lng
cu t c tch

Chuyn thnh
tn hiu in

Vo
thit
b x
l

SC K KH
NG DNG

- Tch, xc nh cu trc,
nghin cu cc thng s ho
l,..
- Phn tch cc loI thc phm
nh ru, bia, b, sa, ng,
v cc ch tiu ho hc mi
trng

SC K LNG HIU NNG CAO

SC K LNG HIU NNG CAO


NG DNG

Tch cc axit amin,


axit nucleic,
vitamin, gluxit, cc
cht bo v thc
vt,.

My sc k kh

My sc k lng cao p

5.5. XAC NH HAM LNG LIPIT

Cac phng phap xac nh ham lng lipit:


Phng phap Soxhlet- Xac nh lipit t do

Phng phap Weibull Stoldt Xac nh lipit toan phan


Phng phap Adam Rose- Gottlieb Xac nh nhanh
lipit trong thc pham long
Phng phap Gerber nh lng b trong sa
Phng phap Bligh Dyer/ Folch Chiet rut toan bo
lipit bang cach s dung chloroform/methanol

5.5.1. nh lng lipit t do bang phng


phap Soxhlet

5.5.1. nh lng lipit t do bang phng phap


Soxhlet
a. Nguyen ly

Mau

Chiet rut lipit


t do bang
ete nong
trong thit b

Lam bay
hi het ete

Soxhlet

Can cht
bo cn li

b. Thiet b, dung cu, hoa chat


Thiet b Soxlet
ng sinh hn

Dung cu?
Tr chit

Hoa chat?

Xi-phng ln

Xi-phng
nh

Bp cch thy

Bnh cu
cha dung
mi

He thong chiet tinh theo Soxhlet

c. Tien hanh
Chuan b mau

Goi mau
Chiet rut lipid
Lam bay hi ete

Can

c. Tien hanh
Chuan b mau?

Goi mau?

d. Tnh ket qua


Ham lng lipid t do tnh theo %:
XL

A B x100
%

5.5.2. nh lng lipit toan phan (Theo


Weibull - Stoldt)

5.5.2. nh lng lipid toan phan (Theo


Weibull - Stoldt)

a. Nguyen ly :
Mau

Thuy phan lipid


bang HCl/con

Lipid t do

Chiet rut toan


bo lipid bng
thit b Soxhlet

b. Thiet b, dung cu, hoa chat


Thiet b Soxlet
Dung cu?
Hoa chat?

c. Tien hanh
Mau
Thuy phan lipid bang HCl/con
Loc

Lam kho mau


Goi mau
Xac nh lipid theo pp Soxhlet

d. Tnh ket qua


Ham lng lipid toan phan tnh theo %:
XL

A B x100
%

5.5.3. Phng phap Adam Rose Gottlieb (xac


nh nhanh lipid trong thc pham long)

5.5.3. Phng phap Adam Rose Gottlieb


a. Nguyen ly :

Thc pham long


/amoniac- con

Chiet xuat lipid


bang ete etylic va
ete dau hoa

e bay hi het
ete

Can

b. Thiet b, dung cu, hoa chat


Dung cu?

Hoa chat?

Pheu loc

Pheu chiet

- Amoniac?link\AMONIAC.doc
- Con ?
- Ete etylic?
- Ete dau hoa?

c.Tin hanh
Mau
Them con/amoniac + Ch th mu + ete etylic + lac manh
Tach thanh 2 lp?

Lay lp tren va bo sung ete dau hoa


Tach thanh 2 lp?

Lay lp tren
Lam bay hi het ete
Say

Can

.
c. Tnh ket qua
Ham lng chat beo tnh theo :
X

P P'x100 %
G

5.5.4. Phng phap Gerber nh


lng b trong sa
- Ong Gerber co the tch 22ml
- C 1 vach tren ong Gerber = 1g b/lit sa

- Cho 10ml H2SO4 vo


ng Gerber
- 11ml sa chy dc theo
thnh ng
- 1ml cn amylic

5.5.4. Phng phap Gerber nh


lng b trong sa
Lc ng Gerber (
cha mu, axit, cn)
cho casein tan ht

t ng Gerber
trong ni cch
thy 800C/ 5 pht
Ly tm 1000-1200
vng/pht trong 5
pht

c kt qu nhanh
C 1 vach tren ong Gerber = 1g b/lit sa

t ng Gerber
trong ni cch
thy 65 -700C/
5 pht

5.5.5. Phng phap Bligh Dyer/ Folch


Chiet rut toan bo lipit bang cach s dung
chloroform/methanol

Mau

b.Tin hanh

Xay nhuyen
Them nc cat + methanol+chloroform+ 0,1ml BHT
Them NaCl 0,9%
Tach thanh 2 lp
Lay lp di va bo sung methanol/ e lanh qua em

Co quay chan khong


Thoi kh tr

Say

Can

Thit b c quay chn khng

.
c. Tnh ket qu link\Bligh- Dyer.doc
Ham lng chat beo tnh theo :

P P'x100
%

5.6. XAC NH HAM LNG GLUXIT

5.6. XC NH HM LNG
GLUXIT
5.6.1 nh lng Gluxit bng phng php ho
hc
1, Xc nh ng kh bng phng php Bectran
2, Xc nh ng kh bng phng php Lane-Eynon

5.6.2 nh lng Gluxit bng phng php so


mu
1, Xc nh cc hexoza bng phng php Anthrone

Xc nh ng kh bng
phng php Bectrand
Khi qut chung
Gluxit l cc hp cht hu c c cu to
t cc nguyn t C, H v O.
ng kh?
ng khng kh?
Gii hn pht hin: 1-40 mg

Xc nh ng kh bng
phng php Bectrand
Nguyn l
ng kh
Cu(OH)2
Cu2O
mt kim
Hn hp Fehling
- Fehling A: CuSO4
- Fehling B: Kali natri tartrat & NaOH
* Da vo bng ng nghch chuyn

Xc nh ng kh bng
phng php Bectrand
Cch tin hnh
b1: Chun b dung dch th
- Cn Pg mu( chun b) vo bm dung tch
500ml trng dng c bng nc ct ri
chuyn c vo bnh.
- Trung ho axit hu c trong TP bng NaOH
10% ti pH=7
- un cch thu 800C/15(lc khi un)
ngui n nhit phng kh tp cht
thm nc ct 500ml lc thu dch lc

Xc nh ng kh bng
phng php Bectrand
Cch tin hnh
- Xc nh hm lng ng kh
10-20 ml hn hp Fehling
+ 10 ml dung dch mu th (0,840mg gluxit)

un si

gi
nhit si
trong 2

Xc nh ng kh bng
phng php Bectrand

Trong qu trnh un

Sau khi un

- Nhc bnh ra khi bp. nghing cho kt ta


Cu2O lng xung
- Dung dch bn trn lp cn phi c mu ca
xanh ca ng(II) hydroxit (nu l mu vng lc
hoc vng nu?)
RCHO + 2Cu(OH)2
RCOOH + Cu2O + 2H2O

Sau khi un

Sau khi lng

Xc nh ng kh bng
phng php Bectrand
- Lc dung dch qua phu lc G4 ca h
thng bnh lc chn khng Busner.
- Dng nc ct si ra kt ta nhiu ln

Trc khi ra

Sau khi ra

Xc nh ng kh bng
phng php Bectrand
Ho tan kt ta Cu2O trn phu vo bnh nn bng
cch cho lng nh dung dch Fe2(SO4)2 5% trong
mi trng axit
Cu2O + Fe2(SO4)3 + H2SO4 2CuSO4 + H2O + 2FeSO4 (2)

Cu2O sau khi ra

Sau phn ng

Xc nh ng kh bng
phng php Bectrand

Trc khi
chun

im tng
Bt u
ng
chuyn mu
Lay bnh loc ra va chuan o dung dch sat (II) hnh thanh bang
dung dch KMnO4 0,1N cho en khi xuat hien mau hong nhat
vng ben trong 15 giay. oc so ml KMnO4 0,1N a dung va em
tra bang e co lng ng glucoza, lactoza, maltoza hoac
ng nghch chuyen tuy theo yeu cau.

Xc nh ng kh bng
phng php Bectrand
Tnh kt qu
G1*100 * F
XK =
P*1000

(%)

Trong :
G1: Lng Glucose tra theo bng Bertrand (g)
F: H s pha long
P: Khi lng mu (g)

Xc nh ng kh bng
phng php Bectrand
Ch
HCl
Saccarose
700C/15

Tinh bt

HCl
1000C/3h

Glucose + Frutose

Glucose

Xc nh ng kh bng
phng php Bectrand
Ch
Hm lng saccarose hay tinh bt c
tnh: Xsaccarose = Xdk*0,95
Xtinh bt = Xdk*0,9

5.6.2. Xac nh ham lng ng kh


theo phng phap Graxianop
(phng phap Ferixianua kali)

5.6.3. Xac nh ham lng ng kh


theo phng phap Lane - Fynon:

5.7. XC NH HM LNG CC VITAMIN

5.8. Xc nh cc cht hu c gy hi

- Ure
Khng sinh
Histamin

My sc k kh

My sc k lng cao p

PHNG PHAP NH TNH URE


28 TCN 184:2003

A. Nguyen tac:
Mau san pham c chiet vi nc. Ure
co trong dch chiet phan ng vi thuoc
th p-dimetylaminobenzaldehyt tao phc
mau vang chanh ac trng.
Gii han xac nh: 0,5%

Thit b, dng c:
- Cn phn tch, chnh xc 0,1 mg.
- Giy lc Whatman s 40.
- Bp in.
- My nghin ng th.
- Bnh tam gic dung tch 50 ml.
- a thu tinh.
- Mt knh ng h.

* Ha cht, THUC TH
Ho cht phi l loi tinh khit c s dng phn tch
- p-imetylaminobenzalehyt (DMAB)
- Etanol, 95%.
- HCl m c1,2 M.
Thuc th :
- Dung dch p-imetylaminobenzalehyt (DMAB): ha tan 8,00
g DMAB trong 500 ml etanol ri thm 50 ml axit clohyric
1,2M . Bo qun dung dch ni trnh nh sng. Dung dch
s dng c trong vng 1 thng. Pha long dung dch 10
ln trc khi s dng v ch s dng trong ngy.

d. Phng php tin hnh


- Chun b mu
ng nht khong 200 g mu thy sn bng my nghin ng th
Cn 25 g mu xay nghin a vo bnh tam gic dung tch 50 ml. Thm 25
ml nc ct ri khuy trn u bng a thu tinh. Sau , y ming bnh
bng mt knh ng h.
un t t bnh tam gic trn bp in cho n si. Ch , khi un phi lc
u. Lm ngui mu ri dng giy lc Whatman lc ly dch trong.
- Tin hnh:
Nh 5 - 6 git dch mu vo trong ng nghim cha 5 ml dung dch thuc th
ur
un nng dung dch trong 1 pht.
Quan st mu dung dch. Tin hnh c kt qu.

. c kt qu
Kt lun mu c ur nu mu dung dch trong ng nghim chuyn sang mu
vng chanh m. Nng ca ur trong mu cng cao th mu vng ca
dung dch cng m.

DANH MC HO CHT, KHNG SINH CM S


DNG TRONG SN XUT, KINH DOANH THY SN?

My sc k kh

My sc k lng cao p

Chloramphenicol (CAP)
-c phan lap t Streptomyces venezuelae
(1940's)
- Khang sinh dien rong- ngan can s tong hp chat khang sinh cua vi khuan gram dng va
gram am.
- Gay oc cho con ngi.
- Cac anh hng khong d oan c cua lieu
lng tren cac oi tng khac nhau.

CAC PHNG PHAP KIEM D LNG CAP


Phng phap sac ky kh vi au do bat gi ien t ECD(GCECD)(gii han xac nh 0,3ppb)
Phng phap sac ky long (LC) s dung au do UV(GHX:
5-10ppb)
Phng phap sac ky s dung quang pho khoi (GC-MS)(
GHX: 1ppb)
LC-MS (GHX:0,5ppb)
Phng phap ELISA (Veratox va Ridascreen) (GHX: pptppb)
Phng phap LC/MS/MS (GHX:0,08ppb)

CAC SAN PHAM THNG MAI E


KIEM D LNG CAP
Ten

o nhay

Thi gian xac nh

Nha cung cap

Charm II Amphenicol

0.5 ppb

22 phu t

Charm II Chloramphenicol

0,15 ppb

22 phu t

Gerard Ruth
659 Andover St.
Lawrence, MA 01843
Phone: 800/343-2170; 978/687-9200
E-mail: info@charm.com
Web: www.charm.com
nt

Chlorameter-(EIA)

0,1e n 10

Ridascreen

ppt

2 gi 30 phu t

2 ppb (ng per


gram).

90 phu t

Claver Bundac
1105 #F North Golden Springs Dr.
Diamond Bar, CA 91765
Phone: 800/674-8648 #4282; 909/396-0244
E-mail: cb4biomedx@aol.com

Veratox

4,5 gi

Ridascreen Chloramphenicol(ELISA)

ChloraQuant (EIA

0,1,10 va 50
ppb

Neogen Corporation
620 Lesher Place
Lansing MI 48912 USA
Telephone: 517/ 372 9200
Fax: 517/ 372 2006
Sean Tinkey
7950 US 27 South
Marshall, MI 49068
Phone: 877/789-3033
E-mail: sales@r-biopharm.com
Web: www.r-biopharm.com/food/antibiotic/chloram.h
Claver Bundac
1105 #F North Golden Springs Dr.
Diamond Bar, CA 91765
Phone: 800/674-8648 #4282; 909/396-0244
E-mail: cb4biomedx@aol.com

XAC NH D LNG NITROFURAN


Nitrofuran la khang sinh tong hp pho rong.
Nitrofuran:
Furazolidone (metabolite: 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone = AOZ)
Furaltadone (metabolite: 3-amino-5- morpholinomethyl-2-oxazolidinone = AMOZ)
Nitrofurantoin (metabolite: 1- aminohydantoin = AHD)
Nitrofurazone (metabolite: semicarbazide = SEM).
Xac nh d lng nitrofuran phai da vao cac chat
chuyen hoa cua nitrofuran goc v:
Nitrofuran goc nhanh chong b chuyen hoa, khong the xac nh c
sau khi x ly.
Cac chat chuyen hoa t nitrofural goc ton tai lau sau khi x ly.

CAC PHNG PHAP XAC NH D LNG


Furaltadone (AMOZ )
Ky thuat LC-UV
Ky thuat LC-MS
Ky thuat LC-MS/MS
Gii han xac nh: 0,5g/kg
Phng phap mien dch dung
enzym(EIA)
Gii han xac nh: 200ppt
Thi gian u: 1 gi 30 phut
May oc (450nm)

CAC PHNG PHAP XAC NH HISTAMIN


Methods for determination of histamine

Cac phng phap chnh thc


cua AOAC:
Phng phap hoa sinh (AOAC,
1995a)
Phng phap hoa hoc (AOAC,
1995b)
Phng phap o huynh quang
(AOAC,1995c)

CAC PHNG PHAP XAC NH


HISTAMINE KHAC A C
CONG BO

- Sac ky ban mong (Lieber & Taylor, 1978). Th


bang que nhung(Hall, 1995).
- Xac nh histamine bang ky thuat ien chuyen
mao dan(Mopper va Sciacchitano, 1993)
- Phng phap da tren cam bien oxy(Ohashi,
1994).
- Phng phap HPLC (Yen va Hsieh, 1991)
- Phng phap enzym (phng phap th s bo)
(Lerke,1983)

CAC YEU CAU OI VI PHNG


PHAP TH NHANH HISTAMIN
Mot phng phap kiem histamine
can:
Nhanh
De s dung
Cho ket qua chnh xac
Re
Nhay

HAN CHE CUA CAC TEST KIT E KIEM


TRA NHANH HISTAMIN

Cac test kit thng mai ch c


xem la phep th s bo trong
cong nghiep ca.

Ket qua kiem histamine (ppm)


Histamine results (ppm) from test kits
Mau

AOAC
histamine

Neogen
Agrimetre II

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

3,0
3,0
2,5
67,9
58,1
190
300
0,2
2,0
8,8
2,2
19,7
300
0,9
158

10
0
4
45
75
>100
>100
0
0
20
10
30
>100
20
>100

Neogen
ALERT
-5 0 +5
(050ppm)
-5
-5
-5
+1
+1
+5
+5
-5
-5
-5
-5
-5
+5
-5
+5

Neogen
Veratox

2,6
2,5
8,4
64
66
>100
>100
5,5
2,5
9,4
3,6
31
>100
2,6
>100

Immunot
ech
Histamin
e
1
0,1
0,8
71,7
72,6
309
372
0,9
0,8
17,1
2,3
43,6
366
1,0
191

IDR KI-HTM

IDR K3HTM

22,4
24,4
6,4
60,7
95,7
323
435
0
1,7
17,2
5,0
35,6
455
2,1
323

<50
<50
<50
=50
=50
>50
>50
<50
<50
<50
<50
<50
>50
<50
>50

SO SANH CAC TEST KIT


General comparison of test kit
Neogen
Agrimetre
II
Xac nh
histamine
<50ppm
Xac nh
histamine
50ppm
Chiet rut
Loc
oc ket
qua

Neogen
Veratox

Immunotech
Histamine

IDR KI-HTM IDR K3-HTM

co

Neogen
ALERT
-5 0 +5
(050ppm)
co

co

co

co

co

co

co

co

co

co

co

nc
de
May Agrimetre

nc
de
So sanh mau
bang mat hoac
oc tren quang
sac ke bc
song 650nm

nc
de
So sanh mau
bang mat hoac
oc tren quang
sac ke bc
song 650 nm

nc
de
oc tren quang
sac ke bc
song 405nm

0,03%HCl
kho
So mau bang
mat

0,03%HCl
kho
oc tren quang
sac ke bc
song 405nm

SO SANH CAC TEST KIT


General comparison of test kit

Neogen
Agrimetre
II

Neogen
Neogen
ALERT
Veratox
-5 0 +5
(050ppm)
n gian
Mau sac de
nha n bie t
bang ma t

Cac yeu
cau

n gian

Gia
thanha

Kho ng co so $5.31/test
$5.11/test
lie u
$7.00 /testb $5.99/testb

Immunotec IDR KI-HTM


h Histamine

IDR K3-HTM

Thi gian
chua n b
hoa cha t

Nhieu cong oan, s


dung 4 o ng nha.
Kho ng co h ng da n
pha dung dch e m va
dung dch pha loang.

$6.00/test

Nhieu cong
oa n, phai s
dung 4 o ng
nh a. Dung
dch e m c
cung ca p
$3.28/test

$1.94/test

a- Gia cho moi mau da tren viec s dung toan bo kit cung mot luc vi mot bo
chuan. Gia thanh se tang len neu moi lan xac nh ch s dung mot phan cua test
kit v moi lan xac nh phai dung het mot bo chuan. Gia cua moi lan th se giam
neu test kt c mua vi so lng ln.
b- Gia cho moi test bao gom ca kit chiet xuat.

SO SANH CAC TEST KIT


General comparison of test kit

Neogen
Neogen
Agrimetre II ALERT
-5 0 +5
(050ppm)
10 ra,
Thi 0
10 dng
gian u
Chai nho
Can
Bo
pipette
sung giot, can
100l
hoa pipette
chat 100l

Neogen
Veratox

Immunotech IDR KIHistamine HTM

IDR K3HTM

10 ra, 10
dng
Can pipette
100l

30 ra, 30
dng
Can nhieu
loai pipette
khac nhau

60 ra,
30dng
Can pipette
25,50l

30 ra, 10
dng
Chai nho
giot, pipette
50l

Ch 6: Kim nghim nguyn liu v


mt s sn phm thc phm

Ch 6: Kim nghim nguyn


liu v mt s sn phm thc
phm
6.1. Kim nghim mt s nguyn liu thc phm
6. 2. Kim nghim mt s nguyn liu ph dng trong
ch bin thc phm
6.3. Kim nghim mt s sn phm thc phm

Cu hi chun b - ch 6
Phng php kim nghim nguyn liu ph:
nc, nc , mui n, gia v?
Phng php kim nghim nguyn liu thc
phm?
Phng php kim nghim sn phm thc
phm

6.1. Kim nghim nguyn liu thy sn

6.2. Kim nghim cac nguyn liu


ph dng trong che bien thc
pham
6.2.1.Kiem nghiem nc va nc a.

A. Kiem nghiem nc va nc a
* Lay mau.
a- Lay mau nc.
Neu lay mau nc t nguon nc may, phai m cho
voi chay 5 phut, roi sau o mi lay nc cho vao
bnh cha mau.
Neu lay mau nc gieng, th dung gau muc, tha nhe
gau chm gia tang nc muc len.
Neu lay mau nc t ao, ho, song ngoi: th phai lay
gia nguon nc, vi o sau thch hp

b- Lay mau nc a.
Neu lay mau ni san xuat nc a th
phai lay nhieu cay khac nhau, moi
cay a lay nhieu v tr khac nhau.
Neu lay a cuc kho, be th phai lay
nhieu iem co cuc to, cuc nho, sau o
ap vun tron eu roi mi cho vao bnh
cha.

Kiem nghiem nc.

Kiem nghiem nc
a- Kiem nghiem o trong va o uc.

b- Xac nh lng tieu hao oxygen.


Lng tieu hao oxy la so mg oxy hoac so mg chat oxy
hoa manh (KMnO4) can thiet e tac dung het vi cac
chat kh co trong 1 lt nc trong nhng ieu kien
nhat nh.
Chat kh trong nc gom cac chat vo c va cac chat
hu c, tuy nhien vi nguon nc thien nhien th
thng chat kh chu yeu la chat hu c.

Nguyen ly:

Tien hanh:

Tnh ket qua:


X

(V 1 * N 1 V 2 * N 2) * 32 *1000

hoac:

(V 1 * N 1 V 2 * N 2) * 8 *1000
A

(mg KMnO4/lit)

(mg O2/lit)

trong o:+ V1, N1: the tch (ml) va nong o KMnO4.


+ V2, N2: the tch (ml) va nong o H2C2O4.
+ A- the tch mau (gr)
+ 32 ng lng gram cua KMnO4.
+ 8- ng lng gram cua oxy.

c- Xac nh NH3.
d- Xac nh H2S.

e- Xac nh NO-2.
f- Xac nh NO-3.
g- Xac nh Cl2 d.

h- Xac nh o cng cua nc.

h- Xac nh o cng cua nc.


o cng cua nc la ham lng ion kim loai co trong dung
dch va c ac trng bang ham lng ion Ca2+,Mg2+ co
trong nc.

o cng cua nc chia lam 2 loai: o cng tam


thi va o cng vnh cu
h1. Xac nh o cng tam thi.
o cng tam thi cua nc la do cac muoi bicacbonat canxi

Ca(HCO3)2 va bicacbonat magie Mg(HCO3)2 gay ra.

S d goi la o cng tam thi, v ta co the loai o cng tam thi


bang cach un soi.
Ca(HCO3)2
CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O.
Mg(HCO3)2
MgCO3 + CO2 + H2O.

Nguyen ly: dung HClTC tac dung vi muoi


bicacbonat, chuyen thanh muoi clorua, t lng
HCl tieu hao khi chuan o, ta suy ra o cng tam
thi.
HCl + Ca(HCO3)2 = CaCl2 + 2CO2 + H2O.
HCl + Mg(HCO3)2 = MgCl2 + 2CO2 + H2O.
Tien hanh:

Tnh ket qua:


o cng tam thi cua nc c xac nh nh sau:

V * N * 28 *1000
1
X
*
A
10

(o c)

trong o:
+ V,N: the tch va nong o dung dch HCl a dung
+ A- the tch mau th em th nghiem .
+28- so mg CaO tng ng vi 1 ml HCl 0,1N.
+ 1/10- he so quy oi mg CaO ra o.

Tuy nhien???
Na2 CO3 + 2HCl = 2NaCl + H2O + CO2.
NaHCO3 + HCl = NaCl + H2O + CO2
Vay o cng tam thi thc s cua mau nc:

Vay o cng tam thi thc s cua mau nc:


X

(V V 1) * N * 28 *1000
A

1
10

(o c)

trong o: + V the tch HCl 0,1 N tieu hao khi chuan o mau
khong un soi.
+ V1 - the tch HCl 0,1 N tieu hao khi chuan o mau co un
soi va loc

h2. Xac nh o cng tong cong.

Nguyen ly:
Cac phan ng:
CaCl2 + Na2CO3 = CaCO3 + 2NaCl.
MgCl2 + 2NaOH = Mg(OH)2 + 2NaCl.
4HCl + 2NaOH + Na2CO3 = 4NaCl + 3H2O + CO2.

Tien hanh:

o cng tong cong c xac nh theo cong thc:


X

( N 1V 1 f *V 2 * N 2) * 28 *1000
A

1
10

(o c)

trong o:
+ V1, N1 the tch va nong o hon hp Na2CO3
va NaOH a dung.
+ V2, N2 - the tch va nong o HCl a dung.
+ f- he so pha loang mau
+ A- the tch mau em th nghiem (ml).

h3. o cng vnh cu.


La do cac muoi Canxi va Magie hoa tan
trong nc tao thanh, ma khong b ket tua
bi cac tac ong cua nhiet o, tc la o
cng vnh cu ch bao gom cac loai muoi
Sunfat, Clorua, Nitrat cua Canxi va
Magie.
Nh vay ta co the xac nh o cng vnh
cu bang cach :
XVC = XTC - XTT (o c)***

6.2.2. Kiem nghiem muoi an

a- Kiem nghiem cam quan.


+ mau.
+ mui.
+ v.
+ trang thai.
b- Kiem nghiem hoa hoc.
+ Xac nh o am.
+ Xac nh chat khong tan trong nc.
+ Xac nh lng ion Cl-.
+ Xac nh lng ion SO42-.

+ Xac nh lng ion SO42-.


Nguyen ly: dung BaCl2 e ket tua goc SO42- di dang sunfat bari
BaSO4, em loc lay ket tua, rua sach, nung va can khoi lng
, t o tnh ra ham lng sunfat SO42BaCl2 + Na2SO4
=
BaSO4
+ 2NaCl.

Tien hanh:

Ket qua:

( A B) * f * 0,4115 *100
X SO24
m

(%)

trong o:
+ A- khoi lng cua chen nung va tro (BaSO4 kt) _ g.
+ B- Khoi lng chen nung (g).
+ f- he so pha loang mau.
+ m- khoi lng mau em th nghiem (g).
+ 0,4115- so gr SO42- co trong 1g muoi BaSO4.

2+
Ca

+ Xac nh ion
+ Xac nh ion Mg2+
+ Xac nh ion K+

6.3. Kiem nghiem mot so san pham


thc pham

6.3. Kiem nghiem cac san pham thc pham


Kim nghim nc mm, mm tm (mm ruc), c kh
Kim nghim sn phm ng lnh

Kiem nghiem surimi


Kim nghim hp thnh phm
Kim nghim cc sn phm ch bin t sa
Kim nghim du, m
Kim nghim ru, bia, nc gii kht
Kim nghim ch, caf, cacao

6.3. Kiem nghiem cac san pham thc pham

6. 3.1. Kim nghim nc mm, mm tom


(mm ruc), ca kho

6.3.2.KIEM NGHIEM CAC SAN


PHAM THUY SAN ONG
LANH

6.3.KIEM NGHIEM MOT SO SAN


PHAM THC PHAM
6.3.3. Kiem nghiem surimi
- KN ch tiu cm quan
- KN ch tiu ha l
- Kim nghim ch tiu vi sinh

6.3.KIEM NGHIEM MOT SO SAN


PHAM THC PHAM
6.3.4. Kim nghim hp thanh phm
- KN ch tiu cm quan
- KN ch tiu ha l
- Kim nghim ch tiu vi sinh

6.3. KIEM NGHIEM MOT SO SAN


PHAM THC PHAM
6.3.5 Kim nghim hp thanh phm
A. Kim tra trng thi bn ngoi, kn v
trng thi mt trong ca hp
B. Kim tra cht lng bn trong hp:

+ Kim nghim cm quan


+ Xc nh khi lng tnh v t l theo khi
lng cc thnh phn trong hp

+ Xc nh cc cht dinh dng


+ Kim tra cc kim loi nng: ng, thic,
ch

6.3. KIEM NGHIEM MOT SO SAN


PHAM THC PHAM
6.3.6. Kim nghim sa va cac sn phm ch bin t sa

6.3. KIEM NGHIEM MOT SO SAN


PHAM THC PHAM
6.3.7. Kim nghim du, m

6.3. KIEM NGHIEM MOT SO SAN


PHAM THC PHAM
6.3.8. Kim nghim ru, bia, nc gii khat

6.3. KIEM NGHIEM MOT SO SAN


PHAM THC PHAM
6.3.9. Kim nghim che, ca phe, cacao

DANH MC TIU CHUN VIT


NAM TON VN V VSATTP
Danh muc TCVN.pdf