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EIGRP Deployment in Modern Networks

BRKRST-2336

Donnie Savage
Don Slice

Why EIGRP?
EIGRP is easy to design and support
Faster system design & deployment time
Easier learning curve for support personnel
Lower Operational Costs (OpEx)

Optimized for Enterprise and Commercial Networks


Flexible design options
Sub-second convergence since inception
Simple for small networks, yet scalable for very large networks

Excellent Campus and Hub-n-Spoke WAN protocol


Excellent Scalability in DMVPN deployments
Proven Deployment
The most widely deployed enterprise routing protocol
Widely available across Cisco platforms suitable for Enterprise & Commercial

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EIGRP Moving into the Future


EIGRP Information Draft published to IETF

2013

Announced at Cisco Live London


Competitive Landscape;
Currently there are at least 4 known companies shipping BEIGRP
in Asia and Europe today.
Current talks with major US based vendors

IPv6 is offering a green-field deployment to customers, and


customers are looking at "standards based solutions.

Open-EIGRP:

Pressure from public/government sectors who have mandates to


use Open solutions when available
Removes the "standards" argument now allows customers to use
the technology that best fits their needs.

draft-savage-eigrp-00

Development of new features and better scaling are in progress


Cisco is committed to continue offering best of breed
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Feature Overview
IOS-Classic / IOS-XE

IOS-XR

NX-OS

BFD

Yes

Roadmap

Yes

IP Fast Reroute

3.7

Roadmap

Roadmap

Non-Stop Routing

3.9/3.10

Roadmap

Roadmap

UCMP

Yes

Yes

No

EIGRP add-path

3.8

Roadmap

Roadmap

VRF-Aware EIGRP

Yes

Yes

Yes

EIGRP PE/CE/Extended Community

Yes

Yes

Yes

EIGRP 6PE/6VPE

3.9

Roadmap

Roadmap

EIGRP IPv4/IPv6 MIB

Yes/3.7

No/No

Yes/No

Route Tag Enhancement

Yes

No

Yes

EIGRP Multi-Instance

Yes

No

Yes

EIGRP Prefix Limit

Yes

Yes

Yes

EIGRP Route Authentication

Yes

Yes

Yes

EIGRP HMAC-SHA-256 Authentication

Yes

No

No

EIGRP Wide Metrics

Yes

Yes

Yes

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EIGRP Deployment in Modern Networks


Typical enterprise network is built upon multiple levels of switches deployed in
three general layers: access (to include WAN Aggregation), distribution and core
Core:
Provides high speed connectivity between aggregation layers - gets traffic from one area of the
network to another.

Distribution:
Provides aggregation of traffic flows from multiple Access layers to the Core. Traffic filtering and
packet policies are typically implemented here. The distribution layer should be the blocking point
for Queries (more about this later)

Access:
Provide connectivity to user attachment points for servers, end stations, storage devices, and other
IP devices. Consider use of EIGRP STUBS (more about this later)

WAN Aggregation:
Provides connectivity to the internet and/or remote sites/offices.
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EIGRP Deployment in Modern Networks


Data Center

Core

WAN Aggregation

Internet
Mail
Servers

Mobile Worker

Internet
Servers

Firewall
VPN
Branch
Router

Core

Application
Acceleration

WAN
Remote Office

Distribution

Regional
Router

Application
Acceleration

Access

Building 1

Building 3

Building 2

Building 4

Regional Office
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Address-Family Support
EIGRP Address Family Support for IPv4/IPv6
With the introduction of EIGRP support for Address Families (AFs),
EIGRP supports IPv4 and IPv6 under a single router instance
Reduced complexity
Helps enable IPv4 and IPv6 address families to be
supported on a single network infrastructure.
Can be phased in, or applied in green fields
EIGRP IPv4 and IPv6 can be run concurrently
Each address family has a separate topology tables
No Fate Sharing
Design deployment techniques are the same for IPv4
and IPv6
Minimal differences mean no lengthy training required
Configuration and Troubleshooting similar
Same Route Types (Internal, External, Summary)
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router eigrp ROCKS


address-family ipv4 autonomous-system 1
network 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0
!
address-family ipv4 vrf cisco autonomous 4453
network 192.168.0.0
!
address-family ipv6 autonomous-system 1
af-interface Ethernet0/0
shutdown
exit-af-interface
!
address-family ipv6 vrf cisco autonomous 6473
af-interface default
no shutdown
exit-af-interface

Cisco Public

Address-Family Support
Named Mode(multi-address family)
Can be phased in, or applied in green fields
Reduced complexity
EIGRP support for IPv6
Link local routing brings a concept of scalable routing
Uses IPv6 transport and uses link-local addresses as source address.
EIGRP IPv4 and IPv6 can be run concurrently
Cisco supports both
Each address family has a separate topology tables
No Fate Sharing

IPv4

Design deployment techniques are the same for IPv4 and IPv6
Minimal differences mean no lengthy training required
Configuration and Troubleshooting similar
Same Route Types (Internal, External, Summary)

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2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

IPv6

IPv6

IPv4/IPv6

IPv6

Cisco Public

IPv4

IPv4

Address-Family Support
Behavior of autonomous-system command under VRFs has changed to address common
configurations errors.

1 The AS must be defined for the addressfamily to "start" processing


2 The AS Can be entered on the addressfamily or standalone or both
3 The AS will nvgen wherever it is entered,
if configured both ways it nvgens both
ways
4 The standalone keyword can be removed
if the AS is defined on the address-family
command
5 Once configured on address-family the AS
can only be removed by removing the
address-family
BRKRST-2336

router eigrp 1
address-family ipv4 vrf RED
autonomous-system 99
network 10.0.0.0
!
router eigrp 1
address-family ipv4 vrf RED autonomous-system 99
network 10.0.0.0
!
router eigrp 1
address-family ipv4 vrf RED autonomous-system 99
autonomous-system 99
network 10.0.0.0
!
router eigrp cl013
address-family ipv4 vrf RED autonomous-system 99
network 10.0.0.0

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10

Address-Family Support Router Support


router eigrp [virtual-instance-name | asystem]
[no] shutdown
.
.
.

Classic mode:
Configuring router eigrp command with a number.
Named mode:
Configuring router eigrp command with the virtual-instance-name

Named mode supports both IPv4 and IPv6, and VRF (virtual routing and forwarding) instances
Named mode allows you to create a single Instance of EIGRP which can be used for all family types
Named mode supports multiple VRFs limited only by available system resources
Named mode does not enable EIGRP for IPV4 routing unless configured

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11

Address-Family Support Family Support


router eigrp [virtual-instance-name]
address-family <protocol> [vrf <name>] autonomous-system <#>

exit-address-family
service-family <protocol> [vrf <name>] autonomous-system <#>

exit-service-family

Single place for all commands needed to completely define an instance.

show run | section router eigrp


Defines what youre routing/distributing

common look and feel


Provide support for both routing (address-family) and services (service-family)
Can be configured for VRFs

Assure subcommands are clear as to their scope

Static neighbors, peer-groups, stub, etc, ..


neighbor, neighbor remote, etc.

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12

Address-Family Support Interface Support


router eigrp [virtual-instance-name]
address-family <protocol> autonomous-system <#>
af-interface default

exit-af-interface
af-interface <interface>

exit-af-interface
exit-address-family

EIGRP specific interface properties are configuration in the af-interface mode. for example;
authentication, timers, and bandwidth control

af-interface default applies to ALL interfaces


Not all commands are supported

af-interface <interface> applies to ONLY one interface


Only eigrp specific commands are available
Properties which are Interface specific, such as delay and bandwidth, are still configured under the interface

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13

Address-Family Support Topology Support


router eigrp [virtual-instance-name]
address-family <protocol> autonomous-system <#>
topology base

exit-topology
exit-address-family

Applies to global, or default, routing table

Topology specific configuration such as;

default-metric
event-log-size
external-client
metric config
timers config
redistribution

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14

Address-Family Support IOS Changes


The auto-summary command is a relic from the days of classful routing. It was enabled
by default in pre-release 5 images.
The auto-summarization feature is no longer widely used and 'no auto-summary' has since become the
prevailing configuration.
CSCso20666 changed auto-summary behavior to disabled by default.
Because 'no auto-summary' is the factory default setting it will not nvgen -- auto-summary will now only
nvgen if it is explicitly enabled.
default

nvgen behavior

IOS Version (eigrp version)

auto-summary

'auto-summary'
: does not nvgen
'no auto-summary' : nvgens

12.2SR(rel2), 12.2SX(rel3), 12.2SG(rel4)

auto-summary

'auto-summary'
: nvgens
'no auto-summary' : nvgens

12.2S(rel1), 12.4T(rel1), 12.2SB(rel1)

no auto-summary

'auto-summary'
: nvgens
'no auto-summary' : does not nvgen

15.0(rel5), 15.0T(rel5), 12SRE(rel5),


122XNE(rel5) 122XNF(rel5_1),
122(55)SG(rel5_2)

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15

Address-Family Support IPv6 Support


Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)
EIGRP supports Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)
Same EIGRP protocol, just IPv6 enabled
A familiar Look and Feel means incumbent
EIGRP Operational expertise can be leveraged
DUAL performs route computations for IPv6
without modifications
Provides feature parity with most IPv4 Features

EIGRP IPv6 MIBS


EIGRP IPv6 NSF/SSO
EIGRP IPv6 VRF-aware
EIGRP IPv6 BFD support
Etc.

BRKRST-2336

ipv6 unicast-routing
!
interface TenGig0/0/0/1
ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
ipv6 enable
!
router eigrp ROCKS
!
address-family ipv6 autonomous-system 1
af-interface Ethernet0/0
no shutdown
exit-af-interface
!
address-family ipv6 vrf cisco autonomous 6473
af-interface default
no shutdown
exit-af-interface

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16

IPv6 Configuration Primer


classic router configuration

eigrp named mode configuration


ipv6 unicast-routing
!
interface Ethernet0/0
ipv6 address 2001:DB8::1/64
ipv6 enable

ipv6 unicast-routing
!
interface Ethernet0/0
ipv6 address 2001:DB8::1/64
ipv6 enable
ipv6 eigrp 6473

!
interface Ethernet0/1
ipv6 enable

!
interface Ethernet0/1
ipv6 enable
ipv6 eigrp 6473

!
router eigrp CSCO
address-family ipv6 autonomous-system 6473
router-id 10.10.10.1
af-interface default
no shutdown
topology base

!
ipv6 router eigrp 6473
router-id 10.10.10.1
no shutdown

Router-ID is require and selected


from highest loopback IPv4 address
from first IPv4 address found on any physical interface.

If no IPv4 address is available, a 32-bit router-id can be


configured manually using the router-id command
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17

IPv6 Primer
An IPv6 address is an extended 128-bit / 16 bytes address that gives
2128 possible addresses (3.4 x 1038)
IPv6 addresses
64 bits for the subnet ID, 64 bits for the interface ID
Separated into 8 * 16-bit Hexadecimal numbers
Each block is separated by a colon :
:: can replaced leading, trailing or consecutive zeros
:: can only appear once
EIGRP IPv6 Multicast transport
FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:A or abbreviated to FF02::A
Examples:
2003:0000:130F:0000:0000:087C:876B:140B

2003:0:130F::87C:876B:140B
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18

IPv6 Link-Local Address


A IPv6 Link-local address is used by EIGRP to source Hello packets and establish an
adjacency
IPv6 Link-local address is never routed

IPv6 packet forwarding and must be configured first under global configuration
They are auto assigned when you enable the interface
ipv6 unicast
interface Ethernet1/0
ipv6 enable

You can configure this manually on an interface


An IPv6 link-local is prefixed by fe80 and has a prefix length of /10
ipv6 address ?
X:X:X:X::X

IPv6 link-local address

X:X:X:X::X/<0-128> IPv6 prefix

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19

EIGRP IPv6 Topology Table


The Topology show commands are congruent with IPv4
show eigrp address-family ipv6 topology
EIGRP-IPv6 VR(cl013) Topology Table for AS(6473)/ID(1.1.1.1)
Codes: P - Passive, A - Active, U - Update, Q - Query, R - Reply, r - reply Status, s - sia Status
P 2040:3333::31:113:0/112 , 1 successors, FD is 281600
via FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE00:200 (281600/256), Ethernet0/0
P 2040:3333::31:114:0/112, 1 successors, FD is 281600
via FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE00:200 (281600/256), Ethernet0/0

The next-hop is the Neighbors link-local address

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EIGRP IPv6 Topology Table


The information source and next-hop 128-bit address
show eigrp address-family ipv6 topology 2040:3333::31:113:0/112

EIGRP-IPv6 VR(cl013) Topology entry for AS(6473)/ID(1.1.1.1) for 2040:3333::31:113:0/112


State is Passive, Query origin flag is 1, 1 Successor(s), FD is 281600
Routing Descriptor Blocks:
FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE00:200 (Ethernet0/0), from FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE00:200, Send flag is 0x0
Composite metric is (281600/256), Route is External
Vector metric:

Minimum bandwidth is 10000 Kbit


Total delay is 1000 microseconds
Reliability is 0/255
Load is 1/255
Minimum MTU is 1500
Hop count is 1
External data:
Originating router is 2.2.2.2
AS number of route is 0
External protocol is Static, external metric is 0
Administrator tag is 0 (0x00000000)
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21

IPv6 Route Summarization


IPv6 Route Summarization
EIGRP supports summarization of IPv6 Routes
No auto-summary configuration available in IPv6; IPv6 is essentially classless
Manual summarization is supported, as it is with EIGRP IPv4
Summaries can be configured at any point in the network

classic router configuration


interface Ethernet0/0
ipv6 summary-address eigrp 6473 ?
X:X:X:X::X/<0-128> IPv6 prefix

eigrp named configuration


router eigrp cl013-ipv6
address-family ipv6 auto 6473
af-interface Ethernet0/0
summary-address ?
X:X:X:X::X/<0-128> IPv6 prefix

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22

IPv6 Event logs and Debugs Supported


EIGRP IPv6 information in existing debugs
debug eigrp ?
fsm

EIGRP Dual Finite State Machine events/actions

neighbors EIGRP neighbors


nsf
packets

EIGRP Non-Stop Forwarding events/actions


EIGRP packets

transmit EIGRP transmission events


debug eigrp packets
EIGRP Packets debugging is on

(UPDATE, REQUEST, QUERY, REPLY, HELLO, IPXSAP, PROBE, ACK, STUB, SIAQUERY, SIAREPLY)
00:52:47: EIGRP: Received HELLO on Ethernet1/0 nbr FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE00:401
00:52:47: AS 6473, Flags 0x0, Seq 0/0 idbQ 0/0 iidbQ un/rely 0/0 peerQ un/rely 0/0

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23

IPv6 Event logs and Debugs Supported


EIGRP IPv6 Event Log
show eigrp address-family ipv6 event
1

06:27:52.115 Change queue emptied, entries: 1

06:27:52.115 Metric set: 2040:3333::31:113:0/112 281600

06:27:52.115 Update reason, delay: new if 4294967295

06:27:52.115 Update sent, RD: 2040:3333::31:113:0/112 4294967295

06:27:52.115 Update reason, delay: metric chg 4294967295

06:27:52.115 Update sent, RD: 2040:3333::31:113:0/112 4294967295

EIGRP IPv6 Specific Debugging


debug eigrp address-family ipv6 ?
<1-65536>

neighbor

Autonomous System

EIGRP neighbor debugging

notifications EIGRP event notifications


summary

EIGRP summary route processing

<cr>

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24

EIGRP IPv6 vs. IPv4


Provides feature parity with IPv4 Features (stubs, scaling, summarization, etc.)
Uses the same Reliable Multicast Transport protocol used by IPv4

2 new TLVs used for both IPv4 and IPv6;

Similar Concepts

INTERNAL_TYPE (0X0602),
EXTERNAL_TYPE (0X0603)
Same Metrics used by IPv6 and IPv4
IPv6 Link-local address are used to establish an adjacency (FF02::A (all EIGRP routers);
neighbors do not have to share the same global prefix (with exception of static neighbors
where traffic is unicasted)

Differences

Does not support the default-information command as there is no support in IPv6 for
the configuration of default networks other than ::/0
Does not support the auto-summary command
No split-horizon in the default for IPv6 (as IPv6 supports multiple prefixes per
interface)

RouterID which must be explicitly configured if no IPv4 address

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25

Address-Family Support Security


Hash-based Message Authentication Code (HMAC)

EIGRP offers Secure Hash Algorithms SHA2-256 bit Algorithms


The addition of SHA2-256 HMAC authentication to EIGRP packets ensures that
your routers only accept routing updates from other routers that know the same
pre-shared key.
This prevents someone from purposely or accidentally adding another router to
the network and causing a problem.

The SHA2 key is a concatenation of the user-configured shared secret key


along with the IPv4/IPv6 address from which this particular packet is sent. This
prevents Hello Packet DOS replay attacks with a spoofed source address.
Simpler configuration mode using a common password
Keychain support when additional security is needed

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26

Address-Family Support Security


HMAC SHA2 256bit Authentication
MD5 has been has been cracked and a number of tools exist on various sites to crack
MD5 hash
With new peering options in development will allow for multi-hop remote peers, a new
method is needed
SHA1 was considered, but SHA-1 is not collision free and can be broken in 2^69
attempts instead of 2^80. While this It was still a nontrivial problem, it could be done so
we wanted to consider better options.
SHA2 seems to be the best available and has been shown to be very secure. Block
sizes of 512 vs. 256 did not show much difference in security for the additional
processing requirements

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27

Address-Family Support Security

Simple configuration using only one password

Interface inheritance can simplify configuration

router eigrp ROCKS


address-family ipv4 auto 4453
af-interface default
authentication mode hmac-sha-256 my-password
exit-af-interface

Additional security can be added with key-chains

key chain DC012-CHAIN


key 1
key-string securetraffic
!
router eigrp ROCKS
address-family ipv4 auto 4453
af-interface default
authentication mode hmac-sha-256 my-password
authentication key-chain DC012-CHAIN
exit-af-interface

BRKRST-2336

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

router eigrp DC012-md5


address-family ipv4 auto 4453
af-interface default
authentication key-chain DC012-CHAIN
exit-af-interface
af-interface Ethernet0
authentication mode hmac-sha-256 ADMIN
exit-af-interface
af-interface Ethernet1
authentication mode hmac-sha-256 CAMPAS
exit-af-interface
af-interface Ethernet2
authentication mode hmac-sha-256 LAB
authentication key-chain DC012-LAB
exit-af-interface

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28

IPv6 Feature Overview


IOS-Classic / IOS-XE

IOS-XR

NX-OS

EIGRP IPv6 MIB

3.7

No

No

Route Tag Enhancement

Yes

No

Yes

EIGRP Multi-Instance

Yes

No

Yes

EIGRP HMAC-SHA-256 Authentication

Yes

No

No

EIGRP Wide Metrics

Yes

Yes

Yes

Stubs/Stub Leaking

Yes/Yes

No/No

Yes/No

Summary/Summary Leaking

Yes/Yes

Yes/No

Yes/No

VRF-Lite

Yes

Yes

Yes

PE/CE Support/Extended Community SoO

3.9/Yes

No/No

No/No

EIGRP Prefix Limit

Yes

No

No

BFD

Yes

Planned

Roadmap

Performance Routing(PfR)

No

No

No

3rd Party Next Hop/AddPATH

Yes

No

No

Non-Stop Routing(NSR)

Yes

No

No

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29

Routing Basics
EIGRP only knows prefix and next-hop information
Topology information beyond the next hop is
I can reach
naturally hidden in distance vector protocols
10.1.1.0/24
B and C only advertise that they can reach
10.1.1.0/24, not that they are connected to D,
which is then connected to 10.1.1.0/24

I can reach
10.1.1.0/24
A

I can reach
10.1.1.0/24

I can reach
10.1.1.0/24

10.1.1.0/24

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30

Routing Basics
Hiding topology information hides information
about changes in the topology
C advertises reachability to 10.1.1.0/24

If the F to G link fails, C can still reach 10.1.1.0/24


(although the metric might change)
If B can still use C to reach 10.1.1.0/24, does B
need to know about the F to G link failure?
No!

What's the issue if C advertises reachability to


10.1.1.0/24?

When the F to G link fails, C will send an update to B


B may then go active and potentially query its peers
This increases CPU, memory, and convergence time
for a path B can not reach

Hide
topology
here

C can reach
10.1.1.0/24

F
2

10.1.3.0/24

10.1.2.0/24
10.1.1.0/24

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31

Routing Basics
10.1.1.0/24

When EIGRP goes active, it sends a Query to its


peers looking for the lost route.
The Query is bounded by:

Local Knowledge of
an alternate path, So
Reply

D
No Knowledge of
Route, So Reply

Summary

Filter

Local knowledge of an alternate loop-free path not learned


through the peer the query was received from
No local knowledge of the route
because of filtering
No local knowledge of the route
because of summarization
No peers to query

No peers,
So Reply

E
G
F

No Knowledge of
Route, So Reply

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32

Routing EnhancementsSNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
EIGRP supports 68 MIB objects in 4 major tables
EIGRP Traffic Statistics

EIGRP Interface Data

AS Number
Number of Hellos, Updates,
Queries, and Replies Sent/Received

Peer Count
Reliable/Unreliable Queues
Pending Routes
Hello Interval

EIGRP Topology Data

Destination Net/Mask
Active State, Feasible Successors
Origin Type, Distance
Reported Distance

EIGRP Peer Data

eigrpRouteSIA and eigrpAuthFailure can trigger SNMP traps

Peer Address, Interface


Hold Time, Up Time
SRTT/RTO
Version

Additional CCO information


http://www.cisco.com/public/sw-center/netmgmt/cmtk/mibs.shtml
http://www.cisco.com/go/mibs
ftp://ftp.cisco.com/pub/mibs/oid/
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33

Routing EnhancementsMANET
Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET)
Cisco supports RFC4938bis and Dynamic Cost Routing via using EIGRP
The fundamental requirement for MANET applications is effective integration of routing and radio technologies
Effective routing requires immediate recognition of topology changes, the ability to respond to radio link quality
fluctuations, and a means by which routers can receive and act upon feedback from a radio network
New Virtual Multipoint Interface (VMI) and L2L3 API connects Layer 2 RF network with layer 3

Mobile EIGRP
Router

Mobile Radio

PPPoE

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Mobile Radio

RF
PPP Sessions

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Mobile EIGRP
Router

PPPoE

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34

Routing EnhancementsPfR
Performance Routing (PfR)
Cisco IOS Performance Routing (PfR) supports Route control using EIGRP
Monitors traffic performance for prefixes passively with NetFlow and/or actively using IP SLA probes
Chooses best performing path to a given destination
Delay, MOS
Load Balancing
For prefix, traffic-class and application

Additional CCO information


http://www.cisco.com/go/pfr

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35

Core
WAN Aggregation

Data Center

Core

Internet
Mail
Servers

Mobile Worker

Internet
Servers

Firewall
VPN
Branch
Router

Application
Acceleration

Core

WAN
Remote Office

Distribution
Regional
Router

Application
Acceleration

Access

Building 1

Building 2

Building 3

Building 4

Regional Office
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36

Core
Hierarchical Designs
2 Layer
3 Layer
More

Reliability
Graceful Restart(GR)
Non-Stop Forwarding(NSF)
Non-Stop Routing(NSR)

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37

Hierarchy and the Core


High Degree
of Complexity

Unlimited Network Hierarchy

EIGRP supports unlimited hierarchy though summarization

Core

The depth of the hierarchy doesnt alter the way EIGRP


is deployed; there are no hard edges
Core, Distribution, and Access are flexible terms that
may, or may not, fit your topology
EIGRP does not force these boundaries

Distribution

Divide complexity with summarization points


Summarize at every boundary where possible
Aggregate reachability information
Aggregate topology information
Aggregate traffic flows

Access

A place to apply traffic policy

High Degree
of Density

Summarize
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38

Hierarchical Design

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10.2.3.0/24

10.2.1.0/24

10.1.3.0/24

Logical
boundary
points

10.1.1.0/24

10.2.2.0/24

10.2.0.0/24

10.1.2.0/24

10.1.0.0/24

No
No imposed limit on levels of hierarchy a key
summarization
design advantage.
No areas or other restrictions on dividing a
network
Topology information can be hidden at any hop
in the network anyway
In an EIGRP network, the hierarchy is created
through summarization, rather than through a
protocol defined boundary
Proper addressing is a must to insure you can
summarize
With the logical boundary point behind the
lower routers, based on the divisional structure, Sales
theres no place to summarize
Marketing

Logistics
Engineering

39

Hierarchical Design
The logical network structure no longer follows
the corporate departments
10.1.0.0/22
We now have a point at which we can
10.2.0.0/22
summarize routes!

Logical
boundary
point

Marketing
2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

10.2.3.0/24

10.2.1.0/24

10.1.3.0/24

Logistics

Sales

BRKRST-2336

10.1.1.0/24

10.2.2.0/24

10.2.0.0/24

10.1.2.0/24

10.1.0.0/24

What Happens if We Move the Logical


Boundary Point Up One Layer?

Cisco Public

Engineering

40

Hierarchical Design

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Cisco Public

10.2.0.0/24

10.2.3.0/24

10.2.1.0/24

10.1.3.0/24

10.1.1.0/24

10.1.2.0/24

10.1.0.0/24
BRKRST-2336

10.2.2.0/24

Logical
boundary
point

In this case, moving the logical boundary


point down one layer can be used to
improve summarization
For EIGRP, its just a matter of configuring
summaries in the best possible locations

41

Two Layer Hierarchy


The core gets traffic from one topological area of
the network to another

Core

High Speed Switching is the focus

Within the core, avoid

Policy
Access

Summary

Policy within the core


Reachability and topology aggregation
(summarization)

Core routers should summarize routing


information towards the access/aggregation
layers
Routing policy may also be implemented at the
core edge

BRKRST-2336

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42

Two Layer Hierarchy


The aggregation layer provides user attachment
points
Information hiding
Edge routes should be hidden from the core
Summarize routes towards the core

Core
Summarize

Access

Policy should be placed at the edge of the network


Traffic acceptance (based on load and traffic type)
Filtering unwanted traffic
Security policy

Policy

Layer 2 and Layer 3 filters apply at the edge

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43

Two Layer Hierarchy


ISP networks are often modeled on a two layer hierarchy
as well
The core is often mesh or a set of rings, with each POP
modeled as a ring or a two layer hierarchy
Topology information is summarized
between the POPs and the network core
POP
Address summarization is generally
from the core towards the POPs

POP

Core

POP

POP
POP

Customers
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44

Three Layer Hierarchy


The core gets traffic from one topological
area of the network to another
High Speed Switching is the focus
Within the core, avoid
Policy within the core
Reachability and topology aggregation
(summarization)

Core
Distribution

Access

Core routers should summarize routing


information towards the distribution layers
Deeper hierarchy does not change EIGRPs
fundamental design concepts

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45

Traffic aggregation

Three Layer Hierarchy


Address summarization and aggregation occur at the
Core
distribution layer
Address Summarization
At the distribution layer edge and the core
At the distribution layer edge and the access layer
At both edges of the distribution layer

The distribution layer should be the


blocking point for Queries

Distribution

Access

Provide minimal information toward the core


Provide minimal information toward the access

Access layer routers should be considered for


configuration as stubs

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46

Three Layer Hierarchy


The distribution layer is where most of the policy in a
Core
three layer network should reside
Traffic Engineering
Directing traffic into the best core entry point
Access layer failover
Traffic filters

Should take all the policy load off the


network core
Routing Policy

Distribution

Access

Policy

Routes accepted from the access layer


Routes will be passed from the core into the
access layer
Filtering unwanted traffic at Layer 2 and Layer 3
Security policy
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47

Three Layer Hierarchy


No summarization!

Summarization should be avoided between


Core
distribution layer routers!
This can cause a lot of odd and hard to
troubleshoot problems within the network
Distribution
Focus summarization and policy up and
down the layers, rather than along the layers
Access

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48

Impact of Hierarchy to Core


Assessing the Impact
1000 routes each failing once/month means
4100/30 = 136.7
state changes per day in the core of this network
Summarizing each 1000 route zone into 100
routes reduces the core to 500, rather than 4100
routes
Summarization hides individual route changes,
so we only see the 100 core routes change:
100/30 = 3.3
state changes per day in the core of this network

BRKRST-2336

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

1000 routes

1000 routes

4000+100 routes
400+100 routes

1000 routes

Cisco Public

1000 routes

49

Core
Hierarchical Designs
2 Layer
3 Layer
More

Reliability
Graceful Restart(GR)
Non-Stop Forwarding(NSF)
Non-Stop Routing(NSR)

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50

Graceful Restart (GR) / Nonstop Forwarding (NSF)


Graceful Restart (GR) / Nonstop Forwarding (NSF)
GR/NSF are redundancy mechanisms for intra-chassis route
processor failover

no reset
A

Control

Data

Control

Data

Graceful Restart (GR) is a way to rebuild forwarding


information in routing protocols when the control plane
has recovered from a failure
Nonstop Forwarding (NSF) is a way to continue forwarding
packets while the control plane is recovering from a failure
Newly active redundant route processor continues forwarding traffic
using synchronized HW forwarding tables
NSF capable routing protocol (e.g.: EIGRP) requests graceful
neighbor restart
Routing neighbors reform with no traffic loss
NSF and fast hellos/BFD do not go well and should be avoided
NSF makes more sense in a singly homed edge devices

The fundamental premise of GR/NSF is to route through temporary failures, rather than around them!
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51

Data Center
WAN Aggregation

Data Center

Core

Internet
Mail
Servers

Mobile Worker

Internet
Servers

Firewall
VPN
Branch
Router

Application
Acceleration

Core

WAN
Remote Office

Distribution
Regional
Router

Application
Acceleration

Access

Building 1

Building 2

Building 3

Building 4

Regional Office
BRKRST-2336

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52

Data Center
Fast(er) Convergence
Detection
Repair
IP FRR

Redundancy
Redundant Links
Controlling Redundancy
Full Mesh

High Speed Links


Load Sharing
Wide Metrics

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53

Data Center
Data Centers are at the core of your business activity
Video, voice or other rich media traffic is placing ever-increasing demands on
the physical layer
The Core can be used as the data center core. Consider the following items
when determining the right core solution:
10GigE densityWill there be enough 10GigE ports on the core switch pair to support
both the campus distribution as well as the data center aggregation modules?
Administrative domains and policiesSeparate cores help to isolate campus
distribution layers from data center aggregation layers in terms of troubleshooting,
administration, and policies (QoS, ACLs, troubleshooting, and maintenance).
Future anticipationThe impact that can result from implementing a separate data
center core layer at a later date might make it worthwhile to install it at the beginning.

A robust infrastructure is needed to handle these demands


BRKRST-2336

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54

Fast(er) Network Convergence


EIGRP Fast Convergence

EIGRP support for FAST Convergence already part of the standard


Customers have been using EIGRP to achieve sub-second convergence for years
Bad or no network design leads to bad or no Convergence
Proper network design is a must

Design to use address summarization to limit query scope


Design to use link redundancy properly
Design to provide at least one feasible successor

We can sort typical convergence times:


EIGRP with a feasible successor
Link state protocols
EIGRP without a feasible successor

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55

Convergence Comparative Data


IPv4 IGP Convergence Data

We can sort typical convergence times into three groups


7000
6000
Milliseconds

EIGRP with feasible successors


IS-IS with tuned timers
OSPF with tuned timers
EIGRP without feasible successors
OSPF with default timers
IS-IS with default timers

5000
4000
3000
2000

Route
Generator
A

5000

4000

3000

2000

0
1000

1000

Routes

D
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56

Fast(er) Network Convergence


For paths with feasible successors convergence time is in the milliseconds
The existence of feasible successors is dependent on the
network design

For paths without feasible successors, convergence time is dependent on the


number of routers that have to handle and reply to the query
Queries are blocked one hop beyond aggregation and route filters so SUMMARIZE
Query range is dependent on network design so SUMMARIZE

Good design is the key to fast convergence in an EIGRP network

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57

Improving Convergence Detection


EIGRP Aggressive Timers (Fast Hellos)
EIGRP supports aggressive timers to decrease link failure detection
Aggressive Timers does not provide sub-second failure detection
Timers can be tuned to a minimum of 1 second

interface GigabitEthernet1/1

Interface dampening is recommended with


fast hello timers

dampening

router eigrp ROCKS


address-family ipv6 auto 6473
af-interface default
hello-interval ?
<1-65535> Seconds between hello transmissions

Additional information
There are reasons for not recommending this and also for us not offering such low values; for example, depending
on the number of interfaces, 1 sec rates can become CPU intensive and lead to spikes in processing/memory
requirements

BRKRST-2336

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58

Improving Convergence Detection


Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD)
Cisco IOS Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) is a fast Hello at Layer 2.5
BFD exhibits lower overhead than aggressive hellos
BFD is a heartbeat at Layer 2.5, provides sub-second failure detection
BFD can provide reaction time close to 50 milliseconds
EIGRP use BFD facilities which send extremely fast keep-alives between routers
BFD and the Routing Protocol works together, with Routing Protocol as the upper layer protocol
BFD relies on the Routing Protocol to tell it about Neighbors
Notifications occur quickly when changes occur in Layer 2 state

Additional CCO information


http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-ietf-bfd-generic-02.txt
http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-ietf-bfd-base-05.txt

BRKRST-2336

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

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59

Improving Convergence Repair


EIGRP Loop Free Fast Reroute (IP-FRR)
Support for IP Fast Reroute (IP-FRR)
IP-FRR is a mechanism that reduces traffic disruption to 10s of milliseconds
in event of link or node failure
Uses existing Feasible Successors, so no additional computational load
Automatically enabled on all interfaces covered by the protocol

Repair paths can be equal or unequal cost (though variance command)


Repair paths are computed for all prefixes though not all prefixes may have a FS
(repair path)

But..

Protecting Node

It runs at the process level

Does not guarantee time limit

Performance depends on tuning and platform implementation


BRKRST-2336

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Primary Next-Hop
B
Primary Path
Repair Path

Cisco Public

60

Enabling EIGRP IP-FRR

router eigrp ROCKS


address-family ipv4 autonomous-system 1
network 10.0.0.0 255.255.255.255
topology base
fast-reroute per-prefix all
...

IOS implements per-prefix IP-FRR


Per-prefix IP-FRR enabled for all areas unless explicitly specified
IP-FRR automatically enabled on EIGRP interfaces
Repair paths are computed for all prefixes though not all prefixes may have repair paths

BRKRST-2336

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61

Data Center
Fast(er) Convergence
Detection
Repair
IP FRR

Redundancy
Redundant Links
Controlling Redundancy
Full Mesh

High Speed Links


Load Sharing
Wide Metrics

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62

Redundancy
The simplest path to increased resiliency is adding
redundancy...

Adds network resiliency


Can provide optimal routing to resources
Adds additional bandwidth in congested areas
of the network

But not so fast!


Adding Links doesnt always add resiliency

General EIGRP rule of thumb: There should be no more paths in the


topology table than are allowed to be installed in the routing table

The second link also adds moderate complexity,


and more information, into the network

10.1.1.0/24

(show ip eigrp topology all vs. show ip protocol, look for maximum path)
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63

Redundancy
Adding a third link almost always approaches
the point of diminishing returns, and adds
much more network complexity
When considering adding more redundancy,
always balance the increased resiliency
against the added complexity
Increased network convergence times
Increased management effort
Increased troubleshooting times

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64

Redundancy

Using EIGRP, with a single backup path, it takes about


1.3 seconds for a router with 10,000 routes to converge
when the best path fails

2.5

Seconds

The impact of greater levels of redundancy on


convergence times can be seen in routing protocol
scalability testing

Routes

10000

Feasible successor
Best path
fails
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65

Redundancy

Using EIGRP, with a single backup path, it takes about


1.3 seconds for a router with 10,000 routes to converge
when the best path fails
Adding the third path increases convergence time to 2
seconds

Adding the fourth path increases convergence time to


2.25 seconds

2.5

Seconds

The impact of greater levels of redundancy on


convergence times can be seen in routing protocol
scalability testing

Routes

10000

Best path
fails
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66

Redundancy
High availability studies also show the impact
of adding the third link is not all that great

99.90

Reliability

Adding a second link will increase reliability significantly


Adding a third link approaches the point of diminishing
returns

100.00

Combined with the impact of slower


convergence times, higher management costs,
and slower troubleshooting, the total downtime
in a network may actually increase with the
addition of large amounts of redundancy

BRKRST-2336

99.80
99.70
99.60
99.50

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

1 link

2 links

Cisco Public

3 links

4 links

67

Controlling Redundancy
Consider using Layer 2 interface bundling EtherChannel, MLPPP(Multilink PPP)
Increases redundancy
Increases bandwidth
Reduces Layer 3 complexity

But be aware of issues such as


processor utilization due to bundling overhead
troubleshooting complexity, etc.

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Link bundle

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68

Full Mesh
Is this sufficient redundancy, or excessive?
There are potentially 64 paths between
these two hosts, 26
2 routers == 1 link
3 routers == 3 links
4 routers == 6 links
5 routers == 10 links
6 routers == 15 links
...

adjacencies = nodes(nodes-1)/2
Not just physical links, VPLS also creates this
scenario

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69

Full Mesh
Routes must be advertised between every pair of
peers in the mesh so each router has the correct
next hop and routing information
Address the links so they can be summarized
Single advertisement at the edge is best
Address the links so the link information can be
filtered out at the edge

Summarize

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70

Full Mesh
Consider High Availability ring topologies, such as
SRP, SONET rings, and others as an alternative
to full mesh high speed networks in POPs and
other enclosed networks
This can provide resiliency against a single failure
in the network, and simplify the topology from the
perspective of routing dramatically

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71

Ring Topologies
If the A->C link fails, A must query B to find the
alternate path
1 Hop Query
If the B->C link fails, no queries will be
transmitted to converge
The maximum query range is one hop

5
B

5
5
No Query

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72

Ring Topologies
If the A->C link fails
A must query B to find the alternate path
B must query D to find the alternate path

5
B

A
2 Hop Query

The maximum query range is two hops


C

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73

Ring Topologies
If the A->C link fails
A must query B to find the alternate path
B must query E to find the alternate path
E must query D to find the alternate path

5
B

A
3 Hop Query

The maximum query range is three hops


Typically the network will watershed
Rings are a challenging topology for EIGRP

5
5

The maximum query range will always be the size of the ring
minus one
Average is ring size divided by 2

If at all possible, design in triangles, not rings!

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74

Data Center
Fast(er) Convergence
Detection
Repair
IP FRR

Redundancy
Redundant Links
Controlling Redundancy
Full Mesh

High Speed Links


Load Sharing
Wide Metrics

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75

Unequal Cost Load Sharing


All routing protocols can load share over equal cost links
Can you load share across the two available paths between A
and D, if they are not equal cost?
500K
Yes, EIGRP is unique in this respect
Variance allows unequal cost paths to be used as long as the
paths are loop free

1000K

56K

56K

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76

Unequal Cost Load Sharing


Given the metrics for the following paths:
D through C
Distance: 560128
Reported Distance: 557568

56K
2000ms

D through B

1000K
10ms

Distance: 1069568
Reported Distance: 557568
B

The best path is through C, so C is the successor


The reported distance through B is lower than the best path
through C, so this path is loop free
56K
2000ms
B is the feasible successor (FS) or backup path

56K
2000ms
D

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77

Unequal Cost Load Sharing


Configure variance on router A with a value high enough to
include both paths
Variance is a multiplier, so it has to be a number which,
when multiplied by the lower metric, is higher than or equal
Metric
to the highest metric
1069568

Metric
560128

lowest metric * variance metric of other path


Any route with a metric less that the variance metric, will be
include in the load sharing

BRKRST-2336

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78

Unequal Cost Load Sharing


Both paths are installed in the routing table
The higher metric is then divided by each lower metric to
determine the load share count:
1069568/5601282
From this point, the actual load sharing of traffic is up to
the switching engine being used to forward packets
For process switching, each packet forwarded
through B will be matched by 2 packets forwarded
through C

Metric
1069568
B

router-a(config)#router eigrp 100


router-a(config-rtr)#variance 2
router-a(config-rtr)#end

BRKRST-2336

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Metric
560128
C

Cisco Public

79

EIGRP Classic Metric Formula


With the simplified EIGRP Formula:

B: 10,000,000
D: 10

B: 10,000,000
D: 10

B: 1,000,000
D: 10

B: 1,000,000
D: 10

10 7
metric =
+ delays * 256

min ( bandwidth)

The path has a minimum bandwidth of 100,000


kbps (from R4)
The path though the Ten Gigabit Bundle has a total
delay of 120 microseconds
But so does the path through the Gigabit Ethernet!

BRKRST-2336

10.1.1.0/24
B: 100,000
D: 100

Router1#show eigrp addr ipv4 topology 10.1.1.0/24


IP-EIGRP (AS 1): Topology entry for 10.1.1.0/24
State is Passive, Query origin flag is 1, 2 Successor(s), FD is 28672
Routing Descriptor Blocks:
10.4.4.2 (TenGigabitEthernet2/0), from 10.4.4.2, Send flag is 0x0
Composite metric is (28672/28416), Route is Internal
Vector metric:
Minimum bandwidth is 100000 Kbit
Total delay is 120 microseconds
Reliability is 255/255
Load is 1/255
Minimum MTU is 1500
Hop count is 2
10.5.5.3 (GigabitEthernet3/0), from 10.5.5.3, Send flag is 0x0
Composite metric is (28672/28416), Route is Internal
Vector metric:
Minimum bandwidth is 100000 Kbit
Total delay is 120 microseconds
Reliability is 255/255
Load is 1/255
Minimum MTU is 1500
Hop count is 2

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80

Computing Classic Metrics


EIGRPs calculated metric is called the composite metric
Its computed from individual metrics called vector metrics
-

minimum bandwidth, total delay, load, reliability

Interface metrics are converted before use


bandwidth (in kilobits per second): 107 / Interface bandwidth
delay (in 10s of microseconds): interface delay / 10ms
load, reliability: converted to range of 0-255
metric =

[ (K

bandwidth
+

K2 bandwidth
256 Load

K5
+ (K3 Delay))
K4 + Reliability

] 256

Constants (K1 through K5) are used to control the computation


Default K values are: K1 == K3 == 1 and K2 == K4 == K5 == 0
When K5 is equal to 0 then [K5/( K4 + reliability)] is defined to be 1

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81

Classic and Wide Metrics


Computing Metrics
Router A advertises 1.1.1.0/24 to B
Bandwidth is set to 1000
Delay is set to 100

1.1.1.0/24
BW: 1000
Delay: 100

Router B

BW: 100
Delay: 1000

Compares current bandwidth to bandwidth of link to A; sets bandwidth to 100


Adds delay along link to A, for a total of 1100

Router C

BW: 100
Delay: 1100

BW: 56
Delay: 3100

Compares current bandwidth to bandwidth of link to B; sets bandwidth to 56


Adds delay along link to B, for a total of 3100

BW: 56
Delay: 2000

Minimum

Added Together

10 7
+
delays

* 256
(
)
min
bandwidth

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82

Computing Classic Metrics


Router C uses the formula to compute a composite metric
- This isnt what the router computes,
thoughwhy?

- The router drops the remainder


after the first step!

10 7
+ delays * 256

min (bandwidth )

Why the 256?


EIGRP uses a 32-bit metric space

IGRP used a 24-bit metric space


To convert between the two, multiply or
divide by 256!

10 7

+
3100

* 256 = 46507885
56

10 7

=
178571

56

(178571+ 3100) * 256 = 46507776

?
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83

Wide Metric Support: New Formula


With the Existing EIGRP Formula:

1013
6
latency =
delay
*10
OR

bandwidth
6.5536 *1011
throughput =

bandwidth

metric =
min ( throughput ) + latency

Wide Metrics enables us to;

Configure delay values in pico-seconds

Pass raw delay/bandwidth values between peers

Composite metric is computed correctly for


high-speed interfaces

RIB Metric still in 32bit form

BRKRST-2336

B: 10,000,000
D: 10

B: 10,000,000
D: 10

B: 1,000,000
D: 10

B: 1,000,000
D: 10

10.1.1.0/24
B: 100,000
D: 100

Router# show eigrp address-family ipv4 topology


EIGRP-IPv4 VR(WideMetric) Topology Entry for AS(4453)/ID(3.3.3.3) for 10.1.1.0/16
State is Passive, Query origin flag is 1, 1 Successor(s), FD is 262144, RIB is 2048
Descriptor Blocks:
10.4.4.2 (TenGigabitEthernet2/0), from 10.4.4.2, Send flag is 0x0
Composite metric is (262144/196608), route is Internal
Vector metric:
Minimum bandwidth is 10000000 Kbit
Total delay is 3000000 picoseconds
Reliability is 255/255
Load is 1/255
Minimum MTU is 1500
Hop count is 2
Originating router is 100.1.1.1

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84

Computing Wide Metrics


EIGRP still uses vector metrics, but they are not scaled, and are processed differently

[(K Throughput + {
1

K2 Throughput
256 - Load

}) + (K

Latency) + (K6 Ext Metrics)

K5

K4 + Reliability

New vector metrics are derived from values reported by router

Throughput derived from interface bandwidth


Latency derived from interface delay
Load derived from interface load
Reliability derived from interface reliability
Extended Metrics derived from router and/or configuration

Constants (K1 through K6) are used to control the computation


Default K values are: K1 == K3 == 1 and K2 == K4 == K5 == K6 == 0

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85

Computing Wide Metrics


By default, EIGRP computes throughput using the maximum theoretical throughput
The formula for the conversion for max-throughput value directly from the interface
without consideration of congestion-based effects is as follows:

Max-Throughput = K1

EIGRP_BANDWIDTH EIGRP_WIDE_SCALE
Bandwidth

If K2 is used, the effect of congestion, as a measure of load reported by the


interface, will be used to simulate the available throughput, by adjusting the
maximum throughput according to the formula:
Net-Throughput =

[Max-Throughput + (

K2 Max-Throughput

256 - Load

)]

This inversion of bandwidth value results in a larger number (more time), ultimately generating a
worse metric.
The inverted value is used only by the local router, the original bandwidth value is send to its
neighbors
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86

Classic and Wide Metrics


K3 is used to allow latency-based path selection. Latency and delay are similar terms that refer to
the amount of time it takes a bit to be transmitted to an adjacent peer. EIGRP uses one-way
based latency values provided either by IOS interfaces or computed as a factor of the links
bandwidth
Delay EIGRP_WIDE_SCALE
Latency = (K3

EIGRP_DELAY_PICO

For IOS interfaces that do not exceed 1 gigabit, this value will be derived from the reported
interface delay, converted to picoseconds
Interface Delay EIGRP_DELAY_PICO
Delay =

For IOS interfaces beyond 1 gigabit, IOS does not report delays properly, therefore a computed
delay value will be used
Delay =

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EIGRP_BANDWIDTH EIGRP_DELAY_PICO
Interface Bandwidth

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87

Distribution and Access


WAN Aggregation

Data Center

Core

Internet
Mail
Servers

Mobile Worker

Internet
Servers

Firewall
VPN
Branch
Router

Application
Acceleration

Core

WAN
Remote Office

Distribution
Regional
Router

Application
Acceleration

Access

Building 1

Building 2

Building 3

Building 4

Regional Office
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88

Distribution and Access

Distribution (aggregation point for access)

Summarization

Summary Metrics

Summary Leak-maps

Filtering

Route Map Support

Route Tag Enhancement

Access (STUB and edge features)

Managing alternate paths

Passive interfaces

Hub and Spoke

Scaling

Enhancements

Leak-maps

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89

Route Summarization
Route Summarization
EIGRP supports summarization at any point in the network
EIGRP chooses the metric of the lowest
A
cost component route as the summary metric
What happens if the summary metric changes?
If the component the metric was taken from
changes, the summary changes as well!
Youre using the summary to hide reachability B
information, but its passing metric information
through
Routers beyond the summary are still working
to keep up with the changes

10.1.0.0/23
Metric 10
30
10.2.0.0/23
Metric 20

10.1.0.0/24
Metric 30
10.1.1.0/24
Metric 10

10.2.0.0/24
Metric 30
10.2.1.0/24
Metric 20

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90

Route Summarization

Create a loopback interface within the summary address range


with a lower metric than any other component
Generally best to use a /32 for the prefix and use delay to force
the metric value
The summary will use the metric of the loopback, which doesnt
ever go down

You can sometimes use a route-map to force the


summarys metric to always be the same
A static route to null0 on the summarizing router can
also be used

10.1.0.0/23
Metric 1

10.1.0.0/23

10.1.0.0/24
Metric 10
10.1.1.0/24
Metric 20

Use a loopback interface to force the metric to remain


constant

loopback 0
ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.255
delay 1

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91

Summary Metrics
Route Summary Static Metrics
EIGRP summarization efficiency is greatly improved by predefining a summarys metric
Could use a loopback interface or define a static route to null0
Metric will be constant, eliminating update
EIGRP still scans component routes for changes
EIGRP will never withdraw summary

10.1.0.0/23
Metric 1

A better solution is to use the summary-metric command which established a


constant metric value thereby:
10.1.0.0/23

Eliminate the updates


Eliminate re-computing the summary metric when components change
Allows the summary to be withdrawn when all comments
are lost
router eigrp ROCKS
address-family ipv4 auto 4453
network 10.0.0.0
af-interface Ethernet0/0
summary-address 10.1.0.0/23
exit-af-interface
topology base
summary-metric 10.1.0.0/23 10000 1 255 1 1500

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10.1.0.0/
24
Metric
10
10.1.1.0/
24
Metric
20

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92

Overlapping Summaries
10.1.0.0/16

10.1.1.0/24

10.1.2.0/24

interface serial 0/0


....
ip summary-address eigrp 1 10.1.0.0 255.255.0.0
ip summary-address eigrp 1 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 255

10.1.0.0/16
10.1.1.0/24

10.1.2.0/24
10.1.0.0/16

EIGRP allows overlapping summaries


Set the administrative distance on the longer prefix so it
is not installed...
Admin Distance of 255 is needed if the more specific
summary actually matches a "real" prefix

Interface serial 0/0


....
ip summary-address eigrp 1 10.1.0.0 255.255.0.0
ip summary-address eigrp 1 10.1.2.0 255.255.255.0 255

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93

Overlapping Summaries
If two routing protocols provide a route to the
same destination, how do we choose
between them?

R1#show ip eigrp topology


P 10.0.1.0/24, 1 successors, FD is 2681856
via 10.1.1.1 (2681856/2169856)

Their metrics are not comparable


An administrative distance is added to each route learned
based on the protocol installing the route

Static routes can be configured with a


distance

The EIGRP
route wins

distance 90

R1(config)#ip route 10.0.1.0 255.255.255.0 null0

This can create a floating static


The route will not be used unless the dynamic protocols
have no route to that destination

The static
route wins

distance 1

R1(config)#ip route 10.0.1.0 255.255.255.0 null0 200

distance 200

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94

Overlapping Summaries
EIGRP can leak more specific routes through a summary
10.1.0.0/16

route-map LeakList permit 10


match ip address 1
!
access-list 1 permit 10.1.2.0
!
interface Serial0/0
ip summary-address eigrp 1 10.1.0.0 255.255.0.0 leak-map LeakList
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10.1.1.0/24

10.1.2.0/24

A
10.1.0.0/16
10.1.1.0/24

route-map LeakList permit 10


match ip address 1
!
access-list 1 permit 10.1.1.0
!
interface Serial0/0
ip summary-address eigrp 1 10.1.0.0 255.255.0.0 leak-map LeakList

Cisco Public

10.1.2.0/24
10.1.0.0/16

12.3(11.01)T and later

95

Overlapping Summaries
Avoid creating summary black holes
Solution: have a link between the summarizing routers
across which they share full routing information

10.1.0.0/16

10.1.1.0/24

10.1.2.0/24

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10.1.0.0/16

10.1.0.0/16

Full routing information

96

Summary Routing Leaking


Route Summary Leaking
EIGRP allows user definable summary components to leak past the summary boundary
For optimal routing, we would like C to be able to receive as few
routes as possible, but still optimally route to 10.1.1.0/24 and
10.1.2.0/24 dynamically
Combination of static routes and could be used but its difficult
to maintain

10.1.0.0/16

The simplest way is to configure a leak-map on the summary route


10.1.1.0/24

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C
Cisco Public

10.1.0.0/16

A
10.1.0.0/16

route-map LeakList permit 10


match ip address 1
!
access-list 1 permit 10.1.1.0
!
router eigrp ROCKS
address-family ipv4 autonomous-system 4453
af-interface Serial0/0
summary-address 10.1.0.0 255.255.0.0 leak-map LeakList

10.1.2.0/24

97

Route-Map Support
EIGRP Route-Map Support
EIGRP supports Enhanced Route-Maps
Enhanced support of route maps allows EIGRP to use a route map to prefer one path over another
Route-maps can now be applied on the distribute-list in/out statement
Filters can be applied even before the prefix hits the topology table
route-map setmetric permit 10
match interface serial 0/0
set metric 1000 1 255 1 1500
route-map setmetric permit 20
match interface serial 0/1
set metric 2000 1 255 1 1500
....
router eigrp ROCKS
address-family ipv4 auto 4453
topology base
distribute-list route-map setmetric in

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98

Enhanced Routing Tagging


EIGRP Enhanced Route Tags
EIGRP has been extended to support a more flexible route tag method

Dotted-Decimal notation easer to read


Support mask for multiple tag matching
Supports IPv4 and IPv6

Classic Route Tag

Enhanced Route Tag

route-map current-route-tag-usage permit 10


match tag 451580 451597 451614 451631
set metric 1100
!
Router# show ip route tag

ip access-list standard route-tag-mask


permit 100.160.60.60 0.0.3.3
!
route-map enhanced-route-tag permit 10
match ip address tag route-tag-mask
set metric 1100
!
Router# show ip route tag 100.160.61.60 0.0.3.3

Assigning routes a default tag


router eigrp ROCKS
address-family ipv4 vrf tagit autonomous-system 4452
topology base
route-tag 100.160.61.61

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99

Distribution and Access

Distribution (aggregation point for access)

Summarization

Summary Metrics

Summary Leak-maps

Filtering

Route Map Support

Route Tag Enhancement

Access (STUB and edge features)

Managing alternate paths

Passive interfaces

Hub and Spoke

Scaling

Enhancements

Leak-maps

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100

Managing Wiring Closets


1.1.1.0/24

Alternative paths are a good thing.. Right?


Not if they are excessive OR undesired!
Alternative paths that exist in the network that provide
little if any real benefit of improved reliability, and are
often unplanned and unexpected.
In this example, the four Ethernets on the left are
there to provide users with access to the network.
There are two routers connected to each VLAN in
order to provide redundancy (probably via HSRP) so
that the users will have failover capability if there is a
problem.

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101

Managing Wiring Closets


Unfortunately, the designer may have created a network topology a
little different than what was intended
RtrA#show ip route | begin 1.1.1.0
C
1.1.1.0 is directly connected, Loopback1
.snip.

1.1.1.0/24

RtrA#show eigrp address-family ipv4 topo | begin 1.1.1.0


P 1.1.1.0/24, 1 successors, FD is 128256
via Connected, Loopback1
P 10.0.11.0/24, 1 successors, FD is 9048064
.snip.
RtrA#show eigrp address-family ipv4 topo all | begin 1.1.1.0
P 1.1.1.0/24, 1 successors, FD is 128256, serno 2673915
via Connected, Loopback1
via 10.0.19.2 (9690112/9173248), FastEthernet6/0.19
via 10.0.20.2 (9690368/9173248), FastEthernet6/0.20
via 10.0.13.2 (9688576/9173248), FastEthernet6/0.13
via 10.0.45.2 (9696768/9173248), FastEthernet6/0.45
via 10.0.27.2 (9692160/9173248), FastEthernet6/0.27
via 10.0.28.2 (9692416/9173248), FastEthernet6/0.28
via 10.0.22.2 (9690880/9173248), FastEthernet6/0.22
via 10.0.42.2 (9696000/9173248), FastEthernet6/0.42
via 10.0.16.2 (9689344/9173248), FastEthernet6/0.16
via 10.0.10.2 (9687808/9173248), FastEthernet6/0.10
via 10.0.40.2 (9695488/9173248), FastEthernet6/0.40
via 10.0.21.2 (9690624/9173248), FastEthernet6/0.21
via 10.0.37.2 (9694720/9173248), FastEthernet6/0.37
via 10.0.41.2 (9695744/9173248), FastEthernet6/0.41
.snip.
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Wow, where did all


of these alternative paths
come from! for
a connected Route!

Cisco Public

102

Managing Wiring Closets


1.1.1.0/24

Each user segments will be treated as a possible


alternative path!

Generally network designers generally do not have


these user segments as transit paths
Each user segments is in the query path, causing
EIGRP to do a lot of work by including these extra
links.

Extra work means shower convergence.


A simple solution is provided with the use of
the passive-interface command.
router eigrp 100
passive-interface default
no passive-interface fastethernet 1/0
....
BRKRST-2336

-or-

router eigrp 100


passive-interface fastethernet 0/0
passive-interface fastethernet 0/1
passive-interface fastethernet 0/2
passive-interface fastethernet 0/3
....

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103

EIGRP Hub and Spoke (STUBs)

10.1.1.0/24

Hub and Spoke (STUBs)


EIGRP offers the best scaling performance of all IGPs
If these spokes are remote sites, they have two
connections for resiliency, not so they can transit traffic
between A and B
A should never use the spokes as a path to anything,
so theres no reason to learn about, or query for, routes
through these spokes
What happens when a route or link is lost?

EIGRP query's ALL neighbors


Each neighbors using it to reach the destination will also
query their neighbors
Dont Use These Paths
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104

Marking the spokes as stubs allows the STUBs to


signal A and B that they are not valid transit paths
A will not query stubs, reducing the total number of
queries in this example to one
Marking the remotes as stubs also reduces the
complexity of this topology
Router B now believes it only has one path to
10.1.1.0/24 (through A), rather than five

10.1.1.0/24

Hub and Spoke (STUBs)

router#config t
router(config)#router eigrp 100
router(config-router)#eigrp stub connected
router(config-router)#

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105

Hub and Spoke (STUBs)


If stub connected is configured
B will advertise 10.1.2.0/24 to A
B will not advertise 10.1.2.0/23, 10.1.3.0/23, or 10.1.4.0/24

10.2.2.2/31

If stub summary is configured

B will advertise 10.1.2.0/23 to A


B will not advertise 10.1.2.0/24, 10.1.3.0/24,
or 10.1.4.0/24

10.1.3.0/24

10.1.2.0/24
ip route 10.1.4.0 255.255.255.0 10.1.1.10
!
interface serial 0
ip summary-address eigrp 10.1.2.0 255.255.254.0 5
!
router eigrp 100
redistribute static metric 1000 1 255 1 1500
network 10.2.2.2 0.0.0.1
network 10.1.2.0 0.0.0.255
eigrp stub connected

eigrp stub summary


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106

Hub and Spoke (STUBs)


If stub static is configured
B will advertise 10.1.4.0/24 to A
B will not advertise 10.1.2.0/24, 10.1.2.0/23, or
10.1.3.0/24

10.2.2.2/31
B

If stub receive-only is configured


B wont advertise anything to A,
so A needs to have a static
route to the networks behind B
to reach them

10.1.3.0/24

10.1.2.0/24
ip route 10.1.4.0 255.255.255.0 10.1.1.10
!
interface serial 0
ip summary-address eigrp 10.1.2.0 255.255.254.0
!
router eigrp 100
redistribute static 1000 1 255 1 1500
network 10.2.2.2 0.0.0.1
network 10.1.2.0 0.0.0.255
eigrp stub static
eigrp stub receive-only

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107

Hub and Spoke (STUBs)


A

10.2.2.2/31
B

10.1.3.0/24

If Stub Redistributed Is Configured


B will advertise 10.1.4.0/24 to A
B will not advertise 10.1.2.0/24, 10.1.2.0/23, or
10.1.3.0/24

10.1.2.0/24
ip route 10.1.4.0 255.255.255.0 10.1.1.10
!
interface serial 0
ip summary-address eigrp 10.1.2.0 255.255.254.0
!
router eigrp 100
redistribute static 1000 1 255 1 1500
network 10.2.2.2 0.0.0.1
network 10.1.2.0 0.0.0.255
eigrp stub redistributed

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108

Hub and Spoke (STUBs)


A

10.2.2.2/31
B

10.1.3.0/24

At A, you can tell B is a


stub using show ip eigrp neighbor detail

10.1.2.0/24

router-a#show ip eigrp neighbor detail


IP-EIGRP neighbors for process 100
H Address
Interface
Hold Uptime SRTT RTO Q Seq
(sec)
(ms)
Cnt Num
0 10.2.2.3
Se0
13 00:00:15 9 200 0 9
Version 12.4/1.2, Retrans: 0, Retries: 0, Prefixes: 1
Stub Peer Advertising ( CONNECTED ) Routes
Suppressing queries

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109

Hub and Spoke (STUBs)


A

10.2.2.2/31
B

10.1.3.0/24

At B, you can see that the EIGRP process for AS 100 is


running as a stub using show ip protocols

10.1.2.0/24
router-b#show ip protocols
Routing Protocol is "eigrp 100"
Outgoing update filter list for all interfaces is not set
Incoming update filter list for all interfaces is not set
Default networks flagged in outgoing updates
Default networks accepted from incoming updates
EIGRP metric weight K1=1, K2=0, K3=1, K4=0, K5=0
EIGRP maximum hopcount 100
EIGRP maximum metric variance 1
EIGRP stub, connected
Redistributing: static, eigrp 100
.
.
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110

Hub and Spoke (STUBs)


Any combination of the route types can be specified on the eigrp stub
statement, except receive-only, which cannot be used with any other option
For example:
eigrp stub connected summary redistributed

If eigrp stub is specified without any options, it will enable


eigrp stub connected summary

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111

Hub and Spoke Scaling


Most EIGRP Neighbors Seen
800 deployed in live, working networks
3500 is the largest number ever tested in a lab environment

Key Strategy for achieving scalability is design!


Stub for EIGRP hub and spoke environments is a must
Minimize advertisements to spokes
Using summaries at the hubs with the new static summary
metric option should increase scaling further still.

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112

Hub and Spoke Scaling


The blue line shows the rate at which the convergence time increases as EIGRP
neighbors are added to hub routers and does not pass 500
The red line shows the convergence time if the neighbors added are all configured as
EIGRP stub routers and scales to over 1000 peers
Measure initial bring up convergence until all neighbors are established and queues
empty
Dual Homed Remotes, NPE-G1 with 1G RAM, 3000 prefixes advertised to each spoke
Time (minutes)

Non-Stub

EIGRP Stub
5

Test performed with 12.3(14)T1


2

500

1000

1500

Number of Neighbors
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113

Hub and Spoke Failover


The blue line with the steep slope shows the rate at which the failover convergence time
increases as EIGRP neighbors are added to a single hub router
The red line shows the failover convergence time if the neighbors added are all
configured as EIGRP stub routers and is extremely linear in behavior
Primary Hub failed, time measured for EIGRP to complete failover convergence
Dual Homed Remotes, NPE-G1 with 1G RAM, 3000 prefixes advertised to each spoke
Time (minutes)

60

Non-Stub

Test performed with 12.3(14)T1

15
1
0
0

EIGRP Stub
200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

Number of Neighbors
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114

Stub Enhancements
Multipoint interface Enhancements
EIGRP Enhances Multi-point interface stability

Hub

Multipoint
tunnel
interface

When bringing up an interface with hundreds of neighbors,


EIGRP may converge slowly, symptoms include;
Continuous neighbor resets
Packet retransmission timeout
Stuck-in-Actives
Hold time expirations
EIGRP uses the bandwidth on the main interface divided by
the number of neighbors on that interface to get the
bandwidth available per neighbor
Spoke-1

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Spoke-2

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Spoke-n

115

Stub Enhancements
Hub and spoke networks are often built over
interface s0/0
point-to-multipoint networks
ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
If the hub is configured to treat the entire point-tomultipoint network as a single interface,
it can transmit multicast and broadcast packets which
are received by all spoke routers
Packets transmitted
here are received
Layer 3 on the hub router will not notice a single circuit
by all spokes
failure

Packets transmitted
here are received
only by the hub router
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116

Stub Enhancements
The hub router can also be configured to treat each
spokes circuit as an individual point-to-point circuit on
a sub-interface
If end-to-end signaling is in use, a failed circuit will
cause the sub-interface to fail

interface s0/0.1 point-to-point


ip address 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.254
....
interface s0/0.2 point-to-point
ip address 10.1.1.2 255.255.255.254
....
interface s0/0.3 point-to-point
ip address 10.1.1.4 255.255.255.254

Packets transmitted
here are received
by one spoke

interface s0.1 point-to-point


ip address 10.1.1.x 255.255.255.254
....

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Packets transmitted
here are received
only by the hub router
Cisco Public

117

Stub Enhancements
Interface type may appear to EIGRP to be a shared interface but
underlying network may not match up with the bandwidth
defined on the interface.
The minimum packet pacing interval can be lowered to a
minimum value of 1 ms by using the bandwidth or bandwidth
percentage commands
router(config-if)#ip bandwidth-percent eigrp 4453...

Improvements to EIGRP transport to speedup convergence and


increase neighbor scaling
On a fast interface or a tunnel interface which has unreliable
pacing value, EIGRP packet transmissions can also be driven
using the neighbor acknowledgements (ACK-driven)
Startup Update Packets exchanged at neighbor startup may
now be sent using multicast
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118

Routing Leaking thru STUBs


EIGRP Hub and Spoke Stub Route Leaking

match ip address 1
match interface e0/0
route-map LeakList permit 20
match ip address 2
match interface e1/0
!
access-list 1 permit 10.1.1.0
access-list 2 permit 0.0.0.0
!
router eigrp ROCKS
address-family ipv4 autonomous-system 100
eigrp stub leak-map LeakList
BRKRST-2336

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

A
0.0.0.0/0

B
No Advertisements

EIGRP offers additional control over routes advertised by Stubs


Some deployments have a single remote site with two
routers and we want to mark the entire site
as a stub site
Normally stubs C and D wont advertise learned routes
to each other, to override this, add the leak-map
configuration
route-map LeakList permit 10

0.0.0.0/0

D
Remote Site

Cisco Public

10.1.1.0/24

119

Routing Leaking thru STUBs


If the B to D link fails
10.1.1.0/24 can not be reached from A
Since C is a stub, C is not advertising
10.1.1.0/24 to A
D can not reach A, or anything behind A
Since C is a stub, C is not advertising the
default route to D

C
D
Remote Site

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10.1.1.0/24

120

Routing Leaking thru STUBs


A

e0/0

The solution is for C and D to advertise a subset of their


learned routes, even though they are both stubs
This is exactly what stub leaking does

C
router eigrp 100
eigrp stub leak-map LeakList
route-map LeakList permit 10
match ip address 1
match interface e0/0
route-map LeakList permit 20
match ip address 2
match interface e1/0

D
Remote Site

10.1.1.0/24

access-list 1 permit 10.1.1.0


access-list 2 permit 0.0.0.0
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121

Routing Leaking thru STUBs


If the B to D link fails
D is advertising 10.1.1.0/24 to C, and C to A, so 10.1.1.0/24
is still reachable
C is leaking the default route to D, so D can still reach the
rest of the network through C
A and B will still not query towards the remote site, since C
and D are stubs
Stub leaking is available in 12.3(10.02)T

C
D
Remote Site

10.1.1.0/24

Leak 10.1.1.0/24 and 0/0


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122

Hub and Spoke Summarization


Summarize towards the core
Number the remote links out of the same address space as
the remote networks, if possible
Consider using /31s to conserve address space for pointto-points

access-list 10 deny 192.168.0.0 0.0.0.255


access-list 10 permit any
....
router eigrp 100
distribute-list 10 out

Summary only

Send the remotes a default only


0.0.0.0/0
If you cant address the links out of the
summary address space, then use a distribute
list to filter them from being advertised back into
the core of the network

192.168.1.0/24
192.168.3.0/24
192.168.2.0/24
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123

Hub and Spoke Summarization


All the same principles apply to dual homed hub and
spoke networks
Summarize or filter the links to the remotes
Consider using /31s on point-to-points to conserve address
space

Summary only

Provide as little information as possible to the remotes

0.0.0.0/0

Something more than a default route may be required to provide


optimal routing

Avoid Summary Black Holes!

192.168.1.0/24
192.168.2.0/24

192.168.3.0/24

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124

Hub and Spoke Summarization


EIGRP can run over either a multipoint interface at
the hub router or point-to-point sub-interfaces

A single multipoint interface is easier to


configure, but consider
Dont oversubscribe EIGRPs use of bandwidth
Multipoint can be harder to troubleshoot

Single multipoint or
several point-to-points
Summary
only
0.0.0.0/0

Use summarization at the hub routers to reduce


information into the network core
Provide as little information to the remotes as possible
Declare the remote routers as stubs
router eigrp 100
eigrp stub connected
....

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192.168.1.0/24
192.168.2.0/24
192.168.2.0/24

Cisco Public

125

Hub and Spoke Summarization


ip summary-address eigrp 1 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0

10.2.1.0/24

A
B

10.1.2.1

10.0.0.0/8

Configure two routers back to back with overlapping


summaries
Generate a packet towards 10.1.2.1 from either router
At A, the best path is through 10.1.0.0/16 to B
At B, the best path is through 10.0.0.0/8 to A
Routing Loop

10.1.0.0/16

The route generated by the summary is called


a discard route
What would happen if this route isnt created?

10.1.1.0/24
ip summary-address eigrp 1 10.1.0.0 255.255.0.0

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126

WAN Aggregation
Data Center

Core

WAN Aggregation

Internet
Mail
Servers

Mobile Worker

Internet
Servers

Firewall
VPN
Branch
Router

Core

Application
Acceleration

WAN
Remote Office

Distribution

Regional
Router

Application
Acceleration

Access

Building 1

Building 2

Building 3

Building 4

Regional Office
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127

WAN Aggregation
Security Enhancements
DMVPN
Dual Home
Scaling
Enhancements

PE-CE
Backdoor Links w/SoO

WAN Transparency OTP


Point-to-Point
Route Reflector

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128

Security Enhancements
Adaptive Security Appliances (ASA) Firewall
The Cisco ASA 5500 series offers EIGRP support
Common portable EIGRP core code with a platform dependent OS-shim
Supports EIGRP stub and other key features
Newer platforms supported

Additional CCO information


http://www.cisco.com/go/asa

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129

WAN Aggregation
Security Enhancements
DMVPN
Dual Home
Scaling
Enhancements

PE-CE
Backdoor Links w/SoO

WAN Transparency OTP


Point-to-Point
Route Reflector

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130

EIGRP DMVPN - Dual Home / Dual Provider


Hub 1

EIGRP Dual Hub DMVPN, Dual Domain DMVPN


EIGRP has been enhanced to handle Dual Hub and
Dual DMVPN domains
Stub Co-Existence Allows for Dual Hubs

DMVPN
Domain 1

Support for dual Hubs for redundancy


Load-balancing

SP 1

Dual DMVPN Domains

Hub 2

DMVPN
Domain 2

SP 2

Enables load-balancing for dual DMVPN domain


Spoke to spoke load balancing and redundancy
EIGRP honors the no next-hop self command on the hub sites
Site1

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Site2

131

EIGRP DMVPN
Single DMVPN Hub
Single mGRE tunnel on all nodes

192.168.0.0/24
.2

Physical: 172.17.0.5
Tunnel0:
10.0.0.2

Physical: (Dynamic)
Tunnel0: 10.0.0.12

Spoke B

Physical: (Dynamic)
Tunnel0: 10.0.0.11

.............
.1

.1

192.168.12.0/24

.37
Web

Spoke A
.25

192.168.11.0/24
PC
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132

EIGRP DMVPN
Dual DMVPN Hub
Single mGRE tunnel on all nodes

192.168.0.0/24
.2

.1

Mixed Stub Types on Shared


Media 12.2(35.01)S 12.4(7)
Physical: 172.17.0.1
Tunnel0:
10.0.0.1

Physical: 172.17.0.5
Tunnel0:
10.0.0.2

Physical: (Dynamic)
Tunnel0: 10.0.0.12

Spoke B

Physical: (Dynamic)
Tunnel0: 10.0.0.11

.............
.1

.1

192.168.12.0/24

.37
Web

Spoke A
.25

192.168.11.0/24
PC
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133

EIGRP DMVPN
900

800
Time (seconds)

700
Convergence

How many neighbors can we have


on a single tunnel?
Currently, the practical maximum is
600 while advertising no more than
5k prefixes

600
500
400
300
200
100
0

100

1000

5000

8000

10000

344

100
400

20000

175

311

368

645
805

500
600

541

863

Peer Count, Prefixes


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134

EIGRP DMVPN

Routes
Convergence
(seconds)

BRKRST-2336

600 Peers

500 Peers

400 Peers

300 Peers

200 Peers

100 Peers

Convergence Time

What about dual hubs, single DMVPN?


Currently, the practical maximum is 600 while advertising no more than 5k prefixes

40000

20000

15000

10000

8000

5000

613

622

778

652

650

549

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135

EIGRP DMVPN Enhancements


Initial convergence testing was done with 400 peers with 10,000 prefixes to each peer
Measure initial bring up convergence until all neighbors are established and queues
empty
(prior to 12.4(7))
(12.4(7))
(12.4(9) and later)

33 min
30

Convergence Time

EIGRP DMVPN Phase 0


EIGRP DMVPN Phase I
EIGRP DMVPN Phase II

25
20
15

11 min
10

3 min
5

Phase 0

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Phase I

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Phase II

136

EIGRP DMVPN Customer Experience


Current Max Recommended is 800 peers on a single tunnel, chassis
8,000 peers on the whole network, terminating on
10 hub routers to distribute the load
Typical to have each spoke advertise between 25 prefixes to the hubs
Convergence time 35 seconds during a failover
Another network is scaling to 400 peers and 10,000 prefixes (specific
routes needed for spoke-to-spoke capability)

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137

EIGRP DMVPN Scaling


Testing Based on 12.4(7) for EIGRP (Phase I)
Big Improvements for EIGRP went into this release!

Study performed to analyze the impact of increasing Prefix count and compare that to
increasing Peer counts to find
the bottlenecks
Data for Single Hub and Dual Hub essentially equivalent
Peers were fixed at 500, prefixes were increased from 020k
Prefixes were fixed at 5k, peers were increased from 100700

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138

EIGRP DMVPN Scaling


Effect of Prefix Count on Scaling
Varying Prefix Count, 500 Peers Convergence Measurement
1600
1400

Time (sec)

1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
0

BRKRST-2336

2000

4000

6000

8000

10000
Prefixes

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

12000

14000

16000

Cisco Public

18000

20000

139

EIGRP DMVPN Scaling


Effect of Prefix Count on Scaling
Varying Peer Count, 5k Prefixes on Convergence
3500
3000

Time (sec)

2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
100

BRKRST-2336

200

300

400
Peer Count

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

500

600

Cisco Public

700

140

EIGRP DMVPN Scaling


Peer Count is the bottleneck
Peer count is the dominate variable
There is a combined impact with Prefix count
Active development is underway to increase scale

Further enhancements are currently being investigated


Focused on increasing Peer count significantly
Continued increase of Prefix count
Combined impact targeting overall significant reduction
in convergence

More to come on DMVPN!!

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141

3rd Party Next Hop


router eigrp ROCKS
address-family ipv4 auto 4453
af-interface Ethernet0/0
no next-hop-self

EIGRP Support for 3rd Party Next Hops


EIGRP offers 3rd Party next hop support at LAN
redistribution points;
Example, A, B and C share the same broadcast segment
A redistributes OSPF into EIGRP
B isnt running OSPF
C isnt running EIGRP

A
.3
EIGRP

For redistributed OSPF routes B normally shows A as next.2


hop despite a direct connection to C
A now sends updates to B with C as the next-hop
B
EIGRP Preserves the next hop in redistribution from
broadcast networks
EIGRP-IPv4 VR(ROCKS) Topology Table for AS(4453)/ID(10.0.0.1)

OSPF

.1

C
10.1.1.0/24

....
P 10.1.1.0/24, 1 successors
via 10.1.2.1
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142

3rd Party Next Hop: Add-Path


Hub 1

EIGRP DMVPN, MultiPath, AddPath


EIGRP has been enhanced to carry multiple next-hops
Equal Cost MultiPath (15.2(3)T, 15.2(1)S)

Hub 2

DMVPN
Domain

Destination network is reachable via more than one DMVPN (mGRE


tunnel) and the ip next-hop needs to be preserved over both paths

Add-path (15.3(1)S)
Spoke site has multiple DMVPN spoke routers and want to be able to
load-balance spoke-spoke tunnels going into this spoke site

SP 1

SP 2

Up to 4 additional Nexthops addresses (5 total)

Site1

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Site2

143

WAN Aggregation
Security Enhancements
DMVPN
Dual Home
Scaling
Enhancements

PE-CE
Backdoor Links w/SoO

WAN Transparency OTP


Point-to-Point
Route Reflector

BRKRST-2336

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144

PE-CE Goals
PE1

MPLS VPN
Cloud

PE2

Customer sites belonging to


same EIGRP AS

Site 1

CE1

Site 2

CE2

Allow customers to segment their network using an MPLS VPN backbone


Impose little requirements or no restrictions on customer networks

CE and C routers are NOT required to run newer code


CE/C upgrades recommended for full Site-of-Origin(SoO) route tag functionality
Customer sites may be same or different Autonomous Systems
Customer sites may consist of multiple connections to the MPLS VPN backbone
Customer sites may consist of one or more connections not part of the MPLS VPN
backbone (backdoor links)
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145

PE-CE: Operation
CE runs EIGRP as before where as PE runs EIGRP-VRF process per VRF/AS
EIGRP routes are distributed to sites customer via MP-iBGP on the MPLS-VPN
backbone
There are no EIGRP adjacencies or EIGRP updates in MPLS/VPN backbone
EIGRP information is carried across MPLS/VPN backbone by MP-BGP in new extended
communities (set and used by PEs)

BRKRST-2336

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146

PE-CE EIGRP Extended Community


Define a set up BGP Extended Community values to carry EIGRP route information
Cost Community attribute can be applied at various points in the MP-BGP best-path
calculation
Type

Usage

Value

8800

EIGRP General Route Information

Flags + Tag

8801

EIGRP Route Metric Information + AS

AS + Delay

8802

EIGRP Route Metric Information

Reliability + Hop + BW

8803

EIGRP Route Metric Information

Reserve + Load + MTU

8804

EIGRP Ext. Route Information

Remote AS + Remote ID

8805

EIGRP Ext. Route Information

Remote Protocol+ Remote Metric

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147

PE-CE EIGRP Extended Community


Looking for Cost Communities
PE11#show ip bgp vpnv4 all 1.1.1.1
BGP routing table entry for 11:1:1.0.0.0/8, version 7
Paths: (1 available, best #1, table EIGRP-Same-AS)
140.0.0.1 (via EIGRP-Same-AS) from 0.0.0.0 (11.11.11.11)
Origin incomplete, metric 1889792, localpref 100, weight 32768, valid, sourced, best
Extended Community: RT:1:1

Cost:pre-bestpath:128:1889792 (default-2145593855) 0x8800:32768:0


0x8801:1:640000 0x8802:65281:1249792 0x8803:65281:1500

We see that EIGRP Attributes of Delay + BW + Hop Count + Reliability


+ MTU are carried via MP-BGP Extended Community
Value 128 represents that route is originated internal to EIGRP domain

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148

PE-CE EIGRP Extended Community


PE11#show ip bgp vpnv4 all 111.0.0.0
BGP routing table entry for 11:1:111.0.0.0/8, version 25
Paths: (1 available, best #1, table EIGRP-Same-AS)
12.12.12.12 (metric 10) from 12.12.12.12 (12.12.12.12)
Origin incomplete, metric 2274048, localpref 100, valid, internal, best
Extended Community: RT:1:1
Cost:pre-bestpath:129:2274048 (default-2145209599) 0x8800:0:0

0x8801:1:1024256 0x8802:65281:1249792 0x8803:65281:1500


0x8804:0:1684300900 0x8805:4:1

If the route is external to EIGRP AS, we see a value of 129, and we


also see two additional pieces of information in the Cost
Community value:
0x8804 includes External-AS + External Originator ID
0x8805 includes External Protocol + External Metric
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149

Customer Sites in the Same EIGRP AS


PE1

MPLS VPN
Cloud

PE2

Customer sites belonging to


same EIGRP AS

CE1
Site 1
EIGRP
AS 1

CE2
Site 2
EIGRP
AS 1

AS CE-Sites are in the same-AS, routes will be learned with normal EIGRP attributes
MP-BGP will carry the EIGRP attributes natively as part of the BGP update (EIGRP AS
#, EIGRP Metrics)
Customer sites will see remote sites as part of their normal EIGRP domain

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150

Customer Sites in the Same EIGRP AS


CE1#show ip route 2.2.2.2
Routing entry for 2.2.2.2/32
Known via "eigrp 1", distance 90, metric 2913792, type internal
Last update from 140.0.0.2 on Serial2/0, 00:00:13 ago
Loading 1/255, Hops 2

CE2#show ip route 1.1.1.1


Routing entry for 1.1.1.1/32
Known via "eigrp 1", distance 90, metric 2401792, type internal
Last update from 140.0.0.202 on Serial2/0, 00:03:43 ago
Loading 1/255, Hops 2

Remote Site routes are being on the Local PE routers with


Internal EIGRP Admin Distance of 90 and with Hop Count of 2

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151

Customer Sites in the Same EIGRP AS


PE11#show ip eigrp vrf EIGRP-Same-AS topology 1.1.1.1 255.255.255.255
IP-EIGRP topology entry for 1.1.1.1/32
State is Passive, Query origin flag is 1, 1 Successor(s), FD is 1889792
Routing Descriptor Blocks:
140.0.0.1 (Serial2/0), from 140.0.0.1, Send flag is 0x0
Composite metric is (1889792/128256), Route is Internal
Vector metric:
Minimum bandwidth is 2048 Kbit
Total delay is 25000 microseconds
Reliability is 255/255
Load is 1/255
Minimum MTU is 1500
Hop count is 1

1.1.1.1/32 is locally learned via


EIGRP from CE1
2.2.2.2/32 is learned via MP-BGP
from remote-PE and
redistributed into the EIGRP-VRF
on local Router

PE11#show ip eigrp vrf EIGRP-Same-AS topology 2.2.2.2 255.255.255.255


IP-EIGRP topology entry for 2.2.2.2/32
State is Passive, Query origin flag is 1, 1 Successor(s), FD is 2401792
Routing Descriptor Blocks:
0.0.0.0, from 0.0.0.0, Send flag is 0x0
Composite metric is (2401792/0), Route is Internal (VPNv4 Sourced)
Vector metric:
Minimum bandwidth is 2048 Kbit
Total delay is 45000 microseconds
Reliability is 255/255
Load is 1/255
Minimum MTU is 1500
Hop count is 1
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152

Customer Sites in the Same EIGRP AS


ip vrf EIGRP-Same-AS
rd 11:1
route-target export 1:1
route-target import 1:1
!
router eigrp 100
address-family ipv4 vrf EIGRP-Same-AS
redistribute bgp 65000 metric 10000 1 255 1 1500
network 140.0.0.0
no auto-summary
autonomous-system 1
exit-address-family
!
router bgp 65000
no bgp default ipv4-unicast
bgp log-neighbor-changes
neighbor 12.12.12.12 remote-as 65000
neighbor 12.12.12.12 update-source Loopback0
!
address-family vpnv4
neighbor 12.12.12.12 activate
neighbor 12.12.12.12 send-community extended
exit-address-family
!
address-family ipv4 vrf EIGRP-Same-AS
redistribute eigrp 1
no synchronization
exit-address-family
BRKRST-2336

PE 1

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

ip vrf EIGRP-Same-AS
rd 12:1
route-target export 1:1
route-target import 1:1
!
router eigrp 100
address-family ipv4 vrf EIGRP-Same-AS
redistribute bgp 65000 metric 10000 1 255 1 1500
network 140.0.0.0
no auto-summary
autonomous-system 1
exit-address-family
!
router bgp 65000
no bgp default ipv4-unicast
bgp log-neighbor-changes
neighbor 11.11.11.11 remote-as 65000
neighbor 11.11.11.11 update-source Loopback0
!
address-family vpnv4
neighbor 11.11.11.11 activate
neighbor 11.11.11.11 send-community extended
exit-address-family
!
address-family ipv4 vrf EIGRP-Same-AS
redistribute eigrp 1
no synchronization
exit-address-family
Cisco Public

PE 2

153

Customer Sites in Different EIGRP AS


PE1

MPLS VPN
Cloud

PE2

Customer sites belonging to


different EIGRP AS

CE1
Site 1
EIGRP
AS 1

CE2
Site 2
EIGRP
AS 2

Customer sites are in different EIGRP AS


CE Sites will learn the remote-CE-site routes as EXTERNAL routes
This is normal behavior due to the different EIGRP AS
MP-BGP on the PE routers will carry the EIGRP routes with their normal attributes

BRKRST-2336

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154

Customer Sites in Different EIGRP AS


CE1#show ip route 2.2.2.2
Routing entry for 2.2.2.2/32
Known via "eigrp 1", distance 170, metric 1762048, type external
Last update from 140.0.0.2 on Serial2/0, 00:00:22 ago
Loading 1/255, Hops 1
CE2#show ip route 1.1.1.1
Routing entry for 1.1.1.1/32
Known via "eigrp 2", distance 170, metric 1762048, type external
Last update from 140.0.0.202 on Serial2/0, 00:00:16 ago
Loading 1/255, Hops 1

Remote Site routes are being on the Local PE routers with External EIGRP Admin
Distance of 170 and with Hop Count of 1

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155

Customer Sites in Different EIGRP AS


PE11#show ip eigrp vrf EIGRP-Diff-AS topology 1.1.1.1 255.255.255.255
IP-EIGRP topology entry for 1.1.1.1/32
State is Passive, Query origin flag is 1, 1 Successor(s), FD is 1889792
Routing Descriptor Blocks:
140.0.0.1 (Serial2/0), from 140.0.0.1, Send flag is 0x0
Composite metric is (1889792/128256), Route is Internal
Vector metric:
Minimum bandwidth is 2048 Kbit
Total delay is 25000 microseconds
Reliability is 255/255
Load is 1/255
Minimum MTU is 1500
Hop count is 1
PE11# show ip eigrp vrf EIGRP-Diff-AS topology 2.2.2.2 255.255.255.255
IP-EIGRP topology entry for 2.2.2.2/32
State is Passive, Query origin flag is 1, 1 Successor(s), FD is 256256
Routing Descriptor Blocks:
0.0.0.0, from Redistributed, Send flag is 0x0
Composite metric is (256256/0), Route is External
Vector metric:
Minimum bandwidth is 10000 Kbit
Total delay is 10 microseconds
Reliability is 255/255
Load is 1/255
Minimum MTU is 1500
Hop count is 0
External data:
Originating router is 140.0.0.2 (this system)
AS number of route is 65000
External protocol is BGP, external metric is 2401792
Administrator tag is 0 (0x00000000)
BRKRST-2336

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

1.1.1.1/32 is locally learned via


EIGRP from CE1

2.2.2.2/32 is learned via MPBGP from remote-PE and


redistributed into the EIGRPVRF on local Router. This is an
external route from the EIGRP
domain and as we the info.
carried in the EIGRP-VRF
topology.

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Customer Sites in Different EIGRP AS


ip vrf EIGRP-Diff-AS
rd 11:1
route-target export 1:1
route-target import 1:1
!
router eigrp 100
address-family ipv4 vrf EIGRP-Diff-AS
redistribute bgp 65000 metric 10000 1 255 1 1500
network 140.0.0.0
autonomous-system 1
exit-address-family
!
router bgp 65000
no bgp default ipv4-unicast
bgp log-neighbor-changes
neighbor 12.12.12.12 remote-as 65000
neighbor 12.12.12.12 update-source Loopback0
!
address-family vpnv4
neighbor 12.12.12.12 activate
neighbor 12.12.12.12 send-community extended
exit-address-family
!
address-family ipv4 vrf EIGRP-Diff-AS
redistribute eigrp 1
no synchronization
exit-address-family

BRKRST-2336

PE 1

ip vrf EIGRP-Diff-AS
rd 12:1
route-target export 1:1
route-target import 1:1
!
router eigrp 100
address-family ipv4 vrf EIGRP-Diff-AS
redistribute bgp 65000 metric 10000 1 255 1 1500
network 140.0.0.0
autonomous-system 2
exit-address-family
!
router bgp 65000
no bgp default ipv4-unicast
bgp log-neighbor-changes
neighbor 11.11.11.11 remote-as 65000
neighbor 11.11.11.11 update-source Loopback0
!
address-family vpnv4
neighbor 11.11.11.11 activate
neighbor 11.11.11.11 send-community extended
exit-address-family
!
address-family ipv4 vrf EIGRP-Diff-AS
redistribute eigrp 2
no synchronization
exit-address-family

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

PE 2

157

Customer Sites with Backdoor Links


PE1

MPLS VPN
Cloud

PE2

Customer Sites with


Backdoor Links

C3

CE1

CE2
CE2

CE1
Site 1
EIGRP
AS 1

Site 2
EIGRP
AS 1

C4

Customer wants to use the MPLS-VPN core for the Sites connectivity

Use the Back-door links in case of a failure (they usually are low-speed links)
Use EIGRP attributes on backdoor links for the Sites Connectivity (example: delay)
Everything should work as expected in case of a loss of connectivity through
the MPLS-VPN Core
BRKRST-2336

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158

WAN Aggregation
Security Enhancements
DMVPN
Dual Home
Scaling
Enhancements

PE-CE
Backdoor Links w/SoO

WAN Transparency OTP


Point-to-Point
Route Reflector

BRKRST-2336

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

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159

OTP Overview

Allow customers to segment their


network using an MPLS VPN
backbone

BGP

EIGRP

Complexity

Impose little requirements or no


restrictions on customer networks

Work seamlessly with both


Carrier
traditional managed and non- Involvement
managed internet connections

EIGRP routes are NOT distributed


to MP-iBGP and never show up in Multiple
the MPLS-VPN backbone
Redistribution

Compliments an L3VPN Any-toAny architecture (no hair pinning of


traffic)

Simplicity

Carrier
Independence

PE/CE

EIGRP
OTP

Private &
Secure

Public &
Unsecure

BRKRST-2336

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Zero
Redistribution

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160

OTP Overview
EIGRP Support for WAN Transparency
EIGRP offers OTP support for Transparent CE to CE Routing
Allow customers to segment their network using MPLS
VPN backbone, or public network
Impose NO special requirement on ISP

Site

EIGRP end-to-end solution with no route


Site
redistribution
Service Provider
Customer sites may be same or different
Network
Autonomous Systems
CE routers are only routers requiring upgrade
Site
No routing protocol is needed on CE to PE link
Customer sites may consist of multiple connections
Site
to the MPLS VPN backbone
Customer sites may consist of one or more connections not part of the
MPLS VPN backbone (backdoor links)
BRKRST-2336

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

Site

161

OTP CE to CE
interface Ethernet0/2
ip address 172.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
!
router eigrp ROCKS
address-family ipv4 unicast auto 4453
neighbor 172.2.2.2 Ethernet0/2 remote 10 lisp-encap
network 10.0.0.0

interface Ethernet0/2
ip address 172.2.2.2 255.255.255.0
!
router eigrp ROCKS
address-family ipv4 unicast auto 4453
neighbor 172.1.1.1 Ethernet0/2 remote 10 lisp-encap
network 10.0.0.0

Service Provider
MPLS VPN
CE1
EIGRP
AS 4453

Customer sites belonging to same EIGRP AS

CE2 EIGRP
AS 4453

= DP
= CP

Site to Site peering is Over the ToP (across) the WAN

CE-1 and CE-2 form peering and exchange route updates using unicast packets
CE-1 sends unicast packet to CE-2 public address (172.2.2.2)
CE-2 sends unicast packet to CE-1 public address (172.1.1.1)

Data is encapsulation happens on the CE routers using LISP encapsulation


BRKRST-2336

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

162

OTP Multiple Branches


Use EIGRP Route-Reflectors when setting up multiple branches
address-family ipv4 unicast auto 4453
neighbor 172.2.2.2 Serial 0/2 remote 10 lisp-encap
network 10.0.0.0
exit-address-family

router eigrp ROCKS


address-family ipv4 unicast auto 4453
remote-neighbors source Serial 0/0 unicast-listen lisp-encap
network 10.0.0.0

EIGRP
AS 4453

Select a CE to function as Route Reflector (RR)


EIGRP-RR preserves the next-hop of the advertising
CE Router when sending update to other CE Routers
Using GETVPN, both Control and Data can optionally
be encrypted for security
Adding additional CE routers does not
EIGRP
require a change to the configuration of
AS
4453
the EIGRP-RR

BRKRST-2336

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

RR

= DP
= CP

EIGRP
AS 4453

EIGRP
AS 4453
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163

OTP Backdoor Links


Use MPLS-VPN core for the site-to-site connectivity
Use back-door link in case of a failure (these are usually are low-speed links)
Service Provider
MPLS VPN
EIGRP
AS 4453

CE1

CE2
EIGRP
AS 4453

Backdoor Link

All prefixes appear are native EIGRP routes (Internals show up in other site as Internals)
Normal EIGRP metric selection and costing will influence path selection
Convergence events in Customer site
- does not depend on MPLS convergence
- does not impact MPLS Core
Everything works as expected in case of a loss of connectivity through the MPLS-VPN Core
BRKRST-2336

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

164

OTP Multi-Provider
OTP supports Dual-Providers
Select EIGRP-RR for each provider
Normal EIGRP metric selection and costing will influence path selection
Internet

= DP

RR

= CP

EIGRP
AS 4453

EIGRP
AS 4453

EIGRP
AS 4453

RR

MPLS L3 VPN
BRKRST-2336

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

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165

EIGRP w/OTP vs. EIGRP w/DMVPN Comparison


EIGRP Configuration
!
interface lisp0
ip mtu 1400
!
router EIGRP LISP-OTP
!
address-family ipv4 unicast autonomous-system 4453
!
neighbor 172.2.2.2 Ethernet0/2 remote 10 lisp-encap
network 10.4.132.0 0.0.0.255
network 10.4.163.0 0.0.0.127
exit-address-family
!
ip route 20.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 64.73.10.2
ip route 20.1.2.1 255.255.255.255 74.73.10.2
ip route 64.4.128.0 255.255.255.0 64.73.10.2

BRKRST-2336

GETVPN Configuration
crypto isakmp policy 15
encr aes 256
authentication pre-share
group 2
lifetime 1200
crypto isakmp key c1sco123 address 64.4.128.151
crypto isakmp key c1sco123 address 64.4.129.152
!
crypto gdoi group GETVPN-PUBLIC
identity number 65511
server address ipv4 64.4.128.151
server address ipv4 64.4.129.152
!
crypto map GETVPN-MAP 10 gdoi
set group GETVPN-PUBLIC
!
interface Ethernet0/1
ip address 64.73.10.1 255.255.255.0
crypto map GETVPN-MAP
!
interface Ethernet0/2
ip address 74.73.10.1 255.255.255.0
crypto map GETVPN-MAP

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

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166

EIGRP w/OTP vs. EIGRP w/DMVPN Comparison


ip vrf INET-PUBLIC
rd 65512:1
!
crypto keyring DMVPN-KEYRING vrf INET-PUBLIC
pre-shared-key address 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 key cisco123
!
crypto isakmp policy 10
encr aes 256
authentication pre-share
group 2
crypto isakmp keepalive 30 5
crypto isakmp profile FVRF-ISAKMP-INET-PUBLIC
keyring DMVPN-KEYRING
match identity address 0.0.0.0 INET-PUBLIC
!
crypto ipsec transform-set AES256/SHA/TRANSPORT esp-aes 256 esp-sha-hmac
mode transport
!
crypto ipsec profile DMVPN-PROFILE
set security-association lifetime seconds 7200
set transform-set AES256/SHA/TRANSPORT
set isakmp-profile FVRF-ISAKMP-INET-PUBLIC
!
interface Ethernet0/1
ip vrf forwarding INET-PUBLIC
ip address 64.73.10.1 255.255.255.0
!
interface Tunnel10
ip address 10.4.132.201 255.255.255.0
no ip redirects
ip mtu 1400
ip nhrp authentication cisco123
ip nhrp map multicast 172.16.130.1
ip nhrp map 10.4.132.1 172.16.130.1
ip nhrp network-id 101
ip nhrp holdtime 600
ip nhrp nhs 10.4.132.1
ip nhrp shortcut
tunnel source Ethernet0/1
tunnel mode gre multipoint
tunnel vrf INET-PUBLIC
tunnel protection ipsec profile DMVPN-PROFILE
!
router EIGRP 200
network 10.4.132.0 0.0.0.255
network 10.4.163.0 0.0.0.127
!
ip route vrf INET-PUBLIC 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 64.73.10.2

BRKRST-2336

ip vrf INET-PUBLIC-2
rd 65512:2
!
crypto keyring DMVPN-KEYRING-2 vrf INET-PUBLIC-2
pre-shared-key address 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 key cisco123
crypto isakmp profile FVRF-ISAKMP-INET-PUBLIC-2
keyring DMVPN-KEYRING-2
match identity address 0.0.0.0 INET-PUBLIC-2
!
crypto ipsec transform-set AES256/SHA/TRANSPORT-2 esp-aes 256 esp-sha-hmac
mode transport
!
crypto ipsec profile DMVPN-PROFILE-2
set security-association lifetime seconds 7200
set transform-set AES256/SHA/TRANSPORT-2
set isakmp-profile FVRF-ISAKMP-INET-PUBLIC-2
!
interface Ethernet0/2
ip vrf forwarding INET-PUBLIC-2
ip address 74.73.10.1 255.255.255.0
!
interface Tunnel20
ip address 10.4.133.201 255.255.255.0
no ip redirects
ip mtu 1400
ip nhrp authentication cisco123
ip nhrp map multicast 172.16.130.2
ip nhrp map 10.4.133.1 172.16.130.2
ip nhrp network-id 102
ip nhrp holdtime 600
ip nhrp nhs 10.4.133.1
ip nhrp shortcut
tunnel source Ethernet0/2
tunnel mode gre multipoint
tunnel vrf INET-PUBLIC-2
tunnel protection ipsec profile DMVPN-PROFILE-2
!
router EIGRP 200
network 10.4.133.0 0.0.0.255
ip route vrf INET-PUBLIC-2 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 74.73.10.2

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

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167

OTP WAN Solution Analysis Overview


EIGRP OTP

DMVPN / Internet

MPLS VPN

MPLS+DMVPN

Control Plane

EIGRP

IGP/BGP + NHRP;
LAN IGP

eBGP/iBGP;
LAN IGP

IGP/BGP + NHRP;
eBGP; LAN IGP

Data Plane

LISP

mGRE

IP

IP + mGRE

Privacy

GETVPN

IPSec over mGRE

GETVPN

GETVPN + DMVPN

Routing Policies

EIGRP, EIGRP Stub

EIGRP Stub

Redistribution and route


filtering

EIGRP Stub,
Redistribution, filtering,
Multiple AS

Network Virtualization

VRF/EVN to LISP multitenancy

DMVPN VRF-Lite; MPLS o


DMVPN

Multi-VRF CEs and


multiple IP VPNs

Multi-VRF Ces and


DMVPN VRF-Lite

Convergence
Branch/Hub

Branch Fast;
Hub Fast

Branch Fast;
Hub - Fast

Branch / Hub carrier


dependent

Carrier and DMVPN hub


dependent

Multicast Support

Planned

PIM Hub-n-Spoke

PIM MVPN

MVPN + DMVPN Hub-nSpoke

Provider Dependence

No

No

Yes

Yes/No

BRKRST-2336

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

168

Availability and Roadmap


EIGRP OTP Availability
ASR1K: IOS-XE 3.10 (June 2013)
ISR G2: IOS 15.4(1)T (Nov 2013)

Planned Future Enhancements


Multicast Support
VRF-aware
Security Group Tag (SGT) support

BRKRST-2336

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

169

Summary: What Have We Learned?

EIGRP is no longer proprietary


Consider deploying EIGRP IPv6 in small scale to see operational differences
Scalability of EIGRP is very important factor in modern networks deployment
Scalability with EIGRP is accomplished with stubs and summaries - see if you
can summarize further
Understand EIGRP fast convergence and resiliency techniques
Wide Metrics allows EIGRP to detect links speeds up to 4.2 Terabytes
Look at improving convergence by checking for feasible successor, and start
using BFD
EIGRP provides best scaling with DMVPN and hub and spoke environments
Things to consider when deploying EIGRP as a PE CE protocol
WAN deployments are greatly simplified with OTP
BRKRST-2336

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

170

Recommended Reading for BRKRST-2336

Open-EIGRP:
draft-savage-eigrp-00
ASIN: 1578701651

BRKRST-2336

ISBN 1587051877

ISBN:
0201657732

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

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171

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172

Final Thoughts
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173