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1300 CP For Tank Bottoms (Underside

Author: P.F. (Paul) Offermann

This section covers sacrificial anode and impressed current cathodic protection
systems for the underside of tank bottoms. It discusses soil tests, foundation types,
design parameters, and cost analysis. Step-by-step design examples are given for
protecting single tanks, and larger systems that protect many tanks are discussed
briefly. (For very large systems, a cathodic protection contractor should be
consulted.) Retrofits for existing tanks are discussed, along with their limitations.
The ETD Materials Division or Mechanical and Electrical Systems Division can
provide additional support. Discussions of the corrosion mechanisms and whether or
not cathodic protection is needed can be found in Section 720 of this manual and in
the Tank Manual. Internal cathodic protection of tanks is discussed in Section 1600
of this manual.


1310 General Information


1311 Galvanic Systems
1312 Impressed Current Systems
1320 Soil Testing (Predesign Phase)


1321 Soil Resistivity
1322 Soil Analysis
1323 Structure-to-Soil Potential Measurements
1330 Types of Foundation


1331 Sand or Dirt Foundations
1332 Sand and 80-mil High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Membrane
1333 Concrete Foundations
1334 Asphalt Foundations
1340 Design Parameters


1341 Sacrificial Anode Cathodic Protection Systems

Chevron Corporation


August 1999

1300 CP For Tank Bottoms (Underside)

Corrosion Prevention and Metallurgy Manual

1342 Impressed Current Cathodic Protection Systems
1343 Current Required for Protection
1344 Allowance for Soil Gradient
1345 Anode Consumption Rate
1350 Cathodic Protection Design Procedures


1351 Design Procedures
1352 Example 1: Design of a Galvanic Anode System for a Tank Without HDPE
Membrane (Sand or Earth Foundation)
1353 Example 2: Design of an Impressed Current System
1354 Example 3: Tank with HDPE Membrane (New Tank or Retrofit)
1355 Example 4: Deep-Well Anode Cathodic Protection Design

August 1999

1360 Cathodic Interference


1370 Cost Analysis


1380 References



Chevron Corporation

Section 1352 contains a design example for a 100-foot diameter tank on 1800 ohm-cm soil. Tests should be Chevron Corporation 1300-3 August 1999 . by economics. along with periodic inspection and maintenance. They require no external power source and are essentially maintenance free for the life of the system (typically 20 years).000-30. resistivity tests should be performed at a minimum of four locations around each tank at depths of 5 feet and 10 feet (Figure 1300-2). Larger deep.000 severe 2000-10. or for protection of many structures at once. 1312 Impressed Current Systems Impressed current systems for individual tanks consist of anodes (graphite. Figure 1300-1 is a flow diagram showing the necessary steps in the design of these systems. to tanks less than 40 feet in diameter and to soils with resistivities of less than 5000 ohm-cm.000 moderate 10. These systems are limited. Soil resistivity may be classified as follows [1]: Resistivity Range. Section 1352 contains a design example. 1311 Galvanic Systems Galvanic systems typically consist of a ring of magnesium anodes buried around a tank.000 unlikely For existing tanks. 1320 Soil Testing (Predesign Phase) 1321 Soil Resistivity Soil resistivity measurements are used both to evaluate soil corrosiveness in an area and as a parameter for anode ground bed design for cathodic protection. Usually. but again this design is not covered in detail here. platinum. See Section 1700 for further discussion of soil resistivity. impressed current systems are used for large tanks. Duriron.000 mild >30. This can be done using the Wenner four-pin method described in Section 1700.Corrosion Prevention and Metallurgy Manual 1300 CP For Tank Bottoms (Underside) 1310 General Information This section describes two types of systems for external cathodic protection of tank bottoms. or steel) placed either in a circle around the tank or sandwiched between a high density polyethylene (HDPE) membrane and the bottom of the tank.well systems with many anodes stacked vertically in a hole bored several hundred feet deep can also be used to protect many structures at once. Impressed current systems require an external power source and a rectifier. ohm-cm Corrosion Activity 0-2. for high resistivity soils.

1300-1 Flow Diagram for Design of External Cathodic Protection for Tank Bottoms 1300-4 Corrosion Prevention and Metallurgy Manual Chevron Corporation .1300 CP For Tank Bottoms (Underside) August 1999 Fig.

but a soil analysis is not required.Corrosion Prevention and Metallurgy Manual 1300 CP For Tank Bottoms (Underside) Fig. If tests cannot be performed during wet periods. and a soil analysis of the backfill should be performed as described in Section 1700. resistivities should be measured. 1300-2 Soil Resistivity Measurement Schematic performed during the wet periods of the year. Chevron Corporation 1300-5 August 1999 . soil samples should be taken for analysis. For new tanks with sand or special backfill material the resistivity of the backfill should be measured using soil boxes in the “as found” and “saturated” states. For new tanks with a membrane.

Determination of aggressive ions. such as chlorides and sulfates. Deepwell anode design is beyond the scope of this manual. This is recommended. stray currents are indicated.0 Chlorides >300 ppm >1000 ppm Sulfates >1000 ppm >5000 ppm 1323 Structure-to-Soil Potential Measurements Potential measurements (Figure 1300-3) in which a reference electrode is placed in the soil at grade along a structure are widely used to determine if outside sources of stray dc current (electrolytic corrosion) or galvanic corrosion are harming the structure.6. August 1999 1300-6 Chevron Corporation .1300 CP For Tank Bottoms (Underside) Corrosion Prevention and Metallurgy Manual 1322 Soil Analysis Soil analysis is often a useful test of whether corrosion rates will be high enough to make cathodic protection necessary. The following should be used in evaluating soil analysis data. it should be analyzed along with the native soil. Allowable Range Constituent Corrosive Very Corrosive pH 5. If a large existing or new tankfield is to be cathodically protected. To provide accurate data on existing tanks. If selected backfill is used. Anodes can also be placed in the native soil under the tank prior to placement of the sand and steel bottom. Corrosion will tend to occur on the side with the lowest negative potentials. and measurements of pH and saturated resistivity are necessary for further corrosion analysis. deep-well anodes are usually the most economical method because they can protect large areas. 1331 Sand or Dirt Foundations Placement of a sand or dirt foundation on the existing grade does not present a unique problem for placement of the anodes. 1330 Types of Foundation This section deals with cathodic protection design for single tank installations. then the locations of highest negative potentials are the most anodic and the most likely to corrode. If these measurements indicate no outside stray currents and no connection to a more noble metal such as copper. If the potentials on one side of the tank are significantly different from those on the opposite side. potential measurements should be taken at the four locations where the soil resistivity measurements were taken. contaminants in the native soil can leach into the selected backfill and cause it to become corrosive.5 <5. The anodes may be closely distributed around the perimeter of existing tanks using drilled anode holes 10 to 15 feet deep (Figure 1300-4). More details on this test are given in Section 1700.0 . It is best to have a cathodic protection contractor handle analysis and design of deep-well anode systems.

1300-4 Vertical Anode Cathodic Protection System Chevron Corporation 1300-7 August 1999 .Corrosion Prevention and Metallurgy Manual 1300 CP For Tank Bottoms (Underside) Fig. 1300-3 Potential Measurement Schematic Fig.

skip welded together. anodes should be placed above the membrane in the backfill prior to placement of the sand base and new tank bottom (Figure 1300-5).1300 CP For Tank Bottoms (Underside) Corrosion Prevention and Metallurgy Manual 1332 Sand and 80-mil High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Membrane If an HDPE membrane is being placed under the new tank bottom. make a good anode. For this type of installation. A reference electrode should also be installed at the center of the tank to monitor the cathodic protection system. If it is required. a remote or distributed anode design cannot be implemented because current cannot pass through the membrane to the steel bottom. Steel plates 1/8 inch thick. high soil resistivities and large current requirements for a bare steel bottom. This is due to the limited space. Fig. an impressed current cathodic protection system is more effective than a galvanic anode system. Cathodic protection is usually not used for these tank bottoms. 1300-5 Cathodic Protection System with HDPE Membrane Beneath Tank August 1999 1300-8 Chevron Corporation .

water and chemical constituents that are aggressive to the tank bottom may enter. and poor drainage is allowing water to enter between the asphalt and steel. 1334 Asphalt Foundations Asphalt foundations can present unique problems for corrosion control systems. as long as it remains intact. however. The advantages and limitations of both systems are as follows: 1341 Sacrificial Anode Cathodic Protection Systems Advantages • • • • • • • • • • No external power required No regulation required Easy to install Minimum of cathodic interference Anodes can be readily added Minimum of maintenance Uniform distribution of current around periphery of tank Installation can be inexpensive (if done during construction) Minimum right-of-way/easement costs Efficient use of protective current Limitations Chevron Corporation • Limited driving potential • Lower/limited current output (typically 1–2 amps maximum) • Installation can be expensive (if done after construction) 1300-9 August 1999 . The condition of the asphalt can be determined at the same time coupons are cut from the tank bottom for inspection. the alkalinity of the concrete helps passivate the steel and prevent corrosion. Cathodic protection may aid in stopping corrosion when the asphalt is deteriorated. The result is corrosion. As the asphalt degrades. Current requirement tests can also give an indication of the condition and continuity of the asphalt.Corrosion Prevention and Metallurgy Manual 1300 CP For Tank Bottoms (Underside) 1333 Concrete Foundations Cathodic protection is not necessary for tanks on concrete foundations. if the asphalt pad is still intact. 1340 Design Parameters This design section addresses the considerations necessary in choosing between a galvanic and impressed current system. Asphalt is essentially nonconductive and. minimizes corrosion deterioration. The concrete is relatively impermeable to water. Even if water does get in. cathodic protection will not be effective.

soil resistivity.0 and 2. See Section 1700 for a further discussion of current drain tests. design life of the structure and cathodic protection system.0 mA/sq ft of steel surface area. and adjacent foreign structures.1300 CP For Tank Bottoms (Underside) Corrosion Prevention and Metallurgy Manual • Can be ineffective in high-resistivity environments (generally greater than 5000 ohm-cm) • Practical only for small tanks (typically less than 40 feet in diameter) • Useful only for protecting one tank at a time. Typical current densities for bare steel tank bottoms range between 1. Anything that increases the corrosion rate also increases the current required for protection. 1343 Current Required for Protection The current required for cathodic protection depends on the resistivity of the soil in contact with the tank bottom and the surface area of metal exposed to the electrolyte. These current densities should be used with caution when estimating the current required for cathodic protection. 5 to 10 feet from the outside August 1999 1300-10 Chevron Corporation . For optimum design. The temporary ground bed is typically positioned vertically in the soil. the current required for cathodic protection should be calculated using the results of current requirement tests. including design current densities. These tests can only be performed on existing tanks and are conducted using a temporary anode bed (ground bed) and an appropriate source of direct current (Figure 1300-6). tank configuration. • Difficult to monitor effectiveness 1342 Impressed Current Cathodic Protection Systems Advantages • • • • • • • Can be designed for wide range of voltage and current High ampere year output available from single ground bed Large areas can be protected by single installation Variable voltage and current output Applicable in high-resistivity environments Effective in protecting uncoated and poorly-coated structures Can be routinely monitored for effectiveness Limitations • • • • • • Can cause cathodic interference problems Subject to power failure and vandalism Requires periodic inspection and maintenance Requires external power Monthly power costs Overprotection can cause coating damage Various design parameters and site information are necessary to design the system.

See Section 1100 for a further discussion of cathodic protection criteria. 1300-6 Current Requirement Test Setup perimeter of the tank. The degree of protection at various locations around the structure is evaluated using potential measurements. A reference electrode installed under the center of the tank bottom would be necessary for an accurate determination of the potential at that point. See Section 1700 for more information on the potential profile across a tank bottom. Chevron Corporation 1300-11 August 1999 . current requirement tests are conducted by forcing a known amount of current to flow from the temporary anode bed through the electrolyte (soil) to the structure to be protected. measurements are made using a reference electrode in the soil at the periphery of the tank. Factors affecting current requirement tests include the following: • • • Location and configuration of ground bed with respect to the tank Polarization effects Distribution of tanks to be protected from one dc source Basically.Corrosion Prevention and Metallurgy Manual 1300 CP For Tank Bottoms (Underside) Fig. the power source can vary from a 12-volt storage battery to a 300-amp welding unit.85 volts versus a Cu/CuSO4 reference electrode. Depending on the current required. It is necessary to estimate the potential drop in the soil between the edge and the center of the tank. This testing allows approximation of the current required to protect the structure. The usual criterion for protection is that potential readings be at least minus 0. Since a reference electrode under the center of a tank bottom is not usually available.

Under these conditions. August 1999 1300-12 Chevron Corporation . For galvanic systems in soil. 1345 Anode Consumption Rate The anode material selected for a particular design has a great impact on the system economics. In a distributed anode system with anodes spaced around the periphery of the tank. and the tank bottom will therefore be more negative with respect to soil at the near edge than at the remote edge. soil resistivity. In this case. a reasonable estimate of the potential of the soil under the center of the tank can be made if it is assumed that the voltage gradient is one millivolt per foot from a point on the edge of the tank the same distance from the anode as the center of the tank. Under average conditions with a single remote anode. On new installations a permanent reference cell should be placed under the center of the tank. and variation of soil resistivity with depth. If the anode is located fairly close to the tank so that the tank is in the anode field. one millivolt per foot is usually considered a reasonable voltage gradient. because this is the most difficult area of the tank to protect. See Section 1200 for additional information on impressed current ground beds and cables. The consumption rate of an anode determines the design life of the cathodic protection system. See Section 1700 for more information on soil voltage gradients. the soil under the edge of the tank nearest the anode will be considerably more positive than the soil under the edge most remote from the anode. Their purpose is to optimize the design and size the components of the cathodic protection system so that the engineer can select the most advantageous system. location of the anode. and adding that gradient to the arbitrary one millivolt per foot under the tank. the potential drop in the soil between the edge nearest the anode and the center of the tank will be considerably larger than the potential drop between the remote edge and the center of the tank. and are followed by installation and post-installation testing. In this case. This process is also represented in the flow diagram given as Figure 1300-1. 1350 Cathodic Protection Design Procedures This section presents procedures and examples for effective and economical cathodic protection system design for storage tanks. The procedures presented are sequential. the potential drop in the soil under the tank will be considerably more than one millivolt per foot. including total current picked up by the tank bottom. magnesium anodes are almost always preferable to zinc or aluminum because their higher driving potential provides greater current output. Consumption rate data are given in Figure 1300-7 for both galvanic and impressed current anodes. These procedures consist of a predesign phase and a design phase.1300 CP For Tank Bottoms (Underside) Corrosion Prevention and Metallurgy Manual 1344 Allowance for Soil Gradient The potential drop in the soil under a tank depends on a number of factors. it is possible to estimate the voltage gradient in the soil under the tank by measuring the gradient due to the anode field on the side of the anodes away from the tank.

soil analysis.0–8.25 Galvanic Impressed Durichlor 51 0.5–2. or 2. During the predesign phase (See Section 1320). the engineer must conduct further field surveys to ensure that the protection criteria selected are satisfied.0 (1) These values are for anodes surrounded by select backfill materials. (2) Galvomag Alloy (3) H-1 Alloy • Predesign phase. With an impressed current system. Following design analysis. additional field tests must be conducted to ensure that no stray-current corrosion problems exist. Volts Theoretical Actual % Efficiency Magnesium 8. Following installation.5 25.0 mA/ft2. 1300-13 August 1999 .8 90 0. 1300-7 Anode Consumption Rates and Driving Voltages Consumption Rates for Various Anodes. etc. Estimate current required by calculating surface area and estimating current density of 2.75 17. the procedure requires preparation of a cathodic protection system routine maintenance program.Corrosion Prevention and Metallurgy Manual 1300 CP For Tank Bottoms (Underside) Fig. and the various alternatives are compared. and through evaluation of the corrosion control performance of other installations in the general area.7(3) Zinc 23. basic information is obtained on the structure and its environment through field tests of soil resistivity.25 Aluminum 6. Conduct current requirement test (preferred). In the design phase cathodic protection system components are selected. Finally. • Post-installation testing.0 90 0. 1351 Design Procedures A generic approach for designing each type of cathodic protection system is detailed below: Tank Without HDPE Membrane Chevron Corporation 1.46 7. The predesign phase determines the viability of cathodic protection as a means of corrosion control. Lb/amp-yr(1) Material Driving Voltage ∆E.. potential measurements.0 Graphite 0.9(2) 0. Initial iterations in the design phase are tentative.5 50 0. Technical and economical life cycle costs are then calculated for the system components. plans and specifications are developed. The system is then installed. • Design phase.25–1.

the references listed will explain the design formulas. Calculate number of anodes (See Section 1352. If galvanic. 8. Perform cost analysis. 9. Equation 1300-6). Tank With HDPE Membrane 1.1300 CP For Tank Bottoms (Underside) 3. a. Impressed — Resistivity >5. Galvanic (magnesium anodes) — Resistivity <5. provide anode spacing and sizing of rectifier (See Section 1352. If impressed current.0 A) b. 6. Provide engineering cost estimate. 9. 3. Provide engineering cost estimate. 8. Equation 1300-5). Where necessary. Calculate steel bottom surface area. Equation 1300-7). 5. Corrosion Prevention and Metallurgy Manual Use soil resistivity data and current requirements for determining size and number of anodes.0 mA/ft2 of bottom surface area. Provide drawings and specifications. August 1999 1300-14 Chevron Corporation .0 A 4.000 ohm-cm — Current requirements >1. The formulas and considerations required for complex system design are beyond the scope of this manual. 2. Size minimum rectifier current and voltage (see Section 1352. Conduct soil resistivity tests on sand/backfill foundation material for anode bed design. provide layout and anode spacing (Figure 1300-4).000 ohm-cm — Current requirements <1.0 A (sometimes as high as 2. 5. Calculate anode design life (See Section 1352. 7. Calculate current requirement using estimated current density of 2. Select standard rectifier size. 6. The following two simple examples illustrate the fundamentals of the cathodic protection design procedure for tank bottoms. 7. Determine minimum rectifier voltage. Equation 1300-7). Provide design drawings and specifications. 4.

41 amperes.0 ampere. Soil resistivities measured around the tank range between 1000 and 1800 ohm-cm. 1300-1) where: I = current required for cathodic protection. Ea – Ec I = --------------------------------R a + Rw + Rc ∆E = ------Rt (Eq. Current Requirements Current requirement tests were performed and the estimated current to provide protection is 1. The driving voltage ∆ • E for this anode is 0. ohms Rc = structure-to-electrolyte (soil) resistance. ohms Rt = maximum ground bed resistance. volts (Figure 1300-8) Ra = anode-to-electrolyte (soil) resistance.Corrosion Prevention and Metallurgy Manual 1300 CP For Tank Bottoms (Underside) 1352 Example 1: Design of a Galvanic Anode System for a Tank Without HDPE Membrane (Sand or Earth Foundation) The tank is 30 feet in diameter. Kirchoff’s Voltage Law can be used to develop a relationship for estimating total circuit resistance. volts (Figure 1300-8) Ec = structure-to-electrolyte (soil) polarized potential.9 volts (see Figure 1300-7). ohms ∆E = driving voltage. amps Ea = anode-to-electrolyte (soil) open circuit potential. volts Another expression of Equation 1300-1 is: ∆E R t = ------I For this example a 32-pound prepackaged high potential magnesium anode has been selected for the design. Having determined current requirements from field testing we next calculate a maximum allowable ground bed resistance. Chevron Corporation 1300-15 August 1999 . Ground Bed Resistance.0 mA/ft2 the estimated current would be 1. ohms Rw = anode lead wire resistance. If current requirements were calculated using a current density of 2. The total series equivalent electric circuit must be considered (see Figure 1300-8).

9 Rt = ------. The structure-to-electrolyte resistance for uncoated structures is also so small it can be neglected. using Equation 1300-2. These equations can be used to determine the number of anodes required to satisfy the maximum allowable ground bed resistance. the maximum permissible resistance Rt for 1.ln  ------ – 1  d L (Eq.0 (Eq. 1300-2) For galvanic cathodic protection the anode lead wire resistance (Rw) is usually small and can be neglected. In simplified form.= 0.0052ρ R 1 = -------------------.9 ohm 1. Fig. for most cases Rt = Ra. 1300-3) August 1999 1300-16 Chevron Corporation . 1300-8 Cathodic Protection Equivalent Electric Current Number of Anodes The ground bed resistance of single and multiple anodes in parallel has been derived by Dwight [2].1300 CP For Tank Bottoms (Underside) Corrosion Prevention and Metallurgy Manual So. the resistance of one anode (R1) or of any number of vertically-placed anodes (Rn) can be calculated using the following equations: 8L 0.0 amps is: 0. Hence.

0052 ( 1800 ) n = --------------------------------. Therefore. Chevron Corporation 1300-17 August 1999 .9 ohm.9 ( 1. ohms n = number of anodes S = center-to-center spacing between anodes. lb/amp-yr. Q = actual consumption rate. lb.656n )    nL d S (Eq. ohm-cm L = length of backfill column. ft (see Figure 1300-9) d = diameter of backfill. Use 32 lb (from Figure 1300-9).91 ) =11. Use 12. 1300-5) From Figure 1300-9.9 ohms. ft (see Figure 1300-9) Rn = combined resistance of n anodes.91 ) 0. 20 years in this case. Use 17.ln  ------------------ – 1  0. ft Equation 1300-5 is a simplified form of Equation 1300-4 and can be used if S is greater than 6L and n is less than 15. The maximum ground bed resistance Rn is 0. n = number of anodes.ln  ------- – 1  d Rn L (Eq. Once the number of anodes required for current output has been determined we then must determine if the anodes will provide the required design life.0052ρ n = -------------------.Corrosion Prevention and Metallurgy Manual 1300 CP For Tank Bottoms (Underside) 0.0052ρ 8L 2L R n = -------------------. years W = weight of anode. then Equation 1300-5 must be used. 1300-4) where: ρ = soil resistivity. If S is not greater than 6L or n is not less than 15.ln  ------ – 1 +  ------- ln ( 0.6 anodes (use 12) It follows that twelve 32-pound high potential magnesium anodes are required to keep total circuit resistance below 0. 8L 0.667  0. the number of anodes required for the system is: 8 ( 1.5 (from Figure 1300-7). Wn D = --------QI a (Eq. 1300-6) where: D = design life.

1300 CP For Tank Bottoms (Underside) Corrosion Prevention and Metallurgy Manual Ia = current required for cathodic protection. amps.0 ) Fig. 1300-9 Magnesium Anode Dimensions and Shipping Weights August 1999 1300-18 Chevron Corporation .9 years ( 17. then: ( 32 ) ( 12 ) D = ---------------------------. Use 1.= 21.5 ) ( 1.0.

the number of Chevron Corporation 1300-19 August 1999 . Subject to economic analysis. The engineer must now produce design drawings (Figure 1300-4) and specifications for equipment. If the design life (L) is not met the engineer would rearrange Equation 1300-6 and solve for n to achieve 20-year life. 10-ft deep. An engineering cost analysis is developed later in this section.32 amperes and soil resistivity between 1000 and 1800 ohm-cm. This design differs from that of the galvanic system in having no fixed voltage. Therefore. anode resistance to earth constitutes a significant role in the design. Therefore. Lives for various sizes of magnesium anodes are shown as a function of current output in Figure 1300-10. but a variable voltage derived from an external dc rectifier. 1300-10 Magnesium Anode Life Versus Current Output 1353 Example 2: Design of an Impressed Current System The tank is 100 feet in diameter with a current requirement of 8. Fig.Corrosion Prevention and Metallurgy Manual 1300 CP For Tank Bottoms (Underside) These calculations show that a design utilizing twelve 32-lb magnesium anodes will provide the desired current output for the proposed 20-year design life. vertically augured holes (typical hole dimensions). In this case 3-inch by 60-inch graphite anodes will be placed and backfilled in 10-inch diameter. a total anode bed resistance (Rn) of less than 2 ohms is typically desirable to provide lower energy costs.

32.0 years ( 1. Use 1800 (given field measurement). Use 8.833 = 0. Size the rectifier by calculating the final bed resistance (R) with the 10 anodes required for design life using Equation 1300-3.5 (from Figure 1300-7). amps. additional anodes must be used.14 anodes (use 3) Now. Use 3. solving Equation 1300-5: n = 2.= --------------------------------------W 25 = 9.1300 CP For Tank Bottoms (Underside) Corrosion Prevention and Metallurgy Manual anodes required to provide a maximum 2-ohm anode bed can be calculated by substituting the following data into Equation 1300-5 and solving for n: ρ = soil resistivity.32 ) Since the three anodes will not meet the required design life. ft. Use 10 in = 0.833 ft (from Figure 1300-11). Q = actual consumption rate. n = number of anodes. Use 1. To determine the minimum number of anodes required for a 20-year life we will rearrange Equation 1300-6 and solve for n: DQI a ( 20 ) ( 1. ohm-cm.32 ) n = ------------. Ia = current required for cathodic protection. lb/amp-yr.0052 ) ( 1800 ) R n = -------------------------------------( 10 ) ( 7 ) (8)(7 ) ln ---------------. where: W = weight of anode. both conditional statements—bed resistance and design life—have been satisfied. lb. will three anodes provide the needed 20-year design life at the required current level? Using Equation 1300-6. Use 7 (from Figure 1300-11). ( 0.= 6. L = length of backfill column.– 1 0. Use 25 (from Figure 1300-11). d = diameter of backfill.98 anodes Now.5 ) ( 8. then: ( 25 ) ( 3 ) D = ---------------------------. then.5 ) ( 8.429 ohms Equation 1300-3 August 1999 1300-20 Chevron Corporation . ft.

the rectifier rating should be determined by test after the ground bed is installed. The calculated length of No.429 ohm then: V = (8.Corrosion Prevention and Metallurgy Manual 1300 CP For Tank Bottoms (Underside) Rectifier voltage output can now be determined using Ohm’s Law: V = I Rt (Eq. Consult the anode manufacturer for specific instructions. 8 HMW/PE cable connecting the anodes around the perimeter. Fig.57 volts Therefore. have not been considered and should be determined in the final analysis.312 ohms.429) = 3.32)(0. Other resistances.32 amperes Rt = Rn = 0. Chevron Corporation 1300-21 August 1999 .57-volt. 8 cable is 0. 8 cable around the perimeter is approximately 380 feet. The drawing also shows a No. 1300-7) where: I = 8.32-ampere unit. 1300-11 Graphite Anode Dimensions and Shipping Weights (For reference only. such as cable resistance (Rw). Whenever possible. The resistance of No. 8. See Figure 1700-10. the minimum rectifier output to provide adequate current and voltage is a 3. resulting in a resistance (R) equal to 0.000822 ohm/ft (See Figure 1300-12).) Figure 1300-4 shows a typical layout drawing with anodes placed around the perimeter of the tank 10 feet from the outside wall.

If the cable resistance is added to R the total circuit resistance is 0.156 ohms. air-cooled.. August 1999 1300-22 Chevron Corporation .1300 CP For Tank Bottoms (Underside) Corrosion Prevention and Metallurgy Manual Fig. Standard rectifiers are available in various outputs. 12-ampere rectifier powering ten graphite anodes with coke breeze backfill. Design information is given in Figure 1300-13. oil-cooled. For the impressed current system a standard 8-volt. High-silicon cast iron anodes could also be used for this installation. the new voltage requirement is 4. 1300-12 Cable Resistance Table Since the cable is looped and both ends terminate at the rectifier the actual resistance is R/2 or 0.585 ohm.e. placed vertically around the tank perimeter should provide the necessary design life. A conceptual drawing of a typical installation is shown in Figure 1300-4. The type of rectifier (i. Sizes for various rectifiers can be obtained from manufacturers’ catalogues. Therefore.87 volts. explosion-proof) must be determined for cost analysis.

From predesign data. analysis indicates that the use of an impressed current cathodic protection system will provide a more adequate current distribution than a galvanic anode system. In this example a 100-foot diameter tank will be used for analysis.Corrosion Prevention and Metallurgy Manual 1300 CP For Tank Bottoms (Underside) Fig. The anodes suitable for this installation are steel plates placed within the backfill. A typical design layout for this system is shown in Figure 1300-5. location and placement of the anode for proper current distribution is critical. Chevron Corporation 1300-23 August 1999 . Since the anode must be placed between the 80-mil HDPE membrane and the steel tank. soil resistivity values on saturated backfill averaged 50.000 ohm-cm. 1300-13 High Silicon Cast Iron Design Information 1354 Example 3: Tank with HDPE Membrane (New Tank or Retrofit) This design concept is rather unique for cathodic protection. Because of the high resistivity of the backfill.

7 (0.+ 0. Using a design current density of 2. See actual foundation design). The resistance of the anode placed in this environment can be calculated using Equation 1300-8. are lowered to the bottom and spaced accordingly above each other in the deep-well (Figure 1300-14). resistance between tank bottom and soil. Impressed current anodes.7 amps. Note 0. Steel plate 1/8-inch thick is much thicker than required.21 volts Therefore the minimum rectifier output to provide adequate current and voltage is 3. The anode in this design is a circular plate of 1/8-inch steel. There are limits on the number of anodes that can August 1999 1300-24 Chevron Corporation . but is used to withstand construction vehicle traffic during placement of backfill. ft2. A cost analysis is provided later in this section. This type of system may be combined with surface anode beds. 1355 Example 4: Deep-Well Anode Cathodic Protection Design The use of deep-well anodes has proven very effective in protecting tank bottoms in tank farms.000 (given measurement). Use 50.= 0.10 A (Eq.002734 ) R = ---------------------------------------------------------.7 amperes. in. and cable resistances. Typical hole diameters range between 6 inches and 12 inches.002734 ) R = --------------------------------. An anode hole is bored to depths of 100 to 400 feet.0 mA/ft2 the estimate current required for cathodic protection is 15. ρt ( 0. 1300-8) where: R = resistance of soil backfill ρ = soil resistivity. t = thickness of backfill.1 ohm is used to compensate for resistance between anode and soil. A deepwell anode system allows the designer to incorporate remote anodes in limited areas. ohm-cm.1300 CP For Tank Bottoms (Underside) Corrosion Prevention and Metallurgy Manual The steel bottom surface area is 7854 ft2. Use 7854.204) = 3.204 ohms 7854 Now the rectifier voltage can be calculated using Equation 1300-7: V = IRt = 15. then: ( 50. 000 ) ( 6 ) ( 0. such as graphite or Durichlor 51.21 volts at 15. A = area of tank to be protected. The number of anodes required is calculated as described in the previous section. Use 6 (assumed in this example.

Chevron Corporation 1300-25 August 1999 . 15 anodes is the upper limit for each well.Well Anode The designer should be aware of subsurface geological strata in the area where the deep-well anode is to be located. Fig. Typically. The design of deep-well anode systems requires more detailed analysis than is presented in this manual. Areas having surface strata of high resistivity and deeper strata of low resistivity (where the anodes are to be placed) may cause shielding of the current from the deep anode to the steel tank bottom. See Figure 1300-12.Corrosion Prevention and Metallurgy Manual 1300 CP For Tank Bottoms (Underside) be placed into a deep well. See Section 1200 for further discussion of deep-well ground beds. 1300-14 Deep .

1949. The most economical system is the one which has the lowest present worth. the alternatives must be compared over equivalent life cycles. In the case of tanks and tank farms. 1380 References August 1999 1. Potential testing following the application of cathodic protection can establish the degree of interference. E. The current pickup on an adjacent unprotected structure will discharge at some point to the protected structure. Earth Conduction Effects in Transmission Systems. United States Air Force. Sunde. For a fair evaluation.D. with its higher operating voltage. 1319 – 1328 (1939). A more detailed description can be found in Section 1750. They need to be corrected for your specific use. “Calculations of Resistance to Ground. 1370 Cost Analysis The simplest method of choosing the best of several available alternatives is to determine which has the lowest cost. transfer piping or underground electrical systems may be subjected to interference. Dwight. It is only a problem for the impressed current cathodic protection system. 1300-26 Chevron Corporation . AFM88-9. The following examples (Figure 1300-15) provide guidelines on estimating the costs of several galvanic anode and impressed current systems. H. Mitigation techniques are generally not straightforward and are outside the scope of this section. Van Nordstrand Company.1300 CP For Tank Bottoms (Underside) Corrosion Prevention and Metallurgy Manual 1360 Cathodic Interference Cathodic protection interference is the undesirable current pickup and discharge from a buried structure caused by cathodic protection applied to a tank or tank farm. resulting in corrosion deterioration of the unprotected structure. 1962. Mitigative procedures can be extensive and may include bonding of the affected structure to the cathodically protected structure or diode blocking of current to the protected structure. New York.B. The engineer should be aware of the possibility of interference on adjacent structures. Corrosion Control. They must also be providing similar corrosion protection. Air Force Manual No. 2. D. Volume 55.” AIEE Transactions. 3.

00 $80.00 $3. $800.00/ea.28w x (8760 hr/year) x (1kw/1000w) x 0.00/ft.00 12 .. Material Unit Total 12 .00 177 ft.00/ea.00/manhour) = $300.250. from Tank) Anode Circumference = 377 ft.#18 HMW/PE Cable Installation 10 .00 $0.25/ft.00/ea.00 397 ft.00/ea.00 $0. 397 ft.#8 HMW/PE Cable Installation 12 .3" x 60" Graphite Anodes $132.220. .05/Kwhr = Chevron Corporation $15/yr 1300-27 August 1999 . $300. (Add 20 ft. $1. $600.8 volt 12 amp Rectifier $560.00 Maintenance Inspection (1 manhour/month) x (12 months/year) x ($25.32 lb Anodes with 10 ft.00/ft.00 $3. $250.25 Maintenance Inspection $300.00 1 .28 watts $200. .00 1 . 1300-15 Design Example Cost Analysis (1 of 2) DESIGN EXAMPLE 1: SAND FOUNDATION—GALVANIC ANODE Tank Diameter = 30 ft.00/ea.200. $1000. $20. (10 ft. (10 ft. $50.00/ea.00/ea.Test Station $18.00/yr Annual Corrosion Survey $200.32 amps = 33. $100.Trenching/Backfill Total Installed Cost $4. × 12" Dia. X 12" Dia.320.00/yr 33. from tank) Anode Circumference = 157 ft.Splice Kits $25.191. $560.Trenching/Backfill Total Installed Cost $3.Augured Holes 10 ft.25/ft. . 177 ft.Splice Kits $25. $1.00/yr Annual Corrosion Survey Power Consumption 4 volts x 8.00 10 . Anode Diameter = 50 ft.00 $80.00/yr DESIGN EXAMPLE 2: SAND FOUNDATION—IMPRESSED CURRENT Tank Diameter = 100 ft. #12 Wire $102. Anode Diameter = 120 ft.Augured Holes 10 ft.Corrosion Prevention and Metallurgy Manual 1300 CP For Tank Bottoms (Underside) Fig. to Rectifier) Material Unit Total 10 .00/ea $1.

00/400 ft. $1. Material Unit Total $1.1300 CP For Tank Bottoms (Underside) Corrosion Prevention and Metallurgy Manual Fig.300.000.00 $200.Steel Plates Set 300 ft. . $1.00 7390 ft.00 4 . 1300-15 Design Example Cost Analysis (2 of 2) DESIGN EXAMPLE 3: HDPE MEMBRANE BENEATH TANK—IMPRESSED CURRENT Tank Diameter = 100 ft.#8 HMW/PE Cable $0.00 1 . 20 amp Rectifier Installation 7390 ft.Welding Total Installed Cost $18. $40.53/ft.00/ea.00 Maintenance Inspection $300.2 $3.766.2 $11.Rectifier $500.50/ft.695.00/ea. .00/ea.1/8" thick Steel Plate 1 .00/yr $35.04/yr August 1999 1300-28 Chevron Corporation .Cadweld connections $50.Cadweld connections $10. $500. $200.25/ft.00/ea. 2 .950.00 300 ft. Steel Plate Diameter = 97 ft.00 $1000.12 volt.00 4 .00 $6. $75.2 .00/yr Annual Corrosion Survey Power Consumption 4 Volts x 20 amps = 80 watts $200.