CHAPTER
CHAPTER 2
3
A Click here for answers.
s1 s2 s 3 x .
(b) Find f x.
(c) Check your work in parts (a) and (b) by graphing f and f on the same screen.
CHAPTER
CHAPTER 34
A Click here for answers.
f x
1
1
1 x
1 x2
2. (a) Let ABC be a triangle with right angle A and hypotenuse a BC . (See the
CD ( BC AC AB )
1
2
3. A triangle with sides a, b, and c varies with time t, but its area never changes. Let be the
angle opposite the side of length a and suppose always remains acute.
(a) Express ddt in terms of b, c, , dbdt, and dcdt.
(b) Express dadt in terms of the quantities in part (a).
4. Let a and b be positive numbers. Show that not both of the numbers a1 b and b1 a
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CHAPTER 5
4
CHAPTER
A Click here for answers.
1. Show that
1
2
1
7
y
.
4 dx
1 1 x
17
24
2. Suppose the curve y f x passes through the origin and the point 1, 1. Find the value of
integers when k 1, 2, and 3. (These formulas are proved in Appendix E.) In this problem we
derive formulas for any k. These formulas were rst published in 1713 by the Swiss mathematician James Bernoulli in his book Ars Conjectandi.
(a) The Bernoulli polynomials Bn are dened by B0x 1, Bnx Bn1x, and
x01 Bnx dx 0 for n 1, 2, 3, . . . . Find Bnx for n 1, 2, 3, and 4.
(b) Use the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus to show that Bn0 Bn1 for n 2.
Stewart: Calculus, Seventh Edition. ISBN: 0538497815. (c) 2012. Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
2 CHALLENGE PROBLEMS
x2
b1 x
b2
2!
1! 1!
2!
B1x
x
b1
1!
1!
B3x
x3
b1 x 2
b2 x
b3
3!
1! 2!
2! 1!
3!
and, in general,
Bnx
1
n!
k0
n
bk x nk
k
where
n
k
n!
k! n k!
[The numbers ( nk ) are the binomial coefcients.] Use part (b) to show that, for n 2,
n
bn
k0
n
bk
k
and therefore
bn1
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
1
n
n
b0
0
n
b1
1
n
b2
2
n
bn2
n2
This gives an efcient way of computing the Bernoulli numbers and therefore the
Bernoulli polynomials.
Show that Bn1 x 1nBnx and deduce that b2n1 0 for n 0.
Use parts (c) and (d) to calculate b6 and b8 . Then calculate the polynomials B5 , B6 , B7 ,
B8 , and B9 .
Graph the Bernoulli polynomials B1, B2 , . . . , B9 for 0 x 1. What pattern do you
notice in the graphs?
Use mathematical induction to prove that Bk1x 1 Bk1x x kk! .
By putting x 0, 1, 2, . . . , n in part (g), prove that
1k 2 k 3 k n k k! Bk1n 1 Bk10 k! y
n1
Bkx dx
(i) Use part (h) with k 3 and the formula for B4 in part (a) to conrm the formula for
the sum of the rst n cubes in Section 4.2.
5.2.
(j) Show that the formula in part (h) can be written symbolically as
1
n 1 bk1 b k1
k1
CHAPTER
CHAPTER 5
6
A Click here for answers.
1. A solid is generated by rotating about the xaxis the region under the curve y f x, where
f is a positive function and x 0. The volume generated by the part of the curve from
x 0 to x b is b 2 for all b 0. Find the function f.
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Stewart: Calculus, Sixth Edition. ISBN: 0495011606. 2008 Brooks/Cole. All rights reserved.
1k 2 k 3 k n k
CHALLENGE PROBLEMS 3
CHAPTER
6
CHAPTER 8
A Click here for answers.
CHAPTER
11
CHAPTER 9
A Click here for answers.
1. A circle C of radius 2r has its center at the origin. A circle of radius r rolls without slipping in
the counterclockwise direction around C. A point P is located on a xed radius of the rolling
circle at a distance b from its center, 0 b r. [See parts (i) and (ii) of the gure.] Let L be
the line from the center of C to the center of the rolling circle and let be the angle that L
makes with the positive xaxis.
(a) Using as a parameter, show that parametric equations of the path traced out by P are
x b cos 3 3r cos , y b sin 3 3r sin . Note: If b 0, the path is a circle of
radius 3r; if b r, the path is an epicycloid. The path traced out by P for 0 b r is
called an epitrochoid.
(b) Graph the curve for various values of b between 0 and r .
(c) Show that an equilateral triangle can be inscribed in the epitrochoid and that its centroid is
on the circle of radius b centered at the origin.
Note: This is the principle of the Wankel rotary engine. When the equilateral triangle
rotates with its vertices on the epitrochoid, its centroid sweeps out a circle whose center is
at the center of the curve.
(d) In most rotary engines the sides of the equilateral triangles are replaced by arcs of circles
centered at the opposite vertices as in part (iii) of the gure. (Then the diameter of the
rotor is constant.) Show that the rotor will t in the epitrochoid if b 3(2 s3 )r2.
Stewart: Calculus, Sixth Edition. ISBN: 0495011606. 2008 Brooks/Cole. All rights reserved.
P
P=P
2r
r
b
(ii)
(i)
FIGURE FOR PROBLEM 1
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(iii)
4 CHALLENGE PROBLEMS
CHAPTER
10
CHAPTER 12
S
1. (a)
sin
cos cos cos
2
4
8
The meaning of this innite product is that we take the product of the rst n factors and
then we take the limit of these partial products as n l .
(c) Show that
2
s2 s2 s2
2
2
s2 s2 s2
2
This innite product is due to the French mathematician Franc ois Vite (15401603).
Notice that it expresses in terms of just the number 2 and repeated square roots.
2. Suppose that a 1 cos , 2 2, b1 1, and
an1 2 an bn
1
sin
Stewart: Calculus, Sixth Edition. ISBN: 0495011606. 2008 Brooks/Cole. All rights reserved.
nl
Stewart: Calculus, Seventh Edition. ISBN: 0538497815. (c) 2012. Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
CHALLENGE PROBLEMS 5
ANSWERS
CHAPTER
Chapter 23
Solutions
1
(b) t
s
s
8 1 2 3{ 2 3{ 3{
1. (a) [1> 2]
CHAPTER
Chapter 3
4
Solutions
1.
4
3
3. (a) tan
{
,{A0
{2 + 1
5. (a)  =
CHAPTER
4
Chapter 5
1 gf
1 ge
+
f gw
e gw
e
(b)
(b)
gf
gf
ge
ge
+f
e
+f
sec
gw
gw
gw
gw
e2 + f2 2ef cos
1
2
Solutions
1 2
2{
12 { +
1
12 ,
E3 ({) = 16 {3 14 {2 +
1
12 {,
E4 ({) =
1 4
24 {
1 3
12 {
1 2
24 {
1
e8 = 30
;
6
1
1
1
{5 52 {4 + 53 {3 16 { , E6 ({) = 720
{ 3{5 + 52 {4 12 {2 + 42
,
E5 ({) = 120
1
1
E7 ({) = 5040
{6 73 {4 + 23 {2
{7 72 {6 + 72 {5 76 {3 + 16 { , E8 ({) = 40,320
{8 4{7 + 14
3
9 9 8
5
3
1
3
{ 2 { + 6{7 21
E9 ({) = 362,880
5 { + 2{ 10 {
(e) e6 =
1
720
1
,
42
1
30
,
(f ) There are four basic shapes for the graphs of Eq (excluding E1 ), and as q increases, they repeat in a cycle of four.
For q = 4p, the shape resembles that of the graph of cos 2{; for q = 4p + 1, that of sin 2{;
for q = 4p + 2, that of cos 2{; and for q = 4p + 3, that of sin 2{.
(k)
Stewart: Calculus, Sixth Edition. ISBN: 0495011606. 2008 Brooks/Cole. All rights reserved.
CHAPTER6 5
Chapter
1 2
12 q (q
Solutions
1. i ({) =
CHAPTER7 6
Chapter
+ 1)2 (2q2 + 2q 1)
s
2{@
Solutions
n +
q
2
Stewart: Calculus, Seventh Edition. ISBN: 0538497815. (c) 2012. Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
6 CHALLENGE PROBLEMS
(g)
(h)
(i) The zeros of Wq and Wq+1 alternate; the extrema also alternate
( j) When q is odd, and so
U1
1
Wq ({) g{ = 0; when q is even, the integral is negative, but decreases in absolute value
as q gets larger.
]
(k)
0
;
? 2
if q is even
q2 1
cos(qx) sin x gx =
=
0
if q is odd
(l ) As f increases through an integer, the graph of i gains a local extremum, which starts at { = 1 and moves
rightward, compressing the graph of i as f continues to increase.
Solutions
1. (b)
e = 15 u
e = 25 u
e = 35 u
e = 45 u
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CHAPTER10
9
Chapter
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CHALLENGE PROBLEMS 7
SOLUTIONS
Exercises
Chapter 32
CHAPTER
t
s
1 2 3{
q
r
s
G = {  3 { 0, 2 3 { 0, 1 2 3 { 0
r
q
s
= {  3 {, 2 3 {, 1 2 3 {
= {  3 {, 4 3 {, 1 2 3 { = {  { 3, { 1, 1 3 {
1. (a) i ({) =
= {{  { 3, { 1, 1 3 { } = {{  { 3, { 1, { 2 }
= {{  1 { 2 } = [1> 2]
(b) i ({) =
t
s
1 2 3{
s
1
g
i 0 ({) = t
1 2 3{
s
g{
1 2 3{
=
g
1
1
t
s
2 3{
s
g{
2
2
3
{
2 1 2 3{
1
= t
s
s
8 1 2 3{ 2 3{ 3{
Note that i is always decreasing and i 0 is always negative.
(c)
Exercises
CHAPTER4 3
Chapter
1
1
+
1 + {
1 + { 2
;
1
1
A
A
+
A
A
1
{
1
({
2)
A
A
A
? 1
1
+
=
1+{
1 ({ 2)
A
A
A
A
A
1
1
A
A
+
=
1+{
1 + ({ 2)
Stewart: Calculus, Sixth Edition. ISBN: 0495011606. 2008 Brooks/Cole. All rights reserved.
1. i({) =
if { ? 0
if 0 { ? 2
if { 2
; 1
1
A
A
2 +
A
A
(1
{)
(3
{)2
A
A
A
? 1
1
i 0 ({) =
2 +
A
(1
+
{)
(3
{)2
A
A
A
A
1
1
A
A
=
(1 + {)2
({ 1)2
if { ? 0
if 0 ? { ? 2
if { A 2
4
3
Stewart: Calculus, Seventh Edition. ISBN: 0538497815. (c) 2012. Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
8 CHALLENGE PROBLEMS
3. (a) D =
1
ek
2
ee0 + ff0 [sin2 (ef0 + fe0 ) + cos2 (ef0 + fe0 )]@ cos
ee0 + ff0 (ef0 + fe0 )sec
=
e2 + f2 2ef cos
e2 + f2 2ef cos
5. (a) Let  = DG, { = DE, and 1@{ = DF, so that DE DF = 1.
1
2
1
2
3
2
3
4 .
Second,
1
2
1
2
3

4
3
2
+ 12 (1@{)
1
=
{+
{
3
4
3
2
3
4 ({
=
+ 1@{)
{
1
= 2
, { A 0.
{ + 1@{
{ +1
Another method: Use the Law of Sines on the triangles DEG and DEF. In 4DEG, we have
60 + + _G = 180
{
sin(120 )
sin 120 cos cos 120 sin
=
=
=

sin
sin
by a similar argument with 4DEF,
=
3
2
_G = 120 . Thus,
3
2
cos + 12 sin
sin
{
= 23 cot + 12 , and

{
cot = {2 + 12 . Eliminating cot gives = {2 + 12 + 12

{
, { A 0.
{2 + 1
(b) We differentiate our expression for  with respect to { to nd the maximum:
2
{ + 1 {(2{)
g
1 {2
=
=
= 0 when { = 1. This indicates a maximum by the First Derivative Test,
2
2
g{
({ + 1)
({2 + 1)2
since  0 ({) A 0 for 0 ? { ? 1 and  0 ({) ? 0 for { A 1, so the maximum value of  is (1) = 12 .
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Stewart: Calculus, Sixth Edition. ISBN: 0495011606. 2008 Brooks/Cole. All rights reserved.
_D + _E + _G = 180
CHALLENGE PROBLEMS 9
Exercises
CHAPTER5 4
Chapter
1
1
. Thus,
1 + {4
17
] 2
] 2
1
1
1
1
1
g{
? 4 and
g{ =
. Also 1 + {4 A {4 for 1 { 2, so
4
17
1 + {4
{
1 1+{
1 17
3 2
] 2
] 2
{
1
1
1
7
4
g{
?
{
g{
=
= + =
. Thus, we have the estimate
4
3 1
24
3
24
1 1+{
1
] 2
7
1
1
g{
.
4
17
1
+
{
24
1
3. (a) To nd E1 ({), we use the fact that E10 ({) = E0 ({)
1
.
2
E0 ({) g{ =
1 g{ = { + F. Now we
1 k l1
U1
U1
impose the condition that 0 E1 ({) g{ = 0 0 = 0 ({ + F) g{ = 12 {2 0 + F{ = 12 + F
12 .
E1 ({) =
U
E1 ({) g{ =
{ 12 g{ = 12 {2 12 { + G. But
1 4
24 {
1 3
12 {
1 2
24 {
U1
0
1
720 .
Eq0 ({) g{ =
U1
0
q
1 S
q
en {qn . If we set { = 1 in this expression, and use the fact that
q! n=0 n
q
S
eq
q
e
for q 2, we get eq =
n n . Now if we expand the righthand side, we get
q!
n=0
q
q
eq2 + q1
eq1 + q
e . We cancel the eq terms, move the eq1 term to
eq = q0 e0 + q1 e1 + + q2
q q
k
l
q
q
= q: eq1 = q1 q0 e0 + q1 e1 + + q2
eq2 for q 2, as required.
the LHS and divide by q1
Stewart: Calculus, Sixth Edition. ISBN: 0495011606. 2008 Brooks/Cole. All rights reserved.
Eq (1) = Eq (0) =
g
g{ En+1 (1
g
g{ En+1 (1
0
g
{) = En+1
(1 {) g{
(1 {) = En (1 {), we have
En+1 (1 {) = (1)n+1 En+1 ({) + F. But the constant of integration must be 0, since if we substitute { = 0 in
the equation, we get En+1 (1) = (1)n+1 En+1 (0) + F, and if we substitute { = 1 we get
En+1 (0) = (1)n+1 En+1 (1) + F, and these two equations together imply that
En+1 (0) = (1)n+1 (1)n+1 En+1 (0) + F + F = En+1 (0) + 2F F = 0.
So the equation holds for all q, by induction. Now if the power of 1 is odd, then we have
Stewart: Calculus, Seventh Edition. ISBN: 0538497815. (c) 2012. Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
10 CHALLENGE PROBLEMS
E2q+1 (1 {) = E2q+1 ({). In particular, E2q+1 (1) = E2q+1 (0). But from part (b), we know that
En (1) = En (0) for n A 1. The only possibility is that E2q+1 (0) = E2q+1 (1) = 0 for all q A 0, and this implies
that e2q+1 = (2q + 1)! E2q+1 (0) = 0 for q A 0.
1
(e) From part (a), we know that e0 = 0! E0 (0) = 1, and similarly e1 = 12 , e2 = 16 , e3 = 0 and e4 = 30
.
1
7
%# $
# $
# $
# $
# $
# $ &
7
7
7
7
7
7
e0 +
e1 +
e2 +
e3 +
e4 +
e5
0
1
2
3
4
5
Similarly,
1
1
76 1
765
1
1
7
7
7
1
1+7
+
+
=
1 +
=
7
2
21 6
321
30
7
2
2
6
42
%# $
# $
# $
# $
# $ &
9
9
9
9
9
e0 +
e1 +
e2 +
e4 +
e6
0
1
2
4
6
1
1
98 1
9876
1
987 1
= 1+9
+
+
+
9
2
21 6
4321
30
3 2 1 42
9
21
1
1
1 +6
+2 =
=
9
2
5
30
1
e8 =
9
1
1
76 1
765
1
1
{7 + 7
{6 +
{5 +
{3 + 7
{
5040
2
21 6
321
30
42
7 7 6 7 5 7 3 1
1
{ 2{ + 2{ 6{ + 6{
= 5040
E7 ({) =
1
1
1
87 1
8765
87 1
1
{8 + 8
{7 +
{6 +
{4 +
{2 +
40,320
2
21 6
4321
30
2 1 42
30
8
7
1
14 6
7 4
2 2
1
= 40,320 { 4{ + 3 { 3 { + 3 { 30
E8 ({) =
E9 ({) =
1
1
98 1
9876
1
{9 + 9
{8 +
{7 +
{5
362,880
2
21 6
4321
30
1
362,880
9 9 8
{ 2 { + 6{7
21 5
{
5
+ 2{3
987
+
321
1
42
1
{ +9
{
30
3
3
{
10
Stewart: Calculus, Seventh Edition. ISBN: 0538497815. (c) 2012. Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
Stewart: Calculus, Sixth Edition. ISBN: 0495011606. 2008 Brooks/Cole. All rights reserved.
E6 ({) =
CHALLENGE PROBLEMS 11
(f )
q=1
q=2
q=3
q=4
q=5
q=6
q=7
q=8
q=9
There are four basic shapes for the graphs of Eq (excluding E1 ), and as q increases, they repeat in a cycle of four.
For q = 4p, the shape resembles that of the graph of cos 2{; For q = 4p + 1, that of sin 2{; for
q = 4p + 2, that of cos 2{; and for q = 4p + 3, that of sin 2{.
Stewart: Calculus, Sixth Edition. ISBN: 0495011606. 2008 Brooks/Cole. All rights reserved.
]
[Eq ({ + 1) Eq ({)] g{ =
Eq+1 ({) =
1
2
{0
{ 12 = 1, and
= 1, so the equation holds for n = 0. We
0!
{q1
. We integrate this equation with respect to {:
(q 1)!
{q1
g{. But we can evaluate the LHS using the denition
(q 1)!
Eq ({) g{, and the RHS is a simple integral. The equation becomes
1 q
1
1
{
= {q , since by part (b) Eq+1 (1) Eq+1 (0) = 0, and so the
Eq+1 ({ + 1) Eq+1 ({) =
(q 1)! q
q!
constant of integration must vanish. So the equation holds for all n, by induction.
(h) The result from part (g) implies that sn = n! [En+1 (s + 1) En+1 (s)]. If we sum both sides of this equation from
s = 0 to s = q (note that n is xed in this process), we get
q
S
s=0
sn = n!
q
S
s=0
Stewart: Calculus, Seventh Edition. ISBN: 0538497815. (c) 2012. Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
12 CHALLENGE PROBLEMS
RHS is just a telescoping sum, so the equation becomes 1n + 2n + 3n + + qn = n! [En+1 (q + 1) En+1 (0)].
But from the denition of Bernoulli polynomials (and using the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus), the RHS is
U q+1
equal to n! 0
En ({) g{.
(i) If we let n = 3 and then substitute from part (a), the formula in part (h) becomes
13 + 23 + + q3 = 3! [E4 (q + 1) E4 (0)]
1
1
= 6 24
(q + 1)4 12
(q + 1)3 +
1
(q
24
+ 1)2
1
720
1
24
1
12
1
24
1
720
2
(q + 1)2 [1 + (q + 1)2 2(q + 1)]
(q + 1)2 [1 (q + 1)]2
q(q + 1)
=
=
=
4
4
2
(j) 1n + 2n + 3n + + qn = n!
q+1
# $
n
em {nm as ({ + e)n , as explained in the problem. Then
Now view
m
m=0
n
S
1 + 2 + 3 + + q =
U q+1
0
({ + e)n+1
({ + e) g{ =
n+1
n
q+1
=
0
(q + 1 + e)n+1 en+1
n+1
(k) We expand the RHS of the formula in (j), turning the el into el , and remembering that e2l+1 = 0 for l A 0:
15 + 25 + + q5 = 16 (q + 1)6 e6
= 16 (q + 1)6 + 6(q + 1)5 e1 + 62 51 (q + 1)4 e2 + 62 51 (q + 1)2 e4
= 16 (q + 1)6 3(q + 1)5 + 52 (q + 1)4 12 (q + 1)2
1
= 12
(q + 1)2 2(q + 1)4 6(q + 1)3 + 5(q + 1)2 1
1
(q + 1)2 [(q + 1) 1]2 2(q + 1)2 2(q + 1) 1
= 12
=
Exercises
+ 1)2 (2q2 + 2q 1)
CHAPTER
Chapter 65
Ue
0
Ue
0
[i ({)]2 g{
for all e A 0. Differentiating both sides of this equation using the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus gives
s
s
2e = [i (e)]2 i (e) = 2e@, since i is positive. Therefore, i({) = 2{@.
Exercises
CHAPTER
Chapter 86
1. (a) Wq ({) = cos(q arccos {). The domain of arccos is [1> 1], and the domain of cos is R, so the domain of Wq ({)
is [1> 1]. As for the range, W0 ({) = cos 0 = 1, so the range of W0 ({) is {1}. But since the range of q arccos { is
at least [0> ] for q A 0, and since cos  takes on all values in [1> 1] for  [0> ], the range of Wq ({) is [1> 1]
for q A 0.
Stewart: Calculus, Seventh Edition. ISBN: 0538497815. (c) 2012. Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
Stewart: Calculus, Sixth Edition. ISBN: 0495011606. 2008 Brooks/Cole. All rights reserved.
1 2
q (q
12
CHALLENGE PROBLEMS 13
(b) Using the usual trigonometric identities, W2 ({) = cos(2 arccos {) = 2 [cos(arccos {)]2 1 = 2{2 1, and
W3 ({) = cos(3 arccos {) = cos(arccos { + 2 arccos {)
= cos(arccos {) cos(2 arccos {) sin(arccos {) sin(2 arccos {)
= { 2{2 1 sin(arccos {) [2 sin(arccos {) cos(arccos {)]
= 2{3 { 2 sin2 (arccos {) { = 2{3 { 2{ 1 cos2 (arccos {)
= 2{3 { 2{ 1 {2 = 4{3 3{
(c) Let  = arccos {. Then
Wq+1 ({) = cos[(q + 1)] = cos( + q) = cos  cos q sin  sin q
= 2 cos  cos q (cos  cos q + sin  sin q) = 2{Wq ({) cos(q )
= 2{Wq ({) Wq1 ({)
(d) Here we use induction. W0 ({) = 1, a polynomial of degree 0. Now assume that Wn ({) is a polynomial of degree n.
Then Wn+1 ({) = 2{Wn ({) Wn1 ({). By assumption, the leading term of Wn is dn {n , say, so the leading term of
Wn+1 is 2{dn {n = 2dn {n+1 , and so Wn+1 has degree n + 1.
(e) W4 ({) = 2{W3 ({) W2 ({) = 2{ 4{3 3{ 2{2 1 = 8{4 8{2 + 1,
W5 ({) = 2{W4 ({) W3 ({) = 2{ 8{4 8{2 + 1 4{3 3{ = 16{5 20{3 + 5{,
W6 ({) = 2{W5 ({) W4 ({) = 2{ 16{5 20{3 + 5{ 8{4 8{2 + 1 = 32{6 48{4 + 18{2 1,
W7 ({) = 2{W6 ({) W5 ({) = 2{ 32{6 48{4 + 18{2 1 16{5 20{3 + 5{
= 64{7 112{5 + 56{3 7{
(f ) The zeros of Wq ({) = cos(q arccos {) occur where q arccos { = n + 2 for some integer n, since then
cos(q arccos {) = cos n + 2 = 0. Note that there will be restrictions on n, since 0 arccos { . We
Stewart: Calculus, Sixth Edition. ISBN: 0495011606. 2008 Brooks/Cole. All rights reserved.
continue: q arccos { = n +
0 ? n +
2
? q
2
arccos { =
n +
q
2
n +
q
2
0 n ? q. [This makes sense, because then Wq ({) has q zeros, and it is a polynomial of
degree q.] So, taking cosines of both sides of the last equation, we nd that the zeros of Wq ({) occur at
{ = cos
n +
q
2
, n an integer with 0 n ? q. To nd the values of { at which Wq ({) has local extrema, we set
q
q sin(q arccos {)
0 = Wq0 ({) = sin(q arccos {)
=
2
1{
1 {2
sin(q arccos {) = 0
q arccos { = n, n some integer arccos { = n@q. This has solutions for 0 n q, but we disallow the
cases n = 0 and n = q, since these give { = 1 and { = 1 respectively. So the local extrema of Wq ({) occur at
{ = cos(n@q), n an integer with 0 ? n ? q. [Again, this seems reasonable, since a polynomial of degree q has at
Stewart: Calculus, Seventh Edition. ISBN: 0538497815. (c) 2012. Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
14 CHALLENGE PROBLEMS
most (q 1) extrema.] By the First Derivative Test, the cases where n is even give maxima of Wq ({), since then
q arccos [cos(n@q)] = n is an even multiple of , so sin (q arccos {) goes from negative to positive at
{ = cos(n@q). Similarly, the cases where n is odd represent minima of Wq ({).
(g)
(h)
(i) From the graphs, it seems that the zeros of Wq and Wq+1 alternate; that is, between two adjacent zeros of Wq , there
is a zero of Wq+1 , and vice versa. The same is true of the {coordinates of the extrema of Wq and Wq+1 : between the
{coordinates of any two adjacent extrema of one, there is the {coordinate of an extremum of the other.
( j) When q is odd, the function Wq ({) is odd, since all of its terms have odd degree, and so
U1
1
Wq ({) g{ = 0. When
q is even, Wq ({) is even, and it appears that the integral is negative, but decreases in absolute value as q gets larger.
(k)
U1
1
Wq ({) g{ =
U1
1
]
cos(qx) sin x gx =
1
[sin(x
2
1 cos[(1 q)x]
cos[(1 + q)x]
=
2
q1
q+1
0
;
1
1
1
1
1
A
A
if q is even
A
? 2
q1
q+1
q1
q+1
=
A
1
1
1
1
1
A
A
if q is odd
=
2
q1
q+1
q1
q+1
;
? 2
if q is even
q2 1
=
=
0
if q is odd
Stewart: Calculus, Seventh Edition. ISBN: 0538497815. (c) 2012. Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
Stewart: Calculus, Sixth Edition. ISBN: 0495011606. 2008 Brooks/Cole. All rights reserved.
CHALLENGE PROBLEMS 15
Exercises
CHAPTER
9
Chapter 11
1. (a) Since the smaller circle rolls without slipping around F, the amount of
arc traversed on F (2u in the gure) must equal the amount of arc of
the smaller circle that has been in contact with F. Since the smaller
circle has radius u, it must have turned through an angle of 2u@u = 2.
In addition to turning through an angle 2, the little circle has rolled
through an angle against F. Thus, S has turned through an angle of
3 as shown in the gure. (If the little circle had turned through an angle
of 2 with its center pinned to the {axis, then S would have turned only 2 instead of 3. The movement of the
little circle around F adds to the angle.) From the gure, we see that the center of the small circle has coordinates
(3u cos > 3u sin ). Thus, S has coordinates ({> ), where { = 3u cos + e cos 3 and  = 3u sin + e sin 3.
(b)
e = 15 u
e = 25 u
e = 35 u
e = 45 u
1
3
2
,
3
e, returning to its original position. At the same time, S (and the rest of the
Stewart: Calculus, Sixth Edition. ISBN: 0495011606. 2008 Brooks/Cole. All rights reserved.
2
3
about T, so S s position is
occupied by another vertex. In this way, we see that the epitrochoid traced
out by S is simultaneously traced out by the other two vertices as well.
The whole equilateral triangle sits inside the epitrochoid (touching it only with its vertices) and each vertex traces
out the curve once while the centroid moves around the circle three times.
(d) We view the epitrochoid as being traced out in the same way as in part (c), by a rotor for which the distance from its
center to each vertex is 3u, so it has radius 6u. To show that the rotor ts inside the epitrochoid, it sufces to show
that for any position of the tracing point S , there are no points on the opposite side of the rotor which are outside
the epitrochoid. But the most likely case of intersection is when S is on the axis, so as long as the diameter of the
rotor (which is 3 3u) is less than the distance between the intercepts, the rotor will t. The intercepts occur
Stewart: Calculus, Seventh Edition. ISBN: 0538497815. (c) 2012. Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
16 CHALLENGE PROBLEMS
when =
t if 3
Exercises
or =
3
2
 = (3u e), so the distance between the intercepts is 6u 2e, and the rotor will
3 (2 3 )
3u 6u 2e e
u.
2
CHAPTER
10
Chapter 12
cos = 2 2 sin cos
cos = 2 2 2 sin cos
cos
cos
2
2
4
4
2
8
8
4
2
cos
cos
= = 2 2 2 2 2 sin q cos q cos q1 cos
2
2
2
8
4
2
= 2q sin
cos cos cos cos q
2q
2
4
8
2
cos cos cos cos q
2q
2
4
8
2
@2q
sin
sin {
= 1 with { = q :
{
2
sin
@2q
cos
=
lim
cos
cos
cos
lim
q
q
sin (@2q )
2
4
8
2q
Now we let q
, using lim
{0
(c) If we take =
2
sin
= cos cos cos .
2
4
8
in the result from part (b) and use the halfangle formula cos { =
1
2 (1
+ cos 2{)
2
2
2
2
2
2
t
s
s
2 2+ 2 2+ 2+ 2
=
2
2
2
Stewart: Calculus, Sixth Edition. ISBN: 0495011606. 2008 Brooks/Cole. All rights reserved.
2
Stewart: Calculus, Seventh Edition. ISBN: 0538497815. (c) 2012. Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
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