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CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

CHAPTER
CHAPTER 2
3
A Click here for answers.

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S

s1 ⫺ s2 ⫺ s 3 ⫺ x .
(b) Find f ⬘共x兲.
(c) Check your work in parts (a) and (b) by graphing f and f ⬘ on the same screen.

1. (a) Find the domain of the function f 共x兲 苷

;

CHAPTER
CHAPTER 34
A Click here for answers.

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S

1. Find the absolute maximum value of the function

f 共x兲 苷

1
1

1⫹ x
1⫹ x⫺2

ⱍ ⱍ


2. (a) Let ABC be a triangle with right angle A and hypotenuse a 苷 BC . (See the

C

figure.) If the inscribed circle touches the hypotenuse at D, show that

ⱍ CD ⱍ 苷 (ⱍ BC ⱍ ⫹ ⱍ AC ⱍ ⫺ ⱍ AB ⱍ)
1
2

D

(b) If ␪ 苷 12 ⬔C, express the radius r of the inscribed circle in terms of a and ␪.
(c) If a is fixed and ␪ varies, find the maximum value of r.
A

B

3. A triangle with sides a, b, and c varies with time t, but its area never changes. Let ␪ be the

angle opposite the side of length a and suppose ␪ always remains acute.
(a) Express d␪兾dt in terms of b, c, ␪, db兾dt, and dc兾dt.
(b) Express da兾dt in terms of the quantities in part (a).

FIGURE FOR PROBLEM 2

4. Let a and b be positive numbers. Show that not both of the numbers a共1 ⫺ b兲 and b共1 ⫺ a兲

can be greater than 14.

ⱍ ⱍ ⱍ

5. Let ABC be a triangle with ⬔BAC 苷 120⬚ and AB ⴢ AC 苷 1.

ⱍ ⱍ

(a) Express the length of the angle bisector AD in terms of x 苷 AB .
(b) Find the largest possible value of AD .

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CHAPTER 5
4
CHAPTER
A Click here for answers.

1. Show that

S

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1
2
1
7
艋y
.
4 dx 艋
1 1 ⫹ x
17
24

2. Suppose the curve y 苷 f 共x兲 passes through the origin and the point 共1, 1兲. Find the value of

the integral x01 f ⬘共x兲 dx.

4.1 and 4.2
3. In Sections 5.1
5.2 we used the formulas for the sums of the k th powers of the first n

integers when k 苷 1, 2, and 3. (These formulas are proved in Appendix E.) In this problem we
derive formulas for any k. These formulas were first published in 1713 by the Swiss mathematician James Bernoulli in his book Ars Conjectandi.
(a) The Bernoulli polynomials Bn are defined by B0共x兲 苷 1, Bn⬘共x兲 苷 Bn⫺1共x兲, and
x01 Bn共x兲 dx 苷 0 for n 苷 1, 2, 3, . . . . Find Bn共x兲 for n 苷 1, 2, 3, and 4.
(b) Use the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus to show that Bn共0兲 苷 Bn共1兲 for n 艌 2.

Stewart: Calculus, Seventh Edition. ISBN: 0538497815. (c) 2012. Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

1

2 ■ CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

(c) If we introduce the Bernoulli numbers bn 苷 n! Bn共0兲, then we can write
B0共x兲 苷 b0
B2共x兲 苷

x2
b1 x
b2


2!
1! 1!
2!

B1共x兲 苷

x
b1

1!
1!

B3共x兲 苷

x3
b1 x 2
b2 x
b3



3!
1! 2!
2! 1!
3!

and, in general,
Bn共x兲 苷

1
n!

n

k苷0

冉冊

n
bk x n⫺k
k

where

冉冊
n
k

n!
k! 共n ⫺ k兲!

[The numbers ( nk ) are the binomial coefficients.] Use part (b) to show that, for n 艌 2,
n

bn 苷

k苷0

冉冊

n
bk
k

and therefore
bn⫺1 苷 ⫺

(d)
(e)

;

(f)
(g)
(h)

1
n

冋冉 冊 冉 冊 冉 冊
n
b0 ⫹
0

n
b1 ⫹
1

n
b2 ⫹ ⭈ ⭈ ⭈ ⫹
2

冉 冊 册
n
bn⫺2
n⫺2

This gives an efficient way of computing the Bernoulli numbers and therefore the
Bernoulli polynomials.
Show that Bn共1 ⫺ x兲 苷 共⫺1兲nBn共x兲 and deduce that b2n⫹1 苷 0 for n ⬎ 0.
Use parts (c) and (d) to calculate b6 and b8 . Then calculate the polynomials B5 , B6 , B7 ,
B8 , and B9 .
Graph the Bernoulli polynomials B1, B2 , . . . , B9 for 0 艋 x 艋 1. What pattern do you
notice in the graphs?
Use mathematical induction to prove that Bk⫹1共x ⫹ 1兲 ⫺ Bk⫹1共x兲 苷 x k兾k! .
By putting x 苷 0, 1, 2, . . . , n in part (g), prove that
1k ⫹ 2 k ⫹ 3 k ⫹ ⭈ ⭈ ⭈ ⫹ n k 苷 k! 关Bk⫹1共n ⫹ 1兲 ⫺ Bk⫹1共0兲兴 苷 k! y

n⫹1

0

Bk共x兲 dx

(i) Use part (h) with k 苷 3 and the formula for B4 in part (a) to confirm the formula for
the sum of the first n cubes in Section 4.2.
5.2.
(j) Show that the formula in part (h) can be written symbolically as
1
关共n ⫹ 1 ⫹ b兲k⫹1 ⫺ b k⫹1 兴
k⫹1

where the expression 共n ⫹ 1 ⫹ b兲k⫹1 is to be expanded formally using the Binomial
Theorem and each power b i is to be replaced by the Bernoulli number bi.
(k) Use part (j) to find a formula for 15 ⫹ 2 5 ⫹ 3 5 ⫹ ⭈ ⭈ ⭈ ⫹ n 5.equator that have exactly
the same temperature.

CHAPTER
CHAPTER 5
6
A Click here for answers.

S

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1. A solid is generated by rotating about the x-axis the region under the curve y 苷 f 共x兲, where

f is a positive function and x 艌 0. The volume generated by the part of the curve from
x 苷 0 to x 苷 b is b 2 for all b ⬎ 0. Find the function f.

Stewart: Calculus, Seventh Edition. ISBN: 0538497815. (c) 2012. Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Stewart: Calculus, Sixth Edition. ISBN: 0495011606. © 2008 Brooks/Cole. All rights reserved.

1k ⫹ 2 k ⫹ 3 k ⫹ ⭈ ⭈ ⭈ ⫹ n k 苷

CHALLENGE PROBLEMS ■ 3

CHAPTER
6
CHAPTER 8
A Click here for answers.

S

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; 1. The Chebyshev polynomials Tn are defined by Tn共x兲 苷 cos共n arccos x兲, n 苷 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . .

(a) What are the domain and range of these functions?
(b) We know that T0共x兲 苷 1 and T1共x兲 苷 x. Express T2 explicitly as a quadratic polynomial
and T3 as a cubic polynomial.
(c) Show that, for n 艌 1, Tn⫹1共x兲 苷 2x Tn共x兲 ⫺ Tn⫺1共x兲.
(d) Use part (c) to show that Tn is a polynomial of degree n.
(e) Use parts (b) and (c) to express T4 , T5 , T6 , and T7 explicitly as polynomials.
(f) What are the zeros of Tn ? At what numbers does Tn have local maximum and minimum
values?
(g) Graph T2 , T3 , T4 , and T5 on a common screen.
(h) Graph T5 , T6 , and T7 on a common screen.
(i) Based on your observations from parts (g) and (h), how are the zeros of Tn related to the
zeros of Tn⫹1 ? What about the x-coordinates of the maximum and minimum values?
1
(j) Based on your graphs in parts (g) and (h), what can you say about x⫺1
Tn共x兲 dx when n is
odd and when n is even?
(k) Use the substitution u 苷 arccos x to evaluate the integral in part (j).
(l) The family of functions f 共x兲 苷 cos共c arccos x兲 are defined even when c is not an integer
(but then f is not a polynomial). Describe how the graph of f changes as c increases.

CHAPTER
11
CHAPTER 9
A Click here for answers.

S

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1. A circle C of radius 2r has its center at the origin. A circle of radius r rolls without slipping in

the counterclockwise direction around C. A point P is located on a fixed radius of the rolling
circle at a distance b from its center, 0 ⬍ b ⬍ r. [See parts (i) and (ii) of the figure.] Let L be
the line from the center of C to the center of the rolling circle and let ␪ be the angle that L
makes with the positive x-axis.
(a) Using ␪ as a parameter, show that parametric equations of the path traced out by P are
x 苷 b cos 3␪ ⫹ 3r cos ␪, y 苷 b sin 3␪ ⫹ 3r sin ␪. Note: If b 苷 0, the path is a circle of
radius 3r; if b 苷 r, the path is an epicycloid. The path traced out by P for 0 ⬍ b ⬍ r is
called an epitrochoid.
(b) Graph the curve for various values of b between 0 and r .
(c) Show that an equilateral triangle can be inscribed in the epitrochoid and that its centroid is
on the circle of radius b centered at the origin.
Note: This is the principle of the Wankel rotary engine. When the equilateral triangle
rotates with its vertices on the epitrochoid, its centroid sweeps out a circle whose center is
at the center of the curve.
(d) In most rotary engines the sides of the equilateral triangles are replaced by arcs of circles
centered at the opposite vertices as in part (iii) of the figure. (Then the diameter of the
rotor is constant.) Show that the rotor will fit in the epitrochoid if b 艋 3(2 ⫺ s3 )r兾2.

Stewart: Calculus, Sixth Edition. ISBN: 0495011606. © 2008 Brooks/Cole. All rights reserved.

;

y

y

P
P=P¸
2r

r
b

¨
x

x

(ii)

(i)
FIGURE FOR PROBLEM 1

Stewart: Calculus, Seventh Edition. ISBN: 0538497815. (c) 2012. Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

(iii)

4 ■ CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

CHAPTER
10
CHAPTER 12
S

Click here for solutions.

1. (a)

Show that, for n 苷 1, 2, 3, . . . ,
sin ␪ 苷 2 n sin






cos cos cos ⭈ ⭈ ⭈ cos n
2n
2
4
8
2

(b) Deduce that




sin ␪
苷 cos cos cos ⭈ ⭈ ⭈

2
4
8
The meaning of this infinite product is that we take the product of the first n factors and
then we take the limit of these partial products as n l ⬁.
(c) Show that
2
s2 s2 ⫹ s2


2
2

s2 ⫹ s2 ⫹ s2
2

⭈⭈⭈

This infinite product is due to the French mathematician Franc᝺ ois Viète (1540–1603).
Notice that it expresses ␲ in terms of just the number 2 and repeated square roots.
2. Suppose that a 1 苷 cos ␪, ⫺␲兾2 艋 ␪ 艋 ␲兾2, b1 苷 1, and

an⫹1 苷 2 共an ⫹ bn 兲
1

bn⫹1 苷 sbn an⫹1

Use Problem 1 to show that
lim an 苷 lim bn 苷
nl⬁

sin ␪

Stewart: Calculus, Sixth Edition. ISBN: 0495011606. © 2008 Brooks/Cole. All rights reserved.

nl⬁

Stewart: Calculus, Seventh Edition. ISBN: 0538497815. (c) 2012. Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

CHALLENGE PROBLEMS ■ 5

ANSWERS
CHAPTER
Chapter 23

Solutions

S

1
(b)  t
s
s   

8 1 2 3{ 2 3{ 3{

1. (a) [1> 2]

CHAPTER
Chapter 3
4

Solutions

S

1.

4
3 

3. (a) tan 

{
,{A0
{2 + 1

5. (a) | =

CHAPTER
4
Chapter 5

S

1 gf
1 ge
+
f gw
e gw 

e
(b)
(b)  

gf
gf
ge
ge
+f 
e
+f
sec 
gw
gw
gw
gw 

e2 + f2  2ef cos 

1
2

Solutions

3. (a) E1 ({) = {  12 , E2 ({) =

1 2
2{ 

12 { +

1
12 ,

E3 ({) = 16 {3  14 {2 +

1
12 {,

E4 ({) =

1 4
24 { 

1 3
12 {

+

1 2
24 {

1
e8 =  30
;  

6  

1
1
1
{5  52 {4 + 53 {3  16 { , E6 ({) = 720
{  3{5 + 52 {4  12 {2 + 42
,
E5 ({) = 120   

1
1
E7 ({) = 5040
{6  73 {4 + 23 {2 
{7  72 {6 + 72 {5  76 {3 + 16 { , E8 ({) = 40,320
{8  4{7 + 14
3 
9 9 8 

5
3
1
3
{  2 { + 6{7  21
E9 ({) = 362,880
5 { + 2{  10 {

(e) e6 = 

1
720

1
,
42

1
30 

,

(f ) There are four basic shapes for the graphs of Eq (excluding E1 ), and as q increases, they repeat in a cycle of four.
For q = 4p, the shape resembles that of the graph of  cos 2{; for q = 4p + 1, that of  sin 2{;
for q = 4p + 2, that of cos 2{; and for q = 4p + 3, that of sin 2{.
(k)

Stewart: Calculus, Sixth Edition. ISBN: 0495011606. © 2008 Brooks/Cole. All rights reserved.

CHAPTER6 5
Chapter

S

1 2
12 q (q

Solutions

1. i ({) =

CHAPTER7 6
Chapter

S

+ 1)2 (2q2 + 2q  1)

s
2{@

Solutions

1. (a) [1> 1]; [1> 1] for q A 0

(b) W2 ({) = 2{2  1, W3 ({) = 4{3  3{
(e) W4 ({) = 8{4  8{2 + 1, W5 ({) = 16{5  20{3 + 5{,
W6 ({) = 32{6  48{4 + 18{2  1, W7 ({) = 64{7  112{5 + 56{3  7{
(f ) { = cos

n +
q 

2

, n an integer with 0  n ? q; { = cos(n@q), n an integer with 0 ? n ? q

Stewart: Calculus, Seventh Edition. ISBN: 0538497815. (c) 2012. Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

6 ■ CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

(g)

(h)

(i) The zeros of Wq and Wq+1 alternate; the extrema also alternate
( j) When q is odd, and so

U1 
1

Wq ({) g{ = 0; when q is even, the integral is negative, but decreases in absolute value

as q gets larger.
] 

(k)
0

;
? 2
if q is even
q2  1
cos(qx) sin x gx =
=
0
if q is odd

(l ) As f increases through an integer, the graph of i gains a local extremum, which starts at { = 1 and moves
rightward, compressing the graph of i as f continues to increase.

S

Solutions

1. (b)

e = 15 u

e = 25 u

e = 35 u

e = 45 u

Stewart: Calculus, Sixth Edition. ISBN: 0495011606. © 2008 Brooks/Cole. All rights reserved.

CHAPTER10
9
Chapter

Stewart: Calculus, Seventh Edition. ISBN: 0538497815. (c) 2012. Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

CHALLENGE PROBLEMS ■ 7

SOLUTIONS

E

Exercises

Chapter 32
CHAPTER

t
s 

1 2 3{ 
q
r
s  

G = { | 3  {  0, 2  3  {  0, 1  2  3  {  0
r
q
s  

= { | 3  {, 2  3  {, 1  2  3  {
 

= { | 3  {, 4  3  {, 1  2  3  { = { | {  3, {  1, 1  3  {

1. (a) i ({) =

= {{ | {  3, {  1, 1  3  { } = {{ | {  3, {  1, {  2 }
= {{ | 1  {  2 } = [1> 2]
(b) i ({) =

t
s 

1 2 3{  

s 

1
g 
i 0 ({) = t
1 2 3{
s 

g{
1 2 3{
=  

g  
1
1
t
· s
2 3{ 

s 

g{
2
2 

3 

{
2 1 2 3{

1
= t
s
s   

8 1 2 3{ 2 3{ 3{
Note that i is always decreasing and i 0 is always negative.

(c)

E

Exercises

CHAPTER4 3
Chapter

1
1
+
1 + |{|
1 + |{  2|
;
1
1
A
A
+
A
A
1 

{
1 

({ 
2)
A
A
A
? 1
1
+
=
1+{
1  ({  2)
A
A
A
A
A
1
1
A
A
+
=
1+{
1 + ({  2)

Stewart: Calculus, Sixth Edition. ISBN: 0495011606. © 2008 Brooks/Cole. All rights reserved.

1. i({) =

if { ? 0
if 0  { ? 2
if {  2 

; 1
1
A
A
2 +
A
A
(1 

{)
(3 

{)2
A
A
A
? 1
1
i 0 ({) =
2 +
A
(1
+
{)
(3 

{)2
A
A
A
A
1 
1
A
A
= 

(1 + {)2
({  1)2

if { ? 0
if 0 ? { ? 2
if { A 2

We see that i 0 ({) A 0 for { ? 0 and i 0 ({) ? 0 for { A 2. For 0 ? { ? 2, we have 
2 
 

{ + 2{ + 1  {2  6{ + 9
1
1
8 ({  1)
i 0 ({) = 

=
=
, so i 0 ({) ? 0 for
(3  {)2
({ + 1)2
(3  {)2 ({ + 1)2
(3  {)2 ({ + 1)2
0 ? { ? 1, i 0 (1) = 0 and i 0 ({) A 0 for 1 ? { ? 2. We have shown that i 0 ({) A 0 for { ? 0; i 0 ({) ? 0 for
0 ? { ? 1; i 0 ({) A 0 for 1 ? { ? 2; and i 0 ({) ? 0 for { A 2. Therefore, by the First Derivative Test, the local
maxima of i are at { = 0 and { = 2, where i takes the value 43 . Therefore,

4
3

is the absolute maximum value of i .

Stewart: Calculus, Seventh Edition. ISBN: 0538497815. (c) 2012. Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

8 ■ CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

3. (a) D =

1
ek
2

with sin  = k@f, so D = 12 ef sin . But D is a

constant, so differentiating this equation with respect to w, we get  

gD
1
g
gf
ge
=0=
ef cos 
+e
sin  +
f sin  

gw
2
gw
gw
gw    

g
gf
ge
g
1 ge
1 gf
ef cos 
=  sin  e
+f 

=  tan 
+
.
gw
gw
gw
gw
f gw
e gw
(b) We use the Law of Cosines to get the length of side d in terms of those of e and f, and then we differentiate
implicitly with respect to w: d2 = e2 + f2  2ef cos    

gd
ge
gf
g
gf
ge
2d
= 2e
+ 2f 
2 ef( sin )
+e
cos  +
f cos  

gw
gw
gw
gw
gw
gw  

1
ge
gf
g
gf
ge
gd
=
e
+f
+ ef sin  
e
cos   f
cos  . Now we substitute our value of d from the Law
gw
d
gw
gw
gw
gw
gw
of Cosines and the value of g@gw from part (a), and simplify (primes signify differentiation by w):
ee0 + ff0 + ef sin  [ tan (f0@f + e0@e)]  (ef0 + fe0 )(cos )
gd 

=
gw
e2 + f2  2ef cos 
=

ee0 + ff0  [sin2 (ef0 + fe0 ) + cos2 (ef0 + fe0 )]@ cos 
ee0 + ff0  (ef0 + fe0 )sec   

=
e2 + f2  2ef cos 
e2 + f2  2ef cos 

5. (a) Let | = |DG|, { = |DE|, and 1@{ = |DF|, so that |DE| · |DF| = 1.

We compute the area A of 4DEF in two ways. First,
A=

1
2

|DE| |DF| sin 2
3 =

1
2

·1· 

3
2

= 

3
4 .

Second,

A = (area of 4DEG) + (area of 4DFG)
=

1
2

|DE| |DG| sin 3 +

1
2

|DG| |DF| sin 3 = 12 {|

Equating the two expressions for the area, we get 

3
|
4 

3
2

+ 12 |(1@{)  

1
=
{+
{ 

3
4 

3
2

= 

3
4 |({ 

|=

+ 1@{)

{
1
= 2
, { A 0.
{ + 1@{
{ +1

Another method: Use the Law of Sines on the triangles DEG and DEF. In 4DEG, we have 
60 +  + _G = 180

{
sin(120  )
sin 120 cos   cos 120 sin 
=
=
=
|
sin 
sin 
by a similar argument with 4DEF,
|= 

3
2 

_G = 120  . Thus, 

3
2

cos  + 12 sin 
sin  

{
= 23 cot  + 12 , and
|  

{
cot  = {2 + 12 . Eliminating cot  gives = {2 + 12 + 12 
| 

{
, { A 0.
{2 + 1

(b) We differentiate our expression for | with respect to { to nd the maximum: 
2 

{ + 1  {(2{)
g|
1  {2
=
=
= 0 when { = 1. This indicates a maximum by the First Derivative Test,
2
2
g{
({ + 1)
({2 + 1)2
since | 0 ({) A 0 for 0 ? { ? 1 and | 0 ({) ? 0 for { A 1, so the maximum value of | is |(1) = 12 .

Stewart: Calculus, Seventh Edition. ISBN: 0538497815. (c) 2012. Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Stewart: Calculus, Sixth Edition. ISBN: 0495011606. © 2008 Brooks/Cole. All rights reserved.

_D + _E + _G = 180

CHALLENGE PROBLEMS ■ 9

E

Exercises

CHAPTER5 4
Chapter

1
1
. Thus, 

1 + {4
17
] 2
] 2
1
1
1
1
1
g{ 
? 4 and
g{ =
. Also 1 + {4 A {4 for 1  {  2, so
4
17
1 + {4
{
1 1+{
1 17 
3 2
] 2
] 2
{
1
1
1
7 
4
g{
?
{
g{
=
= + =
. Thus, we have the estimate
4 
3 1
24
3
24
1 1+{
1
] 2
7
1
1
g{  

.
4
17
1
+
{
24
1

1. For 1  {  2, we have {4  24 = 16, so 1 + {4  17 and

3. (a) To nd E1 ({), we use the fact that E10 ({) = E0 ({)

U

U

1
.
2

E0 ({) g{ =

U

1 g{ = { + F. Now we 
1 k l1
U1 

U1
impose the condition that 0 E1 ({) g{ = 0  0 = 0 ({ + F) g{ = 12 {2 0 + F{ = 12 + F  
12 . 

E1 ({) =

0

U 

E1 ({) g{ =
{  12 g{ = 12 {2  12 { + G. But

So E1 ({) = {  Similarly E2 ({) =
F=
U1
U1 

1
E2 ({) g{ = 0  0 = 0 12 {2  12 { + G g{ = 16  14 + G  G = 12
, so
0 

U
U 

1
1 2
1
1
g{ = 16 {3  14 {2 + 12
. E3 ({) = E2 ({) g{ =
{  12 { + 12
{ + H. But
E2 ({) = 12 {2  12 { + 12
2 

U 1 1 3 1 2
U1
1
1
1
1
E3 ({) g{ = 0  0 = 0 6 {  4 { + 12
{ + H g{ = 24 
12
+ 24
+ H  H = 0. So
0  

U
U
1
1 3
1
1 4
1 3
1 2
{. E4 ({) = E3 ({) g{ =
{  14 {2 + 12
{ g{ = 24
{  12
{ + 24
{ + I.
E3 ({) = 16 {3  14 {2 + 12
6
U1 1 4 

U1
1 3
1 2
1
1
1
1
{  12
{ + 24
{ + I g{ = 120 
48
+ 72
+ I  I =  720
.
But 0 E4 ({) g{ = 0  0 = 0 24
So E4 ({) =

1 4
24 { 

1 3
12 {

+

1 2
24 {

(b) By FTC2, Eq (1)  Eq (0) =

U1
0 

1
720 .

Eq0 ({) g{ =

U1
0

Eq1 ({) g{ = 0 for q  1  1, by denition. Thus,

Eq (0) = Eq (1) for q  2.
(c) We know that Eq ({) =

q  
1 S
q
en {qn . If we set { = 1 in this expression, and use the fact that
q! n=0 n

q  
S
eq
q
e
for q  2, we get eq =
n n . Now if we expand the right-hand side, we get
q!
n=0 
 
 
q  
q  

eq2 + q1
eq1 + q
e . We cancel the eq terms, move the eq1 term to
eq = q0 e0 + q1 e1 + · · · + q2
q q
k
l 
 
q  
 
q 
= q: eq1 =  q1 q0 e0 + q1 e1 + · · · + q2
eq2 for q  2, as required.
the LHS and divide by  q1

Stewart: Calculus, Sixth Edition. ISBN: 0495011606. © 2008 Brooks/Cole. All rights reserved.

Eq (1) = Eq (0) =

(d) We use mathematical induction. For q = 0: E0 (1  {) = 1 and (1)0 E0 ({) = 1, so the
equation holds for q = 0 since e0 = 1. Now if En (1  {) = (1)n En ({), then
since

g
g{ En+1 (1

g
g{ En+1 (1

0
g 
{) = En+1
(1  {) g{
(1  {) = En (1  {), we have 

{) = (1)(1)n En ({) = (1)n+1 En ({). Integrating, we get

En+1 (1  {) = (1)n+1 En+1 ({) + F. But the constant of integration must be 0, since if we substitute { = 0 in
the equation, we get En+1 (1) = (1)n+1 En+1 (0) + F, and if we substitute { = 1 we get
En+1 (0) = (1)n+1 En+1 (1) + F, and these two equations together imply that  

En+1 (0) = (1)n+1 (1)n+1 En+1 (0) + F + F = En+1 (0) + 2F  F = 0.
So the equation holds for all q, by induction. Now if the power of 1 is odd, then we have

Stewart: Calculus, Seventh Edition. ISBN: 0538497815. (c) 2012. Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

10 ■ CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

E2q+1 (1  {) = E2q+1 ({). In particular, E2q+1 (1) = E2q+1 (0). But from part (b), we know that
En (1) = En (0) for n A 1. The only possibility is that E2q+1 (0) = E2q+1 (1) = 0 for all q A 0, and this implies
that e2q+1 = (2q + 1)! E2q+1 (0) = 0 for q A 0.
1
(e) From part (a), we know that e0 = 0! E0 (0) = 1, and similarly e1 =  12 , e2 = 16 , e3 = 0 and e4 =  30
.

We use the formula to nd
e6 = e71 = 

1
7

%# $
# $
# $
# $
# $
# $ &
7
7
7
7
7
7
e0 +
e1 +
e2 +
e3 +
e4 +
e5
0
1
2
3
4
5

The e3 and e5 terms are 0, so this is equal to 

Similarly,    

    

1
1
7·6 1
7·6·5
1
1
7
7
7
1
1+7 
+
+ 

=
1 + 
=
7
2
2·1 6
3·2·1
30
7
2
2
6
42
%# $
# $
# $
# $
# $ &
9
9
9
9
9
e0 +
e1 +
e2 +
e4 +
e6
0
1
2
4
6    

   


1
1
9·8 1
9·8·7·6
1
9·8·7 1
= 1+9 
+
+ 

+
9
2
2·1 6
4·3·2·1
30
3 · 2 · 1 42  

9
21
1
1
1 +6
+2 =
=
9
2
5
30

1
e8 = 
9

Now we can calculate
# $
5
1 S
5
E5 ({) =
en {5n
5! n=0 n     

 

1
1
5·4 1
1
5
4
3
=
{ +5 
{ +
{ +5 
{
120
2
2·1 6
30 
5 5 4 5 3 1 
1
{  2{ + 3{  6{
= 120   

    

1
1
1
6·5 1
6·5
1
{6 + 6 
{5 +
{4 + 

{2 +
720
2
2·1 6
2·1
30
42 
6 

5
1
5 4
1 2
1
= 720 {  3{ + 2 {  2 { + 42  

    

  

1
1
7·6 1
7·6·5
1
1
{7 + 7 
{6 +
{5 + 

{3 + 7
{
5040
2
2·1 6
3·2·1
30
42 
7 7 6 7 5 7 3 1 
1
{  2{ + 2{  6{ + 6{
= 5040

E7 ({) =   

   

   

1
1
1
8·7 1
8·7·6·5
8·7 1
1
{8 + 8 
{7 +
{6 + 

{4 +
{2 + 
40,320
2
2·1 6
4·3·2·1
30
2 · 1 42
30 
8 

7
1
14 6
7 4
2 2
1
= 40,320 {  4{ + 3 {  3 { + 3 {  30

E8 ({) =

E9 ({) =

=    

  

1
1
9·8 1
9·8·7·6
1
{9 + 9 
{8 +
{7 + 

{5
362,880
2
2·1 6
4·3·2·1
30

1
362,880 

9 9 8
{  2 { + 6{7 

21 5
{
5

+ 2{3  

9·8·7
+
3·2·1 

1
42  

 

1
{ +9 
{
30
3

3
{
10

Stewart: Calculus, Seventh Edition. ISBN: 0538497815. (c) 2012. Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Stewart: Calculus, Sixth Edition. ISBN: 0495011606. © 2008 Brooks/Cole. All rights reserved.

E6 ({) =

CHALLENGE PROBLEMS ■ 11

(f )

q=1

q=2

q=3

q=4

q=5

q=6

q=7

q=8

q=9

There are four basic shapes for the graphs of Eq (excluding E1 ), and as q increases, they repeat in a cycle of four.
For q = 4p, the shape resembles that of the graph of  cos 2{; For q = 4p + 1, that of  sin 2{; for
q = 4p + 2, that of cos 2{; and for q = 4p + 3, that of sin 2{.

(g) For n = 0: E1 ({ + 1)  E1 ({) = { + 1 
now assume that Eq ({ + 1)  Eq ({) =
]

Stewart: Calculus, Sixth Edition. ISBN: 0495011606. © 2008 Brooks/Cole. All rights reserved.

]
[Eq ({ + 1)  Eq ({)] g{ =
Eq+1 ({) =

U

1
2  

{0 
{  12 = 1, and
= 1, so the equation holds for n = 0. We
0!

{q1
. We integrate this equation with respect to {:
(q  1)!

{q1
g{. But we can evaluate the LHS using the denition
(q  1)!

Eq ({) g{, and the RHS is a simple integral. The equation becomes  

1 q
1
1
{
= {q , since by part (b) Eq+1 (1)  Eq+1 (0) = 0, and so the
Eq+1 ({ + 1)  Eq+1 ({) =
(q  1)! q
q!
constant of integration must vanish. So the equation holds for all n, by induction.

(h) The result from part (g) implies that sn = n! [En+1 (s + 1)  En+1 (s)]. If we sum both sides of this equation from
s = 0 to s = q (note that n is xed in this process), we get

q
S
s=0

sn = n!

q
S
s=0

[En+1 (s + 1)  En+1 (s)]. But the

Stewart: Calculus, Seventh Edition. ISBN: 0538497815. (c) 2012. Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

12 ■ CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

RHS is just a telescoping sum, so the equation becomes 1n + 2n + 3n + · · · + qn = n! [En+1 (q + 1)  En+1 (0)].
But from the denition of Bernoulli polynomials (and using the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus), the RHS is
U q+1
equal to n! 0
En ({) g{.
(i) If we let n = 3 and then substitute from part (a), the formula in part (h) becomes
13 + 23 + · · · + q3 = 3! [E4 (q + 1)  E4 (0)] 
1
1
= 6 24
(q + 1)4  12
(q + 1)3 +

1
(q
24

+ 1)2 

1
720  

1
24 

1
12

+

1
24 

1
720   

2
(q + 1)2 [1 + (q + 1)2  2(q + 1)]
(q + 1)2 [1  (q + 1)]2
q(q + 1)
=
=
=
4
4
2

(j) 1n + 2n + 3n + · · · + qn = n!

]

q+1

En ({) g{ [by part (h)]
# $
] q+1
] q+1 n # $
n
S n
1 S
n
nm
em {
em {nm g{
= n!
g{ =
m
n! m=0 m
m=0
0
0
0

# $
n
em {nm as ({ + e)n , as explained in the problem. Then
Now view
m
m=0
n
S

n

n

n

n

1 + 2 + 3 + · · · + q “=”

U q+1
0 

({ + e)n+1
({ + e) g{ =
n+1
n 

q+1
=
0

(q + 1 + e)n+1  en+1
n+1

(k) We expand the RHS of the formula in (j), turning the el into el , and remembering that e2l+1 = 0 for l A 0:  

15 + 25 + · · · + q5 = 16 (q + 1)6  e6  

= 16 (q + 1)6 + 6(q + 1)5 e1 + 62 ·· 51 (q + 1)4 e2 + 62 ·· 51 (q + 1)2 e4  

= 16 (q + 1)6  3(q + 1)5 + 52 (q + 1)4  12 (q + 1)2  

1
= 12
(q + 1)2 2(q + 1)4  6(q + 1)3 + 5(q + 1)2  1  

1
(q + 1)2 [(q + 1)  1]2 2(q + 1)2  2(q + 1)  1
= 12
=

Exercises

+ 1)2 (2q2 + 2q  1)

CHAPTER
Chapter 65

1. The volume generated from { = 0 to { = e is

Ue
0 

[i({)]2 g{. Hence, we are given that e2 =

Ue
0 

[i ({)]2 g{

for all e A 0. Differentiating both sides of this equation using the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus gives
s
s
2e = [i (e)]2  i (e) = 2e@, since i is positive. Therefore, i({) = 2{@.

E

Exercises

CHAPTER
Chapter 86

1. (a) Wq ({) = cos(q arccos {). The domain of arccos is [1> 1], and the domain of cos is R, so the domain of Wq ({)

is [1> 1]. As for the range, W0 ({) = cos 0 = 1, so the range of W0 ({) is {1}. But since the range of q arccos { is
at least [0> ] for q A 0, and since cos | takes on all values in [1> 1] for |  [0> ], the range of Wq ({) is [1> 1]
for q A 0.

Stewart: Calculus, Seventh Edition. ISBN: 0538497815. (c) 2012. Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Stewart: Calculus, Sixth Edition. ISBN: 0495011606. © 2008 Brooks/Cole. All rights reserved.

E

1 2
q (q
12

CHALLENGE PROBLEMS ■ 13

(b) Using the usual trigonometric identities, W2 ({) = cos(2 arccos {) = 2 [cos(arccos {)]2  1 = 2{2  1, and
W3 ({) = cos(3 arccos {) = cos(arccos { + 2 arccos {)
= cos(arccos {) cos(2 arccos {)  sin(arccos {) sin(2 arccos {)  

= { 2{2  1  sin(arccos {) [2 sin(arccos {) cos(arccos {)]    

= 2{3  {  2 sin2 (arccos {) { = 2{3  {  2{ 1  cos2 (arccos {)  

= 2{3  {  2{ 1  {2 = 4{3  3{
(c) Let | = arccos {. Then
Wq+1 ({) = cos[(q + 1)|] = cos(| + q|) = cos | cos q|  sin | sin q|
= 2 cos | cos q|  (cos | cos q| + sin | sin q|) = 2{Wq ({)  cos(q|  |)
= 2{Wq ({)  Wq1 ({)
(d) Here we use induction. W0 ({) = 1, a polynomial of degree 0. Now assume that Wn ({) is a polynomial of degree n.
Then Wn+1 ({) = 2{Wn ({)  Wn1 ({). By assumption, the leading term of Wn is dn {n , say, so the leading term of
Wn+1 is 2{dn {n = 2dn {n+1 , and so Wn+1 has degree n + 1.  

 

(e) W4 ({) = 2{W3 ({)  W2 ({) = 2{ 4{3  3{  2{2  1 = 8{4  8{2 + 1,  

 

W5 ({) = 2{W4 ({)  W3 ({) = 2{ 8{4  8{2 + 1  4{3  3{ = 16{5  20{3 + 5{,  

 

W6 ({) = 2{W5 ({)  W4 ({) = 2{ 16{5  20{3 + 5{  8{4  8{2 + 1 = 32{6  48{4 + 18{2  1,  

 

W7 ({) = 2{W6 ({)  W5 ({) = 2{ 32{6  48{4 + 18{2  1  16{5  20{3 + 5{
= 64{7  112{5 + 56{3  7{
(f ) The zeros of Wq ({) = cos(q arccos {) occur where q arccos { = n + 2 for some integer n, since then  

cos(q arccos {) = cos n + 2 = 0. Note that there will be restrictions on n, since 0  arccos {  . We

Stewart: Calculus, Sixth Edition. ISBN: 0495011606. © 2008 Brooks/Cole. All rights reserved.

continue: q arccos { = n +
0 ? n + 

2

? q 

2 

arccos { =

n +
q 

2

. This only has solutions for 0 

n +
q 

2   

0  n ? q. [This makes sense, because then Wq ({) has q zeros, and it is a polynomial of

degree q.] So, taking cosines of both sides of the last equation, we nd that the zeros of Wq ({) occur at
{ = cos

n +
q 

2

, n an integer with 0  n ? q. To nd the values of { at which Wq ({) has local extrema, we set 

q
q sin(q arccos {) 

0 = Wq0 ({) =  sin(q arccos {) 
=
2
1{
1  {2 

sin(q arccos {) = 0 

q arccos { = n, n some integer  arccos { = n@q. This has solutions for 0  n  q, but we disallow the
cases n = 0 and n = q, since these give { = 1 and { = 1 respectively. So the local extrema of Wq ({) occur at
{ = cos(n@q), n an integer with 0 ? n ? q. [Again, this seems reasonable, since a polynomial of degree q has at

Stewart: Calculus, Seventh Edition. ISBN: 0538497815. (c) 2012. Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

14 ■ CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

most (q  1) extrema.] By the First Derivative Test, the cases where n is even give maxima of Wq ({), since then
q arccos [cos(n@q)] = n is an even multiple of , so sin (q arccos {) goes from negative to positive at
{ = cos(n@q). Similarly, the cases where n is odd represent minima of Wq ({).
(g)

(h)

(i) From the graphs, it seems that the zeros of Wq and Wq+1 alternate; that is, between two adjacent zeros of Wq , there
is a zero of Wq+1 , and vice versa. The same is true of the {-coordinates of the extrema of Wq and Wq+1 : between the
{-coordinates of any two adjacent extrema of one, there is the {-coordinate of an extremum of the other.
( j) When q is odd, the function Wq ({) is odd, since all of its terms have odd degree, and so

U1 
1

Wq ({) g{ = 0. When

q is even, Wq ({) is even, and it appears that the integral is negative, but decreases in absolute value as q gets larger.
(k)

U1 
1

Wq ({) g{ =

U1 
1

cos(q arccos {) g{. We substitute x = arccos {  { = cos x  g{ =  sin x gx,

{ = 1  x = , and { = 1  x = 0. So the integral becomes

0 

]
cos(qx) sin x gx =

0 

1
[sin(x
2 

qx) + sin(x + qx)] gx  

1 cos[(1  q)x]
cos[(1 + q)x]
= 

2
q1
q+1
0
;  
 

1 
1
1 
1
1
A
A   

if q is even
A
? 2
q1
q+1
q1
q+1
=  

 

A
1
1
1
1
1
A
A   

if q is odd
=
2
q1
q+1
q1
q+1
;
? 2
if q is even
q2  1
=
=
0
if q is odd

(l ) From the graph, we see that as f increases through an
integer, the graph of i gains a local extremum, which
starts at { = 1 and moves rightward, compressing the
graph of i as f continues to increase.

Stewart: Calculus, Seventh Edition. ISBN: 0538497815. (c) 2012. Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Stewart: Calculus, Sixth Edition. ISBN: 0495011606. © 2008 Brooks/Cole. All rights reserved.

]

CHALLENGE PROBLEMS ■ 15

E

Exercises

CHAPTER
9
Chapter 11

1. (a) Since the smaller circle rolls without slipping around F, the amount of

arc traversed on F (2u in the gure) must equal the amount of arc of
the smaller circle that has been in contact with F. Since the smaller
circle has radius u, it must have turned through an angle of 2u@u = 2.
In addition to turning through an angle 2, the little circle has rolled
through an angle  against F. Thus, S has turned through an angle of
3 as shown in the gure. (If the little circle had turned through an angle
of 2 with its center pinned to the {-axis, then S would have turned only 2 instead of 3. The movement of the
little circle around F adds  to the angle.) From the gure, we see that the center of the small circle has coordinates
(3u cos > 3u sin ). Thus, S has coordinates ({> |), where { = 3u cos  + e cos 3 and | = 3u sin  + e sin 3.
(b)

e = 15 u

e = 25 u

e = 35 u

e = 45 u

(c) The diagram gives an alternate description of point S on the epitrochoid.
T moves around a circle of radius e, and S rotates one-third as fast with
respect to T at a distance of 3u. Place an equilateral triangle with sides of 

length 3 3u so that its centroid is at T and one vertex is at S . (The
distance from the centroid to a vertex is 

1
3

times the length of a side of

the equilateral triangle.)
As  increases by

2
,
3

the point T travels once around the circle of radius

e, returning to its original position. At the same time, S (and the rest of the
Stewart: Calculus, Sixth Edition. ISBN: 0495011606. © 2008 Brooks/Cole. All rights reserved.

triangle) rotate through an angle of

2
3

about T, so S ’s position is

occupied by another vertex. In this way, we see that the epitrochoid traced
out by S is simultaneously traced out by the other two vertices as well.
The whole equilateral triangle sits inside the epitrochoid (touching it only with its vertices) and each vertex traces
out the curve once while the centroid moves around the circle three times.
(d) We view the epitrochoid as being traced out in the same way as in part (c), by a rotor for which the distance from its
center to each vertex is 3u, so it has radius 6u. To show that the rotor ts inside the epitrochoid, it sufces to show
that for any position of the tracing point S , there are no points on the opposite side of the rotor which are outside
the epitrochoid. But the most likely case of intersection is when S is on the |-axis, so as long as the diameter of the 

rotor (which is 3 3u) is less than the distance between the |-intercepts, the rotor will t. The |-intercepts occur

Stewart: Calculus, Seventh Edition. ISBN: 0538497815. (c) 2012. Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

16 ■ CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

when  = 
t if 3

Exercises

or  =

3
2 

| = ±(3u  e), so the distance between the intercepts is 6u  2e, and the rotor will  

3 (2  3 )
3u  6u  2e  e 
u.
2

CHAPTER
10
Chapter 12  

            

cos = 2 2 sin cos
cos = 2 2 2 sin cos
cos
cos
2
2
4
4
2
8
8
4
2      

         

cos
cos
= · · · = 2 2 2 · · · 2 2 sin q cos q cos q1 · · · cos
2
2
2
8
4
2

1. (a) sin  = 2 sin

= 2q sin     

cos cos cos · · · cos q
2q
2
4
8
2

(b) sin  = 2q sin     

cos cos cos · · · cos q
2q
2
4
8
2  

@2q    

sin 
·
= cos cos cos · · · cos q . 

sin (@2q )
2
4
8
2

sin { 

= 1 with { = q :
{
2     

sin  
@2q   

cos 

·
=
lim
cos
cos
·
·
·
cos
lim
q
q 

sin (@2q )
2
4
8
2q
Now we let q
, using lim

{0

(c) If we take  = 

2

sin    

= cos cos cos · · · . 

2
4
8

in the result from part (b) and use the half-angle formula cos { =

t

1
2 (1

+ cos 2{)

(see Formula 17a in Appendix D), we get
yy
xxu
xx
x x cos 4 + 1
yu
xw
x
+1 

x
x cos 4 + 1
2
u
x
x
+1
+
1
w
cos 4 + 1 w
2
sin @2
2
= cos 4
···  
@2
2
2
2
yv
x 
ys
x 

2
x
v
x
x 2+ 2
2 +1
s   

x
+
1
2
+1
w
2
2
2 2+ 2 w
2
2 +1
2
=
··· =
··· 

2
2
2
2
2
2
t
s  

s 

2 2+ 2 2+ 2+ 2
···
=
2
2
2
Stewart: Calculus, Sixth Edition. ISBN: 0495011606. © 2008 Brooks/Cole. All rights reserved.

E 

2

Stewart: Calculus, Seventh Edition. ISBN: 0538497815. (c) 2012. Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.