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# CERTIFICA

TE
This is to certify that XXXX , a student of
class XII-A has successfully completed the
research on the below mentioned project
under the guidance of XXXX during the
year 2013-14 in partial fulfillment of
physics practical examination conducted
by AISSCE, New Delhi.

Signature of external examiner

Signature of physics teacher

ACKNOWLEDGEM ENT In the accomplishment of this project successfully. Primarily I would thank god for being able to complete this project with success. Then I would like to thank my physics teacher MISS VIDHU whose valuable guidance has been the ones that helped me patch this . many people have best owned upon me their blessings and the heart pledged support. this time I am utilizing to thank all the people who have been concerned with project.

it is called a gate.project and make it full proof success his suggestions and his instructions has served as the major contributor towards the completion of the project. LOGIC GATES A gate is defined as a digital circuit which follows some logical relationship between the input and output voltages. . The Logic Gates are building blocks at digital electronics. They are used in digital electronics to change on voltage level (input voltage) into another (output voltage) according to some logical statement relating them. It is a digital circuit which either allows a signal to pass through as stop.

The binary number 1 is used to denote the HIGH value. CLOSED/OPEN. but it has only one output. CONDUCTING/NON-CONDUCTING etc. TRUE/FALSE. YES/NO.A logic gate may have one or more inputs. George Boole in 1980 invented a different kind of algebra based on binary nature at the logic. i) OR gate ii) AND gate iii) NOT gate . ON/OFF. this algebra of logic called BOOLEAN ALGEBRA. such as HIGH/LOW. TYPES OF GATES There are three types of basic logic gates which follows Boolean expression. Truth table of a Logic Gates is a table that shows all the input and output possibilities for the logic gate. The logical statements that logic gates follow are called Boolean expressions. The relationship between the possible values of input and output voltage is expressed in the form of a table called truth table or table of combinations. A logical statement can have only two values. The two values of logic statements one denoted by the binary number 1 and 0.

Y=A+ B . It combing the input A and B with the output Y following the Boolean expression.THE “OR GATE” The OR gate is a two inputs and one output logic gate.

. B have Y is equal to A AND B. B The Boolean algebra. OR operation OR operator). B=1) Lamp glow. the addition symbol (+) is called OR (i. Y=A. In this electric circuit. B=1) Lamp glow. dot or x Gross) is taken to mean AND. c) If switch A closed B open then (A=1. the multiplication symbol (. THE “AND GATE” The AND gate is also a two inputs and one output logic gate. As we see truth table we found same as it is observation.e. d) If switch A & B are closed then (A=1. It combines the input A and B with the output Y following the Boolean expression. The various possible combinations of the input and output of the OR gate can be easily understand with the help of the electrical circuit.The Boolean algebra. B=0) b) If Switch A open B closed then (A=0. The following interference can be easily drawn from the working of electrical circuit is : a) If switch A & B are open lamp do not glow (A=0. B=0) Lamp glow. a parallel combination of two switches A and B is connected to a battery and a lump L. Y = A .

B=1) then Lamp will not glow. Y not equal A. The following conclusions can be easily drawn from the working of electrical circuit : a) If both switches A&B are open (A=0. (y=1) As we see truth table we found same as it is observed experimentally. Here a series combination of the switch A and B is connected to a battery and a lump L. B=0) then lamp will not glow. (y=0) d) If switch A & B both closed (A=1. B=1) then Lamp will glow. (y=0) b) If Switch A closed & B open (A=1. The way. It combines the input A with the output following the Boolean expression.e. It is represented by the symbol. the NOT gate gives the output it is also called inverter. (y=0) c) If switch A open & B closed (A=0. .The various possible combination of the input and outputs of the AND gate can be easily found with the help of the electrical circuit. Y= A i. B=0) then Lamp will not glow. THE “NOT GATE” The NOT gate is a one inputs and one output logic gate.

the lump will not glow (Y=0). a) If switch A is open (i.e. the electrical circuit is called not gate. Far this reason. . The two possible input-output combinations can be written in the form of the table.e. The possible input and output combination of a NOT gate can be easily discussed with the help of electrical circuit. A=0). A=1). The following conclusion can be easily drawn from the working of the electrical circuit. the negative sign (-) is called NOT. The equation Y= A called Boolean expression. Y=1) b) If Switch A is closed (i. the lump will glow (i. It follows that in the given electrical circuit.e. when the switch A is not closed. Here. the lump glows (or output is obtained).The Boolean algebra. the switch is connected in parallel to the lump of the battery. It is called truth table of NOT gate.