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# PHYSICS PROJECT

On
Determination Of
refractive index of
Different Liquid using a
hollow prism.

PROJECT PREPARED BY:
MRIDUL BHASINXII B
Session : 2015-2016
Board’s Roll Number :
Happy Model School

CERTIFICATE

This is hereby to certify that, the original
and genuine investigation work has been
carried out to investigate about the
subject matter and the related data
collection and investigation has been
completed solely, sincerely and
satisfactorily by MRIDUL of CLASS XII B,
Happy Model School , regarding his
project titled
“Determination Of refractive index of
Different Liquid using a hollow prism”.

Teacher’s Signature

MRIDUL XII B . Their valuable guidance. support and supervision all through this project titled “Determination Of refractive index of Different Liquid using a hollow prism” are responsible for attaining its present form.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It would be my utmost pleasure to express my sincere thanks to My Physics Teacher Mrs.MINAKSHI in providing a helping hand in this project.

9. 10. . 4. Objective Introduction Apparatus Theory Procedure Observations Diagrams Calculations + Graphs Precautions Bibliography Page No. 7. 5. 6. 3.CONTENTS Sl. 8. No Item 1. 2.

In this project. The hollow prism is filled with liquid and then the experiment is performed. a hollow prism has been used to calculate the refractive index of various liquids. INTRODUCTION: This project is of Investigatory Type.OBJECTIVES:  To study the variation of the angle of deviation with the angle of incidence using Hollow Glass Prism and to determine the angle of minimum deviation. .  To find out the refractive index of various liquids using a Hollow Prism.

This phenomenon of the bending of light at the surface of separation of the two medium is called refraction of light.APPARATUS:   Drawing Board Hollow Glass Prism  Sheet of Paper  Graph Paper  Protractor  Drawing Pins  All Pins  Pencil THEORY: Refraction : In a homogenous medium. light travels along a straight line. but whenever it falls on a surface of another medium. though with a change of direction. a very small fraction of it is reflected back and most of the light passes into the medium. .

of of If of . the ratio of the sine the angle of incidence to the sine of angle refraction is a constant for any two given media.Causes of refraction This phenomenon of refraction takes place when a beam of light enters a medium in which light enters a medium in which light travels with a different velocity. The incident ray. For any two given media. Medium: The surrounding substance through which the light travels. where it is the angle of incidence and is the angle of refraction. For a monochromatic light. `I’ is the angle of incidence. the refracted and the normal to the surface at the point of incidence lie on the same plane. Laws Of Refraction 1. and `r’ is the angle refraction. the ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence to the angle of refraction is a constant. then. 2.

Sine( I) -------------------------------------- = Constant Sine( R) the constant is called the refractive index. For most purposes it may be assumed that the refractive index is with respect to air. it bends towards the normal and vice versa when it goes from a denser to a rarer medium. When light travels from a rarer to a denser medium. It has been experimentally shown that Velocity of light in air Refractive index of substance = -----------------------------------Velocity of light in substance .

Refraction Through Prism: A transparent medium bounded by two plane surface inclined to each other at an angle is called a Prism. Angle of deviation: The angle through which the incident ray of light is deviated is called the angle of deviation. Critical angle : It is that angle of incidence in the denser medium for which corresponding angle of refraction in the rarer medium is 90 degree. it attains a minimum value m . Angle of minimum deviation: As the value of the angle of incidence (1) increases. In fact it is the angle between the emergent ray and the incident ray produced. the angle of deviation decreases till for a particular value of the angle of incidence. is called the angle of minimum deviation. The angle between the two faces is known as the angle of the prism. .

Wavelength or color of light . Material of prism 3.1 u  = -------------------Sin C Where. Angle of prism 2. u C- - Refractive Index Critical angle The four parameters on which angle of deviation depends are: 1. Angle of incidence 4.

depending upon whether the second medium is denser or rarer with respect to first medium. it either bends towards the normal or away from the normal in the second medium. and for a particular wavelength of light (colour) the ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence and the sine of the angle of refraction is a constant quantity called the Refractive Index of the second medium with respect to the first medium. the value of the angle of incidence i can be obtained in terms of the refracting angle A of the prism and the angle of minimum deviation m and the .Refraction through Prism : Theory on refraction through Prism : When a ray of light passes from one medium into the other. It is represented by: Sin i u = ----------------Sin r Therefore. This phenomenon is known as the Refraction of light For a particular pair of two media.

If the incident ray IP be produced backwards to meet QE produced at S. Let ABC represent a section of the glass prism and let IP be a ray incident at angle i on the first face AB of the prism at a point P. The material of the prism is denser with respect to air.angle of refraction r can also be obtained in terms of the refracting angle A of the prism. The ray emerging in the direction QE bending away from the normal and making an angle e with the normal. . the angle KSQ is called the angle of deviation is represented by D. as such the ray will refract in the direction PQ making an angle r 1 with the normal reaching the second face AC of the prism at the point Q making an angle r2with the normal N2QT. Angle BAC is called the refracting angle of the prism and represented by A. To derive the relation: A+ D = i+e In  SPQ. PS is produced to K. N1PN is the normal to this face.

......(1) r1 + r 2 +  PTQ = 1800 r 1 + r2 = 1800 ......(2) Taking quadrilateral APTQ  APT +  AQT = 900 + 900 = 1800  A +  PTQ = 1800  A = 180 ......(r 1 + r 2) .. D =  SPQ +  SQP = i-r1 + e-r 2 = (i + e) ........(4) From (1) and (4) .. PTQ .. PTQ ----------------(3) From (2) and (3) r1 + r 2 =  A..... KSQ or D is the external angle.

.......D = i+e-A A + D = i+e When the angle of deviation D has minimum value Dm the following conditions are fulfilled: i = e and r1 ...(6) .(5) 2 and A + D m = 2 i A+Dm Or i = --------- ....(2) and (3) A = 2r A or r = ----- .r2 = r (say) Applying these conditions in Eq..........

....(7) ..2 Sin Since u2 = i -------Sin r We obtain on substituting the value of (i) and (r) Sin(i) since  = -----------Sin (r) Sin(A+Dm)/2  = ------------------------ ....

. For finding the value of Dm a curve is plotted between the angles of incidence(1) and their respective angles of deviation (D). The experiment thus consists of finding of the value of the refracting angle of minimum deviation Dm.Sin(A/2) Thus we find that we can use the relation (7) for determining the refractive index.

3.55 & 60 using a protractor. Join the points (i.PROCEDURE: 1. for angles 35. all lie on the same straight line. 4. 5.e. Fix two pins R and S on the paper such that the tips of these pins and the tips of these images of the incident ray pins.e. 2.45. Draw a straight-line XY nearly at the center of the sheet parallel to its length. Mark points marked as O at suitable spacing on the line XY and draw normal to the line XY at point O. Fix the sheet of white paper on Drawing board with cello tape or drawing pins.50. Draw straight line PQ corresponding to the incident rays that are drawn at the angles of incidence ranging from 30 to 60 i.40. pin pricks) S & R and produce it backwards to meet the incident ray PQ produced. Thus RS is the emergent ray . Fix two pins P and Q about 8 cm on the incident rayline and view its image with one eye closed from the side of BC of the prism. Fill the liquid from open and of prism.

Draw arrow heads to show the direction of rays. 9. Repeat at steps (4 to 8) for different liquids having different values of angle of incidence and measure the corresponding angles of deviation D. 8. . table. Plot a graph between angle i and D for various sets of values recorded in the observation table. 6. of the triangle so traced with the help of protractor.corresponding to the incident ray PQ. Record your observation in observation Plotting of graph between i & D. Measure the angle A. Now place the prism on separate sheet of paper or on the same sheet at a suitable place and trace its triangular boundary with a sharp pencil. Take at least three values (i) from 300 to 400. Measure the angle of deviation D with Protractor. 7.

Proper arrow should be drawn to indicate the incident. 7. 5. 3. 2. The same and prism should be used for all observations. . 6. the refracted and the emergent rays. 4. The separation between the pins should not be less than 8 cm. A smooth curve passing practically through all the plotted points should be drawn. The pins should have sharp tips and fixed vertically and the pin pricks should be encircled immediately after they are removed. So an ink mark should be placed on it to distinguish it as a refracting angle A of the prism. The angle of incidence should lie between 30-45.Precautions 1. A sharp pencil should be used for drawing the boundary of the prism.

No. 50o 25o 5.No. 35o 29o 2. ANGLE OF ANGLE OF INCIDENC DEVIATIO E N 1. 55o 26o Sl. 55o 28o FOR SPIRIT: . 35o 25o 2. 50o 27o 5. 40o 24o 3. ANGLE OF ANGLE OF INCIDENC DEVIATIO E N 1.OBSERVATIONS 1) 1) FOR H2O: Sl. 45o 23o 4. 40o 26o 3. 45o 25o 4.

45o 35o 4.No. 50o 40 o 5. 40o 38o 3. 35o 39o 2.No. 40o 39o 3. ANGLE OF ANGLE OF INCIDENC DEVIATIO E N 1. 35o 40o 2. 55o 45o . 55o 41o FOR BENZENE: Sl. 45o 41o 4. 50o 42 o 5. Sl. ANGLE OF ANGLE OF INCIDENC DEVIATIO E N 1.1) For Glycerin: 4.

0. Water u Sin (60+23) 2 = \ Sin(41.5 Sin 30 = 1.CALCULATIONS Formula Applied:- u Sin (A+Dm ) 2 = ----------------------- Sin (A/2) 1.6626 0.5) .33 Spirit Sin (60+25) 2 u = = Sin(42.5) = ----------------------- ------------------- Sin(60/2) = 2.

5) ------------------- Sin 30 .47 = 0.52 = Sin(49.5) --------------------------------------------- - = ------------------------- Sin(60/2) = 0.7372 --------- = Sin 30 1.35 0.----------------------- ------------------- Sin(60/2) = 3.5000 Glycerin Sin (60+35) 2 u = Sin(47.6756 Sin 30 = 1.5 4. Benzene Sin (60+39 ) u = 2 ----------------------- Sin(60/2) = 1. 0.

Spirit = 1. Glycerine = iv Benzene 1.RESULT (i) The angle of deviation D first decrease with the increase in the angle op-of incidence.52 .35 iii.47 = 1. Water = 1. attains a minimum value and then increase with further increase in angle of incidence. (ii) The refractive index of :i.33 ii.