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4.

Collection and Distribution of Water
• Deals with the collection and transport of water from the
source through the treatment plant to the consumers.
• Water collection implies methods of abstracting raw water
from the source.

• The objective of WDS is to deliver water to individual
consumers with appropriate quality, quantity and pressure.
• The distribution system describes collectively the facilities
used to supply water from its source to the point of
usage. These are-pipes, storage reservoirs, pumps and
related appurtenances.

Contd
• Collection and distribution requires:
▫ Storage Structures
▫ Intake structures
▫ Transmission lines
▫ Distribution pipe networks and
▫ Other essential accessories.

Intakes
•An intake is a structure in a surface water source required to
withdraw water from a river, lake or reservoir. The primary
functions of an intakes is to:
-To supply highest quantity of water from the sources

-To protect pipes and pumps from damage or clogging as a
result of floating and submerged debris.
•An intake consists of:
-The opening, strainer, or grating through which the water
enters, and
-The conduit conveying the water, usually by gravity, to a
well or sump.

Contd
•The following must be considered in designing and locating
intakes:
oThe source of supply, whether impounding reservoirs, lakes,
or rivers (including the possibility of wide fluctuation in
water level).
oThe character of the intake surroundings;
-Depth of water
-Character of bottom
-Navigation requirement
-The effect of currents floods and storms up on the
structure and in scouring the bottom.

Contd
oThe location with respect to sources of pollution; and
oThe prevalence of floating materials such as ice, and
vegetation
•In general, the following notations may be considered
in locating intakes:

River intakes should not be on curved reach of the river.
The intake should be able to draw water at all levels.
The site for intakes should be as near as possible
to treatment plant.
The intake should be located at a place where it
can draw water even during the driest periods of
the year.

Types of Intakes
There are different types of intakes, such as:
•Reservoir intakes

•River intakes and
•Canal intake

Intakes from Impounding Reservoirs. Tower water intake for a lake or reservoir water supply . •They are subject to wide variation in depths. •The quality is best close to the surface. •Require intake structures that will permit withdrawal over a wide range of elevations.

•Water is drawn from the upstream side of the river. where it is comparatively of better quality. .River Intakes •River intake is located inside the river so as to get adequate supply in all seasons.

Canal Intakes •As the full supply level in the canal is. . inlets at different depths are not necessary. fairly constant.

Design Criteria for intake structures • Design capacity = Q max-day • Intake velocity should be 8 cm/s • Vertical positions intake ports should be such that good quality water is withdrawn. . • Locate the top intake port at a distance not less than 2 m from the normal water level and the bottom port at least 1 m above the bottom.

These methods are: Gravity Distribution Distribution by means of pumps with storage (Pumping + Gravity ) Use of Pumps with out storage ( Direct Pumping) .Methods of Distribution •Water is distributed to consumers in several different ways. as local conditions or other considerations may dictate.

Gravitational system •This is possible when the source of supply is a lake or impounding reservoir at some elevation above the city so that sufficient pressure can be maintained in the mains for domestic and fire service. .

Distribution by means of pumps with storage/ Dual System of Distribution •In this method the excess water pumped during periods of low consumption is stored in elevated tanks or reservoirs .

Use of Pumps with out storage •Treated water is directly pumped into the distribution mains without storing •High lift pumps operate at variable speeds to match variable water demand •Disadvantageous (power failure) no reserve flow .

For ordinary service they range from 150KPa to 300KPa in residential districts having houses not over four stories in height.Pressure in the Distribution system •There are wide differences in the pressures maintained in distribution systems in various Cities. •About 400KPa in residential districts where direct hose streams are used for fire fighting to 500KPa for commercial districts. .

Contd •The American Water Works Association recommends a normal static pressure of 400 to 500KPa as presenting the following advantage: It will supply ordinary consumption for buildings up to 10 stories in height Effective automatic sprinkler service is possible in four and five story buildings It permits direct hydrant service for a few fire-hose streams. thus insuring quick action by the fire department A large margin is allowed in fluctuations of local pressures to meet sudden drafts and to offset losses due to partial clogging or excessive length of service pipes .

. Provide a supply during a failure or shutdown of treatment plant. To give a suitable pressure for the distribution system and reduce pressure fluctuations therein. To provide a reserve of water to meet fire and other emergency demands. pumps or trunk main leading to the reservoir. permitting the source to give steady or differently phased output.Service Reservoirs •A service reservoir has four main functions: To balance the fluctuating demand from the distribution system.

.Position and Elevation of Reservoirs •If the service reservoir is to be of maximum value as a safeguarded against break down of the supply to consumers then it should be positioned as near as possible to the area of demand. •If the distribution area varies widely in elevation it may be necessary to use two more service reservoirs at different levels. so that the lower area do not receive an unduly high pressure.

Types of Service Reservoirs •There are two types of service reservoirs: Surface reservoir (Ground Reservoir or Nonelevated) Elevated reservoir ( Over head Tank) .

Manholes : For providing entry to the inside of reservoir for inspection and cleaning . for inspection and cleaning 3. Lightening Conductor : In case of elevated reservoirs for the passage of lightening 4. Ladder : To reach the top of the reservoir and then to the bottom of the reservoir.Accessories of Service Reservoirs •The service reservoirs are to be provided with the following accessories: 1. Inlet Pipe : For the entry of water 2.

Outflow Pipe : For the exit of water above full supply level 7. . Washout pipe : For removing water after cleaning of the reservoir 9. Vent pipes : For free circulation of air 8. Water level indicator: To know the level of water inside the tank from outside. Outlet pipe: For the exit of water 6.Contd 5.

Contd LIGHTENING CONDUCTOR MANHOLE WATER LEVEL INDICATOR LADDER OVER FLOW PIPE WASH OUT PIPE INFLOW PIPE OUTLET PIPE DITCH .

Design Capacity of Service Reservoirs •The three major components of service storage are: Equalizing or operating storage Fire reserve Emergency reserve •Equalizing or operating capacity can be obtained from a mass curve of water consumption rates and pumping supply rates. •The capacity can be analytically determined by finding out maximum cumulative surplus during the stage when pumping rate is higher than water consumption rate .

3-6 3 Demand( 2 25 1000lite 0 rs) 6-9 30 9 -12 12 . . The demand of water during different periods is given in the following table: Time (hr) 0.21 21 24 25 25 Determine the capacity of a service reservoir if pumping is done 24 hours at constant rate.Example A small town with a design population of 1600 is to be supplied water at 150liters per capita per day.15 15 18 50 35 30 18 .

-18 30.6. .12 30. . .15 30.000 15.21 30. .000 18.9 30. -24 30.000 6.000 35.000 25.000lit/hr = 30.000 25.000 30.000 25.000 50.000 12.000 9.000 Surplus 10000 5000 0 0 0 0 5000 5000 Deficit 0 0 0 -20000 -5000 0 0 0 Cummulative 10000 15000 15000 -5000 -10000 -10000 -5000 0 .000 30.000/24 = 10.Solution •Water supply = 150l/c/d •Total water demand = demand * population = 150*1600 = 240.000 21.000 Demand 20.000liters •Rate of pumping = 240. .000 3.000lit/3hr Time Pumping 0-3 30. 30.

Contd Maximum cumulative surplus = 15.000lit = 25 m3 If the reservoir is circular with depth h = 3.4m 3 .000 liters Total 25.000 liters Maximum cumulative deficit = 10.0 m 25 * 4 d  3.

Depth and Shape of Service Reservoirs A. Depth •There is an economical depth of service reservoir for any given site For a given quantity of water either a shallow reservoir having long walls and a large floor area may be constructed or alternatively  A deep reservoir may be constructed with high retaining walls and a smaller floor area .

so as to reduce unnecessary carting of surplus material to tip. slope of ground.Contd •Factors influencing depth for a given storage are: Depth at which suitable foundation conditions are encountered Depth at which the out let main must be laid. nature and type of back fill The need to make the quantity of excavated material approximately equal to the amount required for backing. The shape and size of land available .

Shape •Circular reservoir is geometrically the most economical shape. . which would allow one half to be drained for maintenance without taking the whole reservoir out of service.Contd B. giving the least amount of walling for a given volume and depth •It is unsuitable for division in to two compartments.

with a safety margin of at least 150mm below the under side of roofing beam.Contd •A rectangular reservoir with a length to width ratio 1.5 Usually proves most economical when division walls are incorporated Floors and roof should be sloped to not flatter than 1:250 for drainage ( such slopes should be parallel to maintain uniform column and wall heights) The total depth of the reservoir must be sufficient to allow the maximum inflow assumed in the design calculation to pass over the over flow weir.2 to 1. .

Pipes Used in the Water Distribution System Pipe Materials •For use in transmission and distribution systems. pipe materials must have the following characteristics: Adequate tensile strength and bending strength to withstand external loads. High bursting strength to withstand internal water pressure Ability to resist impact loads to water flow suitable for handling and joining facilities Resistance to both internal and external corrosion .

they form the skeleton of the distribution system. •They are so located that they will carry quantities of water from the pumping plant. . to and from the storage tanks and to the various parts of the area to be served. •Pipeline for the conveyance of water over long or short distances for the distribution of water through towns and in general large sized pipeline.The Pipe System •The Primary Feeders (Mains) •These are sometimes called the arterial main.

•They form smaller loops within the loops of the primary mains by running from one primary feeder to another. . low pressure. •They should be only a few blocks apart and thus serve to allow concentration of large amounts of water for fire fighting without excessive head loss and resulting.Contd •Secondary Feeders (Services Pipes) •They carry large quantities of water from the primary feeder to the various areas to care for normal supply and fire fighting.

•They form smaller loops within the loops of the primary mains by running from one primary feeder to another. . low pressure.Contd •Secondary Feeders (Services Pipes) •They carry large quantities of water from the primary feeder to the various areas to care for normal supply and fire fighting. •They should be only a few blocks apart and thus serve to allow concentration of large amounts of water for fire fighting without excessive head loss and resulting.

•Their sizes will usually be determined by fire flow requirements.Contd •Small Distribution Mains •They form a grid over the area to be served and supply water to the fire hydrants and service pipes of the residence and other buildings. particularly where there are heavy water uses for lawn sprinkling. it may be necessary to determine the maximum customer demand. . •In residential areas however.

Contd •The types of pipes used for distributing water include: Cast iron pipe Steel pipe Concrete pipe Plastic pipe Asbestos cement pipe Copper pipe Lead pipe .

Contd •A pipe material is selected based on various conditions: Carrying capacity Strength Ease of transportation and handling Availability Quality of water Cost (initial and maintenance) .

Contd •Cast iron pipes: Highly resistant to corrosion. strong but brittle. Easy jointing. long life Very heavy and difficult to transport . withstanding high internal pressure.

Contd Advantage The cost is moderate The pipes are easily joined The pipes are not subjected to corrosion The pipes are strong and durable Service connections can be made easily Disadvantage The breakage of this pipe is large Carrying capacity decreases with increase in life The pipes become heavy and uneconomical when their sizes increase (especially beyond 1200mm) .

easy to construct and can be easily transported Cannot withstand external loads. very light weight and can withstand higher pressure than cast iron pipes.Contd •Steel pipe: Strong. affected by corrosion and are costly to maintain. . Cheap.

.Contd •Cement-lined cast iron pipes: Cement protect against corrosion Very small coefficient of friction than unlined cast iron pipes.

. Rigid (unplasticized) uPVC is stronger and can withstand much higher pressure for a given wall thickness.Contd •Plastic pipes Corrosion resistant . light weight and economical.

6 to 1. Q = A*V Where.50m/s) A = Cross sectional area of pipe (m2) •The size of the pipe used in the water distribution system can be determined by one of the following formulas: 1. Q = discharge (m3/s) V = permissible velocity (0. Darcy –Weisbach formula fLV 2 hf  2 gD .Determination of Pipe Sizes •The size of the pipe is determined by considering the discharge through the pipe and permissible velocity of the flow in the pipe.

Contd 2.278CD 2.54 . Hazen-Williams formula 3.S  hf L AR 2 / 3 S 1/ 2 Q n •The most common pipe flow formula used in design and evaluation of a water distribution system is the HazenWilliams’ formula. Manning’s Formula Q  0.63 S 0. .

5 m/s. Determine the diameter of the outlet pipe.Example •The water supply pipes sizes available are given in the following table: Metric 10 20 25 30 40 50 60 80 10 sizes 0 (mm) English 1/ 3/ 1 11 11 2 21 3 4 (In) 2 4 /4 /4 /2 Metric sizes 675 (mm) English (In) 27 15 0 20 0 25 0 30 0 35 0 37 5 40 0 45 0 50 0 52 5 60 0 6 8 10 12 14 15 16 18 20 21 24 750 900 950 1050 30 36 38 42 Given •Total population of a town = 80. .000 •Average daily consumption of water = 150liters/capita/day If the flow velocity of an outlet pipe from intake  1.

 3  0 .1389 * 4 A   D   343mm V 4 V 4V 1. 1389 m / sec 3 (24 * 60 * 60 *10 ) Q D 2 Q 4Q 0.5 *  But the pipe size available on the market is 300mm & 350mm.Solution Total flow. Q = Demand* Population = 150*80.000 = 12x106 lit/day 6 12 X 10 Required pipe area. then take D = 350mm .

Availability. • Factors considered in the selection of valves: Include purpose and operation. etc.Pipelines Appurtenances •Valves: To isolate segments of a pipeline. to regulate rate of flow. Capacity required. Head loss and rate of flow. and to allow release or entry of air from pipe system. . to control pressure. Cost.

Contd •Shutoff valves: To stop the flow of water through a pipeline Spacing from 150 to 370m A minimum of three of the four pipes connected at a junction are provided with a valve  Fire hydrant. outlet. and bypass lines Gate valves and butterfly valves . in inlet.

In the discharge pipes of centrifugal pumps prevent Backflow In conjunction with altitude valves .Contd •Check valves: Semiautomatic device and permits water flow only in one direction.

single-acting type. or differential altitude valve .Contd •Altitude valves : To automatically control the flow into and out of an elevated storage tank or standpipe to maintain desired water level elevations. Include double-acting sequence valve.

and in discharge lines from pump to discharge the trapped air. Vacuum valves are used to protect pipelines from collapse as they are emptied. . by allowing air to enter the pipes.Contd •Air-release and vacuum valves : Air-release valves installed at high points of distribution piping. in valve domes. and fittings.

.Contd •Pressure Regulating Valves: These automatically reduce pressure on the downstream side to any desired magnitude and are used on lines entering low areas of a city where. An adjustable control permits setting the downstream pressure at the desired level and the valve will throttle itself until that pressure is attained. without such reduction. They function by using the upstream pressure to throttle the flow through an opening similar to that in a globe valve. pressures would be too high.

as specials. with bell and flange or flange and spigot . they are obtainable as bell-and –spigot or all bell or with flanged ends or.Fittings •Changes in direction of flow are made by means of fittings.

a tarred gasket made of cotton yarn.Joints •Bell (Socket) and Spigot Joint •This is used for both cast iron and steel pipes. . •A strap is placed around the joint and molten lead is poured in and tampered. or jute is packed into the open space between the bell and spigot. •The spigot end of the pipe is pushed into the bell end.

. The bell end is threaded on the inside to fit with an outside threaded ring.Contd •Threaded Joints •A rubber gasket is used to make the joint water tight. •This ring presses against the rubber gasket making the joint water tight.

Contd •Mechanical Joint •A rubber gasket of trapezoidal cross – section is pressed against the spigot and. . A cast iron follower ring is connected to the bell making the joint water tight.

5mm thick are placed between flanges which are connected by bolts and nuts. .Contd •Flange Joint •This is suitable for pipes under high pressure and for pipes subjected to variations in temperature. •Rubber of similar material gasket 3.

. This joint is especially suitable for pipes being under water.Contd •Flexible Joint •The direction and the slope of pipes connected by a flexible joint can be varied up to a maximum of 20o.

Are generally used with a rubber ring to make the joints water tight. .Contd •Welded Joint •Large and small diameter steel pipes are generally and frequently welded together. Welded joint require greater skill than the ones mentioned above and careful quality control in required. •Concrete Pipe Joint •Concrete pipes with bell and spigot joints. Such joints are used for water pipes not under pressure.

•Type-2 -Flat – bottom trench. Loose backfill. Back fill lightly consolidated to centerline of the pipe .Standard Bedding Conditions for Laying of Pipes •Type-1 -Flat – bottom trench.

gravel or crushed stone to a depth of 1/8 pipe diameter. Backfill lightly consolidated to top of pipe.Contd •Type-3 Pipe bedded in 100mm minimum loose soil. Back fill compacted to top of pipe. 100mm minimum. •Type-4 -Pipe bedded in sand. .

Contd •Type-5 -Pipe bedded to its centerline in compacted granular material. 100mm min. . under pipe compacted granular or select material to top of pipe.

Water Transmission Lines • Transmission lines are long pipes with no withdrawals – Gravity main – Pumping main • Gravity main ho + Zo – ZL = H (Head loss + residual pressure) .

Contd • Pumping main ho = H + ZL – Zo + Head loss .

– valved at intervals of not ≤ 1.Layout of distribution systems  Pipe networks • Primary or arterial mains – From the pumping stations and from storage facilities to the various districts of the city.5 km • Secondary lines or Sub-mains – Run from one primary main to another – Located at spacing of 2-4 blocks • Small distribution mains or branches – Supply water to every consumer and to the fire hydrants .

Contd • layout of distribution pipes generally follows the road pattern • Four types of pipe network layouts     Dead end system or branch system. Gridiron system Ring system Radial system .

Dead end system/Branched Pattern • • • • • • Solved easily Lesser number of shut-off valves Shorter pipe lengths and easy to lay pipes Cheap and simple and expanded easily Dead ends prevent circulation of water Problematic if a pipe is damaged BRANCH DEAD-END MAIN SUB-MAIN .

Grid iron systems • • • • • • • Discharge. friction loss and pipe size is less Not problematic if a pipe is damaged No dead ends allows circulation of water Good for fire fighting More pipelines and shut-off valves High cost of construction Design is difficult and expensive .

Ring systems • • • • • • • • • Closed ring. circular or rectangular Suitable for well-planned towns and cities Generally at high demand areas Not problematic if a pipe is damaged No dead ends-allows circulation of water Good for fire fighting More pipelines and shut-off valves High cost of construction Design is difficult and expensive .

Radial systems • For city or a town having a system of radial roads emerging from different centers • Distribution reservoirs at these centers • From mains --pumped into the DRs placed at different centers and then to the service areas. • Ensures high pressure and efficient water distribution .

But mainly depends on pressure ratings of the pipes and appurtenances used and regulatory requirements. major streets: 305mm (12 in).1 m/s. .Design of Distribution Systems • Design flow: Max (Peak hour demand or maximum day demand + Fire demand) • Minimum main sizes: generally:150mm (6 in).6 . small communities: 5075 mm • Velocity: typical values – minimum = 0. high value districts: 200mm (8 in). domestic flows only: 100mm (4 in).5 m/s • Pressure: typical minimum value is 140 kPa (14 m) and maximum not to exceed 410 kPa (42 m). maximum = 2.

Pressure zones .

Pipe Network Geometry .

Contd .

Contd .

Contd .

These may be stated as follows: A1V1=A2V2 2 2 V1 V2 Z1  h1   Z 2  h2   hL 2g 2g hL  h f  hm .Hydraulic Analysis • Includes determination of the following:  Discharges/pipe flow rates  Head loss  Pressure head • Pipe network analysis should satisfy the continuity and energy conservation equations.

Major loss/Friction Losses A1V1=A2V2 .

enlargers. valves. reducers… 2 V hf  K f 2g .Minor Losses • Minor losses are due to bends. elbows.

Hydraulic Analysis of Pipe network • Pipe network analysis involves the determination of the pipe flow rates and pressure heads at the outflows points of the network. . which simplifies the analysis. • The flow rate and pressure heads must satisfy the continuity and energy equations. this assumption results in uniform flows in the pipelines. •The outflows from the system is generally assumed to occur at the nodes( junctions).

the head balance method is an iterative procedure based on initially estimated flows in the pipes ./RELAXATION • This method is applicable to system in which pipes form closed loops. The outflows from the system are generally assumed to occur at the nodes junction.Hardy Cross Method of Pipe network Analysis • The earliest systematic method of network analysis (HardyCross Method) is known as the head balance or closed loop method. • For a given pipe system with known junction outflows.

Conditions in the Loop Method
•According to the principle of continuity the flow into the
junction must be equal to the flow out of the Junction(Incoming
discharge is positive and outflow as negative).
•In each loop, the loss of head due to flow in clock wise
direction must be equal to the loss of head due to flow in anticlock wise direction.(Net head loss is zero in a loop)
•Discharge and related head loss in the clockwise direction is
positive and negative in the anticlockwise direction

Application of Hardy cross Method
•From the Hazen–Williams equation for circular pipes,
Q  0.278Cd

2.63

 hf

 L




0.54

10.7 L
h f  1.85 4.87 Q1.85
C d
•hf equations can be expressed in the general form

h f  KQ

n

Contd
•K is given in Table below and n is 2.0 for the Darcy–Weisbach
equation and 1.85 for the Hazen–Williams equation.
Equivalent Resistance, K, for the pipe
Formula
Hazan –Williams

Unit of Measurement
K
Q, m3/s, L, m, d, m, hf, m

Darcy-Weisbach

Q, m3/s, L, m, d, m, hf, m

10.7 L
C 1.85 d 4.87
fL
12.1d 5

then: Q  Qo  Q •Head loss for each pipe is H L  KQ  K (Qo  Q) n •For a complete loop:  n H L   KQ n   K (Qo  Q) n .Contd •The sum of head losses around any closed loop is zero (energy conservation). that is. h L 0 •For any pipe if Qo is the assumed discharge and Q is the corrected discharge.

) •If Q is small. all terms of the series after the second one may be dropped. the loop is balanced and hence  KQ n  0  KQo n  Q KnQo n1  0 . compared with Qo.  KQ n   KQo n   KnQo n1Q •For the correct distribution...Contd •By expanding the terms the terms in the brackets:  KQ n   K (Qon  nQon1Q  .

Q will be negative and hence it should be added to the flow in the anti-clock wise direction and subtracted from the flow in the clock wise direction. . then according to the sign convention adopted.Contd Q   n KQo  n 1 KnQo  h  Q   h n Q L L •In the above expression for the correction the denominator is the sum of absolute terms and hence it has no sign. •Further if the head losses due to flow in the clock wise direction are more than the head losses due to flow in the anti-clock wise direction.

Contd •For pipes common to two loops a correction from both the loops will be required to be applied. . a second trial calculation is made for all the loops and the process is repeated till the correction becomes negligible. •With the corrected flow in all the pipes.

for the same loop. Assume any internally consistent distribution of flow. Conventionally. with out regard to sign. Compute.Contd •Procedures can be expressed as follows: 1. Compute the head losses in each pipe by means of an equation or diagram. . the sum of: KnQn-1. compute the total head loss around each loop: hL = KQn 4. clockwise flows are positive and produce positive head losses. 3. With due attention to sign. The sum of the flows entering any junction must equal the sum of the flows leaving 2.

the adjustment is made as follows: •Adjusted Discharge: Q  Q100  C   100   •Adjusted Diameter  100  d  d100   C   0.Contd •The nomogram in the figure is based on the coefficient C= 100.38 •Adjusted Friction Slope  100  S  S100   C   1.85 . For pipes of a different coefficient.

as for cast iron pipe.Contd Hazan –Williams coefficient for Various Pipe Materials Description of the Pipe Values of C Extremely Smooth and Straight 140 Cast Iron New 130 5 years old 120 10 years old 110 20 years old 90-100 30 years old 75-90 Concrete or cement lined 120-140 Welded steel. as for cast iron pipe. 5 years old Riveted steel. 10 years older Plastic 150 Asbestos Cement 120-140 .

7. If the required condition is not satisfied. Estimate the discharge flowing through the pipes 3. Calculate the head loss through the pipes 5. Assume possible pipe diameters 4. Compare this terminal pressure with the desired minimum and maximum pressures. then repeat steps (ii) through (vi) until the required conditions are met. . Assign the required demand at each node 2. Find the residual pressure at the end of the pipe. 6.General Steps to Follow 1.

If the pressure at point A is 490. Assume all pipe junctions are at the same elevation .5 KPa.Example •Find the flow distribution in the gravity supply system through the following pipe network shown below. Use Hazen – Williams formula (C= 100) . find the pressures at points B & C.

Solution Assume the best distribution of flow that satisfies continuity by careful examination of the network. 250l/s F A B 75l/s 45 l/s 45 l/s 75l/s 30l/s 100l/s LOOP II LOOP I 10l/s 10l/s E D 80 l/s 40 l/s C 40l/s .

Q  0.54   Q S 2.278CD 2.Williams’s formula.63S 0.54 .Contd Hazen.63  ( 0 . 278 CD )  hL  S  L 1 / .

Solution .

Contd .

Contd .

Contd .

Contd .

Contd .

Contd .