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1 views62 pagesSignals and Systems. What is a bode plot, how to plot one. What is a pole. What is a zero.

Jul 30, 2016

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Signals and Systems. What is a bode plot, how to plot one. What is a pole. What is a zero.

© All Rights Reserved

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Signals and Systems. What is a bode plot, how to plot one. What is a pole. What is a zero.

© All Rights Reserved

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Lecture 2F

Pole-Zero Plot

Bode Plot

2F-1

Example

s+6

Z ( s) = 2 2

s + 6s + 8

s+6

=2

( s + 4)( s + 2)

we can say that the poles of Z(s) are 2 and 4.

Z(s) has one finite zero at z= -6 and a zero at .

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute EEE 35

2F-2

j

s+6

Z (s) = 2

( s + 4)( s + 2)

-6 -4

-2

one zero at

infinity

2F-3

function of complex frequency with two poles

and one (finite) zero.

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute EEE 35

2F-4

network function?

1. A one-port network is open at the poles of Z(s)

and short at the zeros of Z(s).

2. For a two-port network, if X1(s) is the input quantity,

X2(s) the output quantity and T(s)=X2(s)/X1(s) the

corresponding network function, then

X 2 ( s) = T ( s) X 1 ( s)

P(s)

=

Q( s )

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute EEE 35

2F-5

P( s )

=

Q( s)

Cj

Ck

X 2 (s) =

+

j =1 s p j

k =1 s pk

PFE

v number of poles of X1(s)

x2 (t ) = L {T ( s ) X 1 ( s )}

1

x2 (t ) = C j e

p jt

j =1

+ Ck e

pk t

k =1

2F-6

Cj

Ck

X 2 (s) =

+

j =1 s p j

k =1 s pk

of the time variation of the response.

The pjs correspond to the natural complex

frequencies free oscillations

The pks correspond to the driving-force

complex frequencies forced oscillations

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute EEE 35

2F-7

Magnitude plot

- magnitude (log scale) vs.

frequency (log scale)

Phase plot

- phase vs. frequency (log scale)

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute EEE 35

2F-8

Definitions:

1. Lm log-magnitude operator

Lm (G ( j )) = 20 log G ( j ) dB

2. dB - decibel (unit of Lm)

1 & 2 if 2 = 2

1

2F-9

1 & 2 if 2 = 10

1

5. Phase (in radians or degrees)

G ( j ) = arg{G ( j )} angle of G ( j )

2F-10

sets of axes:

Magnitude Plot:

Lm(G)

0.01 0.1

Phase Plot:

10

100

(log)

G(j)

0.01 0.1

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute EEE 35

10

100

(log)

2F-11

G(j) =

Km (1+ j T1) (1+ j T2)r

( j

)m(1+

j Ta)(1+ j Tb 1 +

)r

j + 2

n

n

(j)2

2F-12

Magnitude Response

Lm{G(j)} =

Lm{Km} + Lm{1+jT1} +

r Lm{1+ jT2}+ m Lm{j}

Lm {1+ jTa} r Lm {1+ jTb}

Lm

1+

j + 2

n

n

(j)2

2F-13

Frequency Response

m (j) (1+ jTa) r (1+ jTb)

G(j) = (0 or 180) + tan-1T1 + r tan-1T2 +

m90 tan-1Ta r tan-1Tb

tan-1(2/n)/(1 - 2/n2 ) ...

Contribution to each factor

2F-14

may be added graphically

s (s + 6)( s 1)

G (s) = 2 2

2

s + s + 1 s + 6s + 8

3

=2

)(

s (s + 6 )( s 1)

1

3

3

)(

s

+

j

2

2 )( s + 4)( s + 2)

2

3

(s +

1

+ j

2

2F-15

Terms encountered:

Km

m

( j )

(1 + sT )

(1 + j T )

2

1

2

1 + s + 2 (s )

n

2

1

2

1 + j + 2 ( j )

n

n

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute EEE 35

2F-16

Consider this

1 + 2 s + 1 (s )2

n

n 2

2

2

1

1 + j + 2 ( j )

n

n

the roots are:

4 2

( )

n

n2

22

n

4 2 4

2 2 < 0

n n

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute EEE 35

2F-17

Terms encountered:

Km

( j )

(1 + j T )

m

r

2

1

2

1 +

(

)

j

Lm G ( j ) and

G ( j )

2F-18

Terms encountered:

1. Km

Lm Km = 20 log Km

Km

= 0 if Km > 0

Km = -180 if Km < 0

2F-19

1. Km

20 log Km

180

0 dB

0.01 0.1

10

100

0.01 0.1

10

100

2F-20

2. ( j )

case 1: +m (numerator)

if m = +1

Lm j = 20 log j

j = 90

= 20 log

note:

20 log

0.1

-20 dB

1.0

0 dB

10

100

20 dB

40 dB

straight line w/

slope +20 dB/dec

and intersects the

axis @ = 1.0

2F-21

2. ( j )

case 1: +m (numerator)

if m = +1

Lm j = 20 log j

j = 90

= 20 log

90

20 dB/dec

0 dB

0.01 0.1

10

100

0.01 0.1

10

100

2F-22

case 2: -m (denominator)

if m = -1

Lm( j ) = 20 log ( j)

1

( j )

= 90

= 20 log

90

20 dB/dec

0 dB

0.01 0.1

10

100

0.01 0.1

10

100

-20 dB/dec

-90

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute EEE 35

2F-23

3. (1 + jT )

case 1: r is positive

for r=1:

Lm (1 + jT ) = 20 log (1 + jT )

= 20 log

if T << 1, Lm (1 + jT )

20 log1 = 0

if T >> 1, Lm (1 + jT )

20 log T

(T )

+1

= 20 log

1 T

2F-24

3. (1 + jT )

case 1: r = 1

40 dB

20/dec

20 dB

dB

0.1/

1/

what if r 1?

10/

100/T

1000/T

2F-25

3. (1 + jT )

case 1: r = 1

(1 + jT ) :

if T << 1

if T >> 1

at T = 1,

at T = 0.1

at T = 10

( << T1 ),

( >> T1 ),

1 + jT 0

1 + jT 90

1 + jT = 45

( = 0T.1 ),

( = 10T ),

1 + jT = 5.71

1 + jT = 84.29

2F-26

3. (1 + jT )

case 1: r = 1

90

45/dec

45

0

0.01/

0.1/

1/

10/T

100/T

what if r 1?

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute EEE 35

2F-27

3. (1 + jT )

for r = -1:

case 2: r is negative

Lm(1 + jT ) = 20 log (1 + jT )

1

= 20 log

(T )

+1

if T << 1, Lm (1 + jT )

20 log1 = 0

if T >> 1, Lm (1 + jT )

20 log T

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute EEE 35

= 20 log 1

T

2F-28

3. (1 + jT )

case 2: r = -1

0.01/T

0.1/T

1/

10/T

100/T

0 dB

-20dB/dec

-20 dB

-40 dB

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute EEE 35

2F-29

3. (1 + jT )

(1 + jT )

if T << 1

if T >> 1

at T = 1

at T = 0.1

at T = 10

case 2: r = -1

= - (1 + jT )

( << ), ( 1 + jT ) 0

1

1

( >> T ), (1 + jT ) 90

1

1

( = T ), (1 + jT ) = 45

1

0.1

( = T ), (1 + jT ) = 5.71

1

10

( = T ), (1 + jT ) = 84.29

1

T

2F-30

3. (1 + jT )

case 2: r = -1

0.01/T

0.1/T

1/

10/T

100/T

0

-45

-45/dec

-90

what if r -1?

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute EEE 35

2F-31

3. (1 + jT )

Example: r = +3

120 dB

60 dB

0dB

0.1/

60dB/dec

1/

10/

100/T

1000/T

270

135/dec

135

0

0.01/

0.1/

1/

10/T

100/T

2F-32

3. (1 + jT )

0.01/T

EXAMPLE: r = -4

1/

0.1/T

0 dB

-80 dB

10/T

100/T

10/T

100/T

-80dB/dec

-160 dB

0.01/T

0.1/T

1/

0

-180/dec

-180

-360

2F-33

2

1

2

4. 1 + ( j ) + 2 ( j )

n

n

case 1: p is positive

for p=1:

Lm 1 + n ( j ) + 2 ( j )

2

= 20 log

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute EEE 35

(1 ) + ( )

n2

2

2F-34

if << n , Lm {} 0

if >> , Lm {}

n

20 log

( )

2 2

n2

= 40 log

2F-35

40dB/dec

40

0

0.1n

10n

100n

1000n

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute EEE 35

2F-36

1 + n ( j ) + 2 ( j ) =

2

(1- ) + j

2

n2

{

}

osimilar to (1 + jT ) , the corners of the

o if << n ,

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute EEE 35

2F-37

That is,

phase plot: (asymptotic)

180

90/dec

90

0

0.01n

0.1n

10n

100n

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute EEE 35

2F-38

2

1

2

4. 1 +

( j ) + 2 ( j ) p = +3

n

n

120dB/dec

120dB

0dB

0.1n

10n

100n

1000n

540

270/dec

270

0

0.01n

0.1n

10n

100n

2F-39

2

1

2

4. 1 + ( j ) + 2 ( j )

n

n

p = -2

0dB

0.1n

10n

100n

1000n

-80dB

-80dB/dec

0

0.01n

0.1n

n

-180/dec

10n

100n

-180

-360

2F-40

DRAWING DETAIL

1 + j +

n

2

(

)

j

Positive

Negative

2F-41

DRAWING DETAIL

Decreasing ||

Decreasing ||

2F-42

V

Example #4 : Prepare a Bode plot for 2

0.5

V1

V1

2F

1F

Ix

V2

_

2F-43

1 )I

(

V2

s x

=

1 )

(

1

+

V1 1 I + s I + (1 + 1 )I

s x

x

2 x

1

2s

2

= 2

2 s + 5s + 2

1

=

(1 + 2s )(1 + s 2 )

1

=

=

1 2, 2 2

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute EEE 35

2F-44

1/2

0 dB

-20dB/dec

-20dB/dec

-20dB/dec

1

=

(1+ 2s))((1+ s2)

-40dB/dec

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute EEE 35

2F-45

slopes of n 6dB oct. The low and high frequency

asymptotes extend indefinitely, and the network

function the response represents has 1st - order

factors only. Find G (s ) and evaluate the constant

multiplier of the function.

2F-46

14 dB

-6dB/oct

-12dB/oct

0 dB

10

20 log(x /10) = 14 x = 50

2F-47

14 dB

-6dB/oct

-12dB/oct

0 dB

10

20 log(x /10) = 14 x = 50

G (s ) =

10

(1 + 50 )

3

2F-48

4000s

s 2 + 20s + 400

the circuit

4000s

s

=

10

s 2 + 20s + 400

s 2 20 2 + s 20 + 1

Terms encountered:

10

s

s2/202 + s/20 + 1

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute EEE 35

2F-49

Magnitude plot:

10

s

s 2 202 + s 20 + 1

20 dB

0.1

10

100

1000

46 dB

0.1

10

20

100

1000

2F-50

Phase Plot

10

s

s 2 202 + s 20 + 1

90 0

0.1

10

100

1000

0.1

10

100

1000

-90 0

-180 0

90 0

-90 0

2F-51

Bode Diagrams

50

40

30

20

10

100

50

0

-50

-100

0

10

10

10

10

Frequency (rad/sec)

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute EEE 35

2F-52

Below 20 rad/s, the gain decreases as the

frequency decreases

Above 20 rad/s, the gain decreases as the

frequency increases

At low frequencies, the network behaves as a

differentiator

At high frequencies, the network behaves as an

integrator

The network is called band-pass filter.

2F-53

100 (1 + s/1)

s (1 + s/50)

40

0

0.1

10

100

1000

0.1

10

100

1000

40

0

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute EEE 35

2F-54

100 (1 + s/1)

s (1 + s/50)

40

0

0.1

10

100

1000

0.1

10

100

1000

40

0

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute EEE 35

2F-55

100 (1 + s/1)

s (1 + s/50)

40

0

0.1

10

100

1000

0.1

10

100

1000

40

0

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute EEE 35

2F-56

s (1 + s/50)

90

0

-90

0

0.1

10

100

1000

-90

2F-57

s (1 + s/50)

90

0

-90

0

0.1

10

100

1000

-90

2F-58

s (1 + s/50)

90

0

-90

0

0.1

10

100

1000

-90

2F-59

s (1 + s/50)

90

0

-90

0

0.1

10

100

1000

-90

2F-60

s (1 + s/50)

90

0

-90

0

0.1

10

100

1000

-90

2F-61

s (1 + s/50)

90

0

-90

0

0.1

10

100

1000

-90

2F-62

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