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EEE 35: Signals & Systems

Lecture 2F

Pole-Zero Plot
Bode Plot

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2F-1

Example

s+6
Z ( s) = 2 2
s + 6s + 8
s+6
=2
( s + 4)( s + 2)
we can say that the poles of Z(s) are 2 and 4.
Z(s) has one finite zero at z= -6 and a zero at .
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2F-2

Pole-Zero Plot of Z(s)


j

s+6
Z (s) = 2
( s + 4)( s + 2)

-6 -4

-2

one zero at
infinity

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2F-3

The magnitude of a network function shown as a


function of complex frequency with two poles
and one (finite) zero.
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2F-4

What can be learned from the pole-zero plot of a


network function?
1. A one-port network is open at the poles of Z(s)
and short at the zeros of Z(s).
2. For a two-port network, if X1(s) is the input quantity,
X2(s) the output quantity and T(s)=X2(s)/X1(s) the
corresponding network function, then

X 2 ( s) = T ( s) X 1 ( s)
P(s)
=
Q( s )
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2F-5

X 2 (s) = T (s) X 1 (s)


P( s )
=
Q( s)

Cj

Ck
X 2 (s) =
+
j =1 s p j
k =1 s pk

PFE

u number of poles of T(s)


v number of poles of X1(s)

x2 (t ) = L {T ( s ) X 1 ( s )}
1

x2 (t ) = C j e

p jt

j =1

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+ Ck e

pk t

k =1

2F-6

Cj

Ck
X 2 (s) =
+
j =1 s p j
k =1 s pk

the poles of T and X1 determine the waveform


of the time variation of the response.
The pjs correspond to the natural complex
frequencies free oscillations
The pks correspond to the driving-force
complex frequencies forced oscillations
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2F-7

The Bode Plot (Asymptotic Plot)


Magnitude plot
- magnitude (log scale) vs.
frequency (log scale)

Phase plot
- phase vs. frequency (log scale)
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2F-8

Definitions:
1. Lm log-magnitude operator

Lm (G ( j )) = 20 log G ( j ) dB
2. dB - decibel (unit of Lm)

3. Octave frequency band from

1 & 2 if 2 = 2
1

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2F-9

4. Decade frequency band from

1 & 2 if 2 = 10
1
5. Phase (in radians or degrees)

G ( j ) = arg{G ( j )} angle of G ( j )

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2F-10

The Bode plot is plotted on the following


sets of axes:
Magnitude Plot:

Lm(G)

0.01 0.1

Phase Plot:

10

100

(log)

G(j)

0.01 0.1
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10

100

(log)
2F-11

Given the frequency response,

G(j) =
Km (1+ j T1) (1+ j T2)r
( j

)m(1+

j Ta)(1+ j Tb 1 +
)r

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j + 2
n
n

(j)2

2F-12

Magnitude Response
Lm{G(j)} =
Lm{Km} + Lm{1+jT1} +
r Lm{1+ jT2}+ m Lm{j}
Lm {1+ jTa} r Lm {1+ jTb}
Lm

1+

j + 2
n
n

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(j)2

2F-13

Frequency Response

G(j) = Km + (1+jT1) + r (1+ jT2}+


m (j) (1+ jTa) r (1+ jTb)

(1 + (2/n)j + (1/n2)(j)2 ) ...


G(j) = (0 or 180) + tan-1T1 + r tan-1T2 +
m90 tan-1Ta r tan-1Tb
tan-1(2/n)/(1 - 2/n2 ) ...
Contribution to each factor
2F-14
may be added graphically

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Consider the transfer function, G(s)

s (s + 6)( s 1)
G (s) = 2 2
2
s + s + 1 s + 6s + 8
3

=2

)(

s (s + 6 )( s 1)
1
3
3
)(
s
+

j
2
2 )( s + 4)( s + 2)
2
3

(s +

1
+ j
2

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2F-15

Terms encountered:
Km
m

( j )

(1 + sT )

(1 + j T )

2
1
2
1 + s + 2 (s )
n

2
1
2
1 + j + 2 ( j )
n

n
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2F-16

Consider this

1 + 2 s + 1 (s )2
n

n 2

2
2
1

1 + j + 2 ( j )

n
n

Using quadratic equation,


the roots are:

4 2

( )
n

n2

22
n

The roots are complex when

4 2 4
2 2 < 0
n n

or when 1 < < 1.


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2F-17

Terms encountered:
Km

( j )

(1 + j T )

m
r

2
1
2
1 +
(
)
j

examine the contribution of each term to

Lm G ( j ) and

G ( j )

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2F-18

Terms encountered:
1. Km
Lm Km = 20 log Km

Km
= 0 if Km > 0
Km = -180 if Km < 0

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2F-19

1. Km
20 log Km

180

0 dB

0.01 0.1

10

100

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0.01 0.1

10

100

2F-20

2. ( j )

case 1: +m (numerator)
if m = +1

Lm j = 20 log j

j = 90

= 20 log
note:

20 log

0.1

-20 dB

1.0

0 dB

10
100

20 dB
40 dB

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straight line w/
slope +20 dB/dec
and intersects the
axis @ = 1.0
2F-21

2. ( j )

case 1: +m (numerator)
if m = +1

Lm j = 20 log j

j = 90

= 20 log
90
20 dB/dec
0 dB

0.01 0.1

10

100

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0.01 0.1

10

100

2F-22

case 2: -m (denominator)
if m = -1

Lm( j ) = 20 log ( j)
1

( j )

= 90

= 20 log
90
20 dB/dec
0 dB

0.01 0.1

10

100

0.01 0.1

10

100

-20 dB/dec
-90
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2F-23

3. (1 + jT )

case 1: r is positive
for r=1:

Lm (1 + jT ) = 20 log (1 + jT )
= 20 log
if T << 1, Lm (1 + jT )
20 log1 = 0
if T >> 1, Lm (1 + jT )
20 log T

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(T )

+1

= 20 log

1 T
2F-24

3. (1 + jT )

case 1: r = 1

magnitude plot: (asymptotic)


40 dB
20/dec
20 dB
dB
0.1/

1/

what if r 1?

10/

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100/T

1000/T
2F-25

3. (1 + jT )

case 1: r = 1

(1 + jT ) :
if T << 1
if T >> 1
at T = 1,
at T = 0.1
at T = 10

( << T1 ),
( >> T1 ),

1 + jT 0
1 + jT 90

1 + jT = 45

( = 0T.1 ),
( = 10T ),

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1 + jT = 5.71
1 + jT = 84.29
2F-26

3. (1 + jT )

case 1: r = 1

phase plot: (asymptotic)

90

45/dec
45

0
0.01/

0.1/

1/

10/T

100/T

what if r 1?
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2F-27

3. (1 + jT )

for r = -1:

case 2: r is negative

Lm(1 + jT ) = 20 log (1 + jT )
1

= 20 log

(T )

+1

if T << 1, Lm (1 + jT )

20 log1 = 0
if T >> 1, Lm (1 + jT )

20 log T
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= 20 log 1
T
2F-28

3. (1 + jT )

case 2: r = -1

magnitude plot: (asymptotic)


0.01/T

0.1/T

1/

10/T

100/T

0 dB
-20dB/dec
-20 dB

-40 dB
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2F-29

3. (1 + jT )

(1 + jT )

if T << 1
if T >> 1
at T = 1
at T = 0.1
at T = 10

case 2: r = -1

= - (1 + jT )

( << ), ( 1 + jT ) 0
1
1
( >> T ), (1 + jT ) 90
1
1
( = T ), (1 + jT ) = 45
1
0.1
( = T ), (1 + jT ) = 5.71
1
10
( = T ), (1 + jT ) = 84.29
1
T

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2F-30

3. (1 + jT )

case 2: r = -1

phase plot (asymptotic):


0.01/T

0.1/T

1/

10/T

100/T

0
-45
-45/dec
-90

what if r -1?
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2F-31

3. (1 + jT )

Example: r = +3

120 dB
60 dB
0dB
0.1/

60dB/dec
1/

10/

100/T

1000/T
270

135/dec
135
0
0.01/

0.1/

1/

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10/T

100/T

2F-32

3. (1 + jT )

0.01/T

EXAMPLE: r = -4
1/

0.1/T

0 dB
-80 dB

10/T

100/T

10/T

100/T

-80dB/dec
-160 dB

0.01/T

0.1/T

1/

0
-180/dec

-180
-360

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2F-33

2
1
2
4. 1 + ( j ) + 2 ( j )
n
n

case 1: p is positive
for p=1:

Lm 1 + n ( j ) + 2 ( j )
2

= 20 log
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(1 ) + ( )

n2
2

2F-34

if << n , Lm {} 0
if >> , Lm {}
n
20 log

( )

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2 2
n2

= 40 log

2F-35

magnitude plot (asymptotic):

40dB/dec
40
0
0.1n

10n

100n

1000n

what if p is negative & when p 1?


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2F-36

1 + n ( j ) + 2 ( j ) =
2

(1- ) + j
2
n2

{
}

oif >> n , {} 180


osimilar to (1 + jT ) , the corners of the
o if << n ,

transition from 0 to 180 may be set at

= 0.1n & = 10n .


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2F-37

That is,
phase plot: (asymptotic)

180

90/dec
90
0
0.01n

0.1n

10n

100n

what if p is negative & when p 1?


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2F-38

2
1
2
4. 1 +
( j ) + 2 ( j ) p = +3
n
n

120dB/dec

120dB

0dB
0.1n

10n

100n

1000n
540

270/dec
270
0
0.01n

0.1n

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10n

100n

2F-39

2
1
2
4. 1 + ( j ) + 2 ( j )
n
n

p = -2

0dB
0.1n

10n

100n

1000n
-80dB

-80dB/dec
0
0.01n

0.1n

n
-180/dec

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10n

100n
-180

-360
2F-40

DRAWING DETAIL

1 + j +
n

2
(
)
j

For n = 1, = 0.2, 0. 4, 0.6, 0.8, -0.8,-0.6.

Positive

Negative

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2F-41

DRAWING DETAIL
Decreasing ||

Decreasing ||

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2F-42

V
Example #4 : Prepare a Bode plot for 2
0.5

V1

V1

2F

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1F

Ix

V2
_

2F-43

1 )I
(
V2
s x
=
1 )
(
1
+
V1 1 I + s I + (1 + 1 )I
s x
x
2 x
1
2s

2
= 2
2 s + 5s + 2
1
=
(1 + 2s )(1 + s 2 )
1
=
=
1 2, 2 2
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2F-44

1/2

0 dB
-20dB/dec

-20dB/dec

-20dB/dec

1
=
(1+ 2s))((1+ s2)
-40dB/dec
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2F-45

Example #5 : The plot shows 2 straight - line


slopes of n 6dB oct. The low and high frequency
asymptotes extend indefinitely, and the network
function the response represents has 1st - order
factors only. Find G (s ) and evaluate the constant
multiplier of the function.

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2F-46

14 dB
-6dB/oct

-12dB/oct

0 dB
10

20 log(x /10) = 14 x = 50

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2F-47

14 dB
-6dB/oct

-12dB/oct

0 dB

10

20 log(x /10) = 14 x = 50

G (s ) =

10

(1 + 50 )

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3
2F-48

The voltage gain of a two-port network is given by


4000s
s 2 + 20s + 400

Draw the bode plot and describe the frequency response of


the circuit
4000s
s
=
10
s 2 + 20s + 400
s 2 20 2 + s 20 + 1

Terms encountered:
10
s
s2/202 + s/20 + 1
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2F-49

Magnitude plot:

10

s
s 2 202 + s 20 + 1

20 dB
0.1

10

100

1000

46 dB

0.1

10

20

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100

1000

2F-50

Phase Plot
10

s
s 2 202 + s 20 + 1

90 0

0.1

10

100

1000

0.1

10

100

1000

-90 0
-180 0

90 0

-90 0

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2F-51

Frequency response generated by the computer:


Bode Diagrams
50

Phase (deg); M agnitude (dB)

40
30
20
10
100
50
0
-50
-100
0
10

10

10

10

Frequency (rad/sec)
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2F-52

The gain is maximum at = 20 rad/s


Below 20 rad/s, the gain decreases as the
frequency decreases
Above 20 rad/s, the gain decreases as the
frequency increases
At low frequencies, the network behaves as a
differentiator
At high frequencies, the network behaves as an
integrator
The network is called band-pass filter.

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2F-53

G(s) = 5000(s+1) / s(s+50) =

100 (1 + s/1)
s (1 + s/50)

40
0

0.1

10

100

1000

0.1

10

100

1000

40
0
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2F-54

G(s) = 5000(s+1) / s(s+50) =

100 (1 + s/1)
s (1 + s/50)

40
0

0.1

10

100

1000

0.1

10

100

1000

40
0
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2F-55

G(s) = 5000(s+1) / s(s+50) =

100 (1 + s/1)
s (1 + s/50)

40
0

0.1

10

100

1000

0.1

10

100

1000

40
0
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2F-56

G(s) = 5000(s+1) / s(s+50) = 100(1 + s/1)


s (1 + s/50)
90
0
-90

0
0.1

10

100

1000

-90

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2F-57

G(s) = 5000(s+1) / s(s+50) = 100(1 + s/1)


s (1 + s/50)
90
0
-90

0
0.1

10

100

1000

-90

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2F-58

G(s) = 5000(s+1) / s(s+50) = 100(1 + s/1)


s (1 + s/50)
90
0
-90

0
0.1

10

100

1000

-90

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2F-59

G(s) = 5000(s+1) / s(s+50) = 100(1 + s/1)


s (1 + s/50)
90
0
-90

0
0.1

10

100

1000

-90

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute EEE 35

2F-60

G(s) = 5000(s+1) / s(s+50) = 100(1 + s/1)


s (1 + s/50)
90
0
-90

0
0.1

10

100

1000

-90

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2F-61

G(s) = 5000(s+1) / s(s+50) = 100(1 + s/1)


s (1 + s/50)
90
0
-90

0
0.1

10

100

1000

-90

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2F-62