You are on page 1of 6

Chapter 4


Packer tests consist of isolating specific sections (usually 10 ft) of a bedrock
borehole with inflatable packers (bladders) so that water-quality samples can be
collected and aquifer tests can be conducted. A series of such tests allows definition of
the vertical distribution of water quality (usually contaminants) and hydraulic conductivity
(pathways for water and contaminant movement) in an aquifer. Monitoring water levels
in nearby wells while pumping packed intervals can identify permeable intervals within
the aquifer. Information from the packer tests can be used to properly site the future
location of monitoring wells.
Smaller packers designed to fit a submersible sampling pump can be used
isolate the lower part of a monitoring well. Isolation by the packer allows reduced water
volumes to be purged prior to sampling. This reduction can be beneficial because it can
reduce purge times and may limit the handling and disposal of contaminated water.
Why Do Packer Tests?

Give vertical distribution of hydraulic properties and water quality in the aquifer
Usually cheaper than a nest of wells and gives more continuous record


Water-quality data should be considered reconnaissance data. (Packers may leak,
well may not be full developed, with removal of all contaminants and water
introduced during and after drilling)
May provide open conduit for contaminant movement to depth within an aquifer if left
open after drilling without a temporary packer

Figure – Packer-hoisting rig and straddle-packer system (upper blabber and
screen shown lowered in borehole)

3 • Purge at 1-2 gal/min. Remove 3 well volumes and monitor field parameter stability • Pump at 0.25-0. volatilization • Place pump intake above the level that would allow dewatering of the test interval • Monitor pump rate and water level Water level very important. aeration.Chapter 4 GROUND-WATER-DATA COLLECTION Figure – Schematic of straddle-packer system in A borehole METHODOLOGY • Develop entire length of borehole to ensure test intervals don’t contain water and fines from drilling • Decontaminate packer equipment before use • Lower to test zone and inflate packer(s) • Monitor pressures and water levels to ensure equilibration of pressures in test intervals and leakage between intervals [((DTP-DTW) * FT H20 To PSI Conversion Factor) + Packer Inflation at Atmospheric Pressure] * Fudge 1.5 gal/min to limit uptake of fine sediment. May affect analyte chemistry and packer position if drawdown is too great during purging and sampling 236 .

techniques. U.. 1966. 47.. Regional ground-water quality: New York.. 604 p. 12. 592 p. Wageningen. 461 p. References cited or used in compilation of course notes: Alley.. Inc. 238 . Inc..J... Nielson. J.W. Basic Ground-Water Hydrology. Groundwater and wells: Johnson Division. Kruseman. no. Paul. S.N. U..S. New York.K. Jacob. p.Chapter 4 Ground Water Data Collection USEFUL RESOURCES: (Bolded ones stress or discuss field techniques) • • • • • • • • • • • • Heath. 1089 p. Practical handbook of ground-water monitoring: Lewis Publishers. Ohio. [variously paged] Bouwer. v. Bear. J.S. D.P.G. C.W.. Groundwater: Prentice-Hall. Inc.S. R.. ed. Geology WaterSupply Paper 2220. 1998. Campbell Scientific. 377 p. Mi.J. 1993.M. Van Nostrand Reinhold. Field hydrology—theory. 569 p..V. Groundwater hydrology: John Wiley & Sons. The Netherlands.A. Todd. Lapham. 1991. Applied hydrogeology. 4. unpublished summer field course workbook: U. 1980.. and Cherry... Freeze. G. Wilde. D.1988. Minnesota.A. 535 p.. 1979.. 1991. Inc. R. 84 p.T. Driscoll. W. F. In-Situ.M. St. Inc. 634 p. H.D.A. F. 110 p. W. M.: Columbus. 423-428. 1997.). Chelsea..R. N..C. R.. Geological Survey Technical Water-Resources Investigations Reports American Society for Testing and Materials guidelines Photographs of data-collection equipment from promotional materials prepared by: Bennett Sample Pumps.M. 1976. Inc. Davis. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 96-4233.. and de Ridder. and Koterba. 1979. New York. and Rice.. Brehana. 1984. 717 p. N. Fetter. pub.S. Hydrogeology: John Wiley & Sons. HydroTechnics. Geological Survey and University of Arkansas.. and applications.C. Merrill Publishing Co. Englewood Cliffs. New York. and DeWeist. 1987. Hydraulics of groundwater: McGraw-Hill. Analysis and evaluation of pumping test data: International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement. and supporting documentation: U. (ed. Guidelines and standard procedures for studies of ground-water quality: Selection and installation of wells. A slug test for determining hydraulic conductivity of unconfined aquifers with completely or partially penetrating wells: Water Resources Research.

M. 1990.. Wilde. F. Lohman.W. Geological Survey Open-File Report 97-242. 1987. Johnson Division.. W.. 1983. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations of the U. Contaminant hydrogeology: New York. Ground-water hydraulics: U.D. Min. and supporting documentation: U. Koterba.. chapter E1. Wilde.S.D. M. and Lapham. Geologic.. 70 p. T.T.M. Yeskis. Heath. 113 p. C. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2220.. Illinois. 1089 p. Mcmillan.. Geological Survey Open-File Report 95-399.. Groundwater and wells: St. D.... hydrologic. Geological Survey Professional Paper 708. L. and MacCary. Paul. Mills.J. F. 151 p. 126 p.S.S. F. 1995.1993. Lapham. and Straub. S.S. W.S. R.W. and Koterba. 1979. P. Fetter. and water-quality data from selected boreholes and wells in and near Belvidere. Application of borehole geophysics to waterresources investigations: U.C. 239 . Geological Survey. W..C. 1989-1996: U. 1997. 458 p. 1998.T.Chapter 4 Ground Water Data Collection Driscoll.. book 2. ground-water datacollection protocols and procedures for the national water-quality assessment program: collection and documentation of water-quality samples and related data: U.W.S..D. Keys. 84 p. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 96-4233. 110 p.G.. Guidelines and standard procedures for studies of ground-water quality: selection and installation of wells. S.W.S. Basic ground-water hydrology: U.

Geological Survey. 717 p. Environmental Protection Agency Handbook. 1990.S. Mi. 259 p.S.. U..S. Site characterization for subsurface remediation: U.. Reynolds. 1997. Environmental Protection Agency. September 29-October 5. Aquifer-test and interpretation workshop.L. 34th annual meeting. volume 1: solids and ground water. 1. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4103.W. 1992: U. a desk reference guide. Bennett. F.. Reilly. Practical handbook of ground-water monitoring: Chelsea. Environmental Protection Agency Seminar Publication EPA/625/4-91/026. Environmental Protection Agency. 1998 at URL http://wwwdnyalb. EPA/625/R-93/003a.S.. T.. June 2-4. unpublished notes for workshop presented June 15-19. appendixes A and B: U.L. Selection and analysis of shallow aquifer tests.. 1987. Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer EPA/625/6-90/016a.. book O. 1991.. 1991. Environmental Protection Agency. chapter B1.. Ground water. J. R.S. H. 1991. M.S. April 1997.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In situ permeable flow sensor: U. Introduction to borehole geophysics: accessed March 4.S. volume 1: ground water and contamination: U. eds. 79 p. A conceptual framework for ground-water solute-transport studies with emphasis on physical mechanisms of solute transport: U.D. [variously paged] U.text. 1998. G.D. Buxton. Geological Survey workshop on the applications of borehole geophysics to ground-water investigations. U.. Ill. Subsurface characterization and monitoring techniques. observation. notebook for short course no. 144 p. New York. D.S.Chapter 4 Ground Water Data Collection Nielson. Department of Energy.H. Willowbrook.: Association of Engineering Geologists. 1992. and data analysis: U.html 240 .S. 1968. [variously paged] Stallman. S. and Williams. Lewis. 1994. U. Proceedings of the U. Chicago. Ill. [variously paged] U. 1993.. 1992. 16 p. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigation Report 87-4191. ed. Department of Energy Innovative Technology Summary Report. U. Aquifer-test design. 44 p. Geological Survey. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations of the U.S.S.S. 26 p. 1991.S. Franke.usgs. Paillet.E.T.

S. 1988. Chicago. and Bloom. 1995... Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations... [variously paged] Zohdy. and Mabey. [variously paged] Yeskis. chapter D1.. T.: U. 1995.S. A. Geological Survey. Geological Survey Techniques of WaterResources Investigations of the U. Yeskis. Meyers. Ground Water Monitoring... 1995. in Proceedings of the Second National Outdoor Action Conference on Aquifer Restoration. D. Las Vegas. 1995.. Application of surface geophysics to ground-water investigations: U. Ohio.H. Lithuania: U.Chapter 4 Ground Water Data Collection U. A. ed.. unpublished notes for workshop presented November 6-9. Lakewood.. National Water Well Association. G. [variously paged] Welch. 241 .R. 1988: Dublin.P. R. Environmental Protection Agency. book 9. Col. Eaton. unpublished notes for a training class presented October 16-27. K. D. Field water-quality methods for ground water and surface water. Weiss.. Siauliai. A.J. National field manual for the collection of water-quality data: U. D. S. Chiu. 1999. Waste site characterization. A field study of various sampling devices and their effects on volatile organic contaminants. Geological Survey. book 2. and Geophysical Methods.S.S.S. 116 p. J. 471-479. Geological Survey.S. Ill. 1990.. p.