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Quick Start:

To get started quickly follow these steps:


STEP 1: Open a Series Dialog Box by clicking Series on
the Main Menu and then clicking on one of the
following Propeller Series:
1) B Series (B) -- a noncavitating Series used to
evaluate propeller performance on low speed vessels
including yachts, recreational boats, and ships. This
Series has a unique geometry but can be used to
approximate performance of many commercially
available propellers including 2 and 3 blade propellers
commonly used on sailboats.
2) Gawn Burrill Atmospheric Series (GBA) -- a digitized
3 blade, subcavitating Series used for higher speed
boats with flat faced, commercial propellers with minimal
cavitation, i.e., high speed lightly loaded propellers.
Data for this Series was digitized from Gawn Burrill
diagrams.
3) Gawn Burrill Cavitating Series (GBD) -- a digitized 3
blade, cavitating Series used by many to approximate
performance of flat faced, commercial propellers
typically found on small high speed vessels including
recreational boats. Data for this Series was digitized
from Gawn Burrill diagrams.
4) Navy 3 Bladed Series (NV3) -- Cavitating Series that
consist of commercial, flat faced, 3 bladed propellers
typically found on small commercial vessels, yachts, and

recreational boats. Blade Area Ratio (BAR) is limited to


0.54. This Series was tested by the Navy using 2 ft.
diameter propellers on an instrumented boat under
actual sea conditions.
5) Navy 4 Bladed Series (NV4) -- Cavitating Series that
consist of flat faced, 4 bladed propellers similar to those
found on small commercial vessels, yachts, and
recreational boats. Blade Area Ratio (BAR) is limited to
0.70. This Series was tested by the Navy using 2 ft.
diameter propellers on an instrumented boat under
actual sea conditions.
6) Newton Rader Series (NR) -- Cavitating, 3 bladed
Series based on a unique propeller geometry for use on
high speed craft. Performance predictions based on this
Series should be used only for propellers with the
Newton Rader geometry.
7)
Segmental
Sections
Series
(GBL)
-a polynomial representation of 3 and 4 bladed,
commercial, flat faced propellers typically found on
slower recreational boats, yachts, and commercial
vessels.
8) Gawn Burrill Atmospheric Series (GRJ) -- a
polynomial representation of the subcavitating portion of
the 3 bladed Gawn Burrill Series, see GBA above. This
Series can be used for higher speed boats with flat
faced, commercial propellers with minimal cavitation,
i.e., high speed lightly loaded propellers. The P/D range
for this Series is slightly less than that of GBA.

9) Gawn Burrill Cavitating Series (GBR) -- a polynomial


representation of the cavitating portion of the 3 bladed
Gawn Burrill Series. The maximum cavitation number is
2.0. Polynomial representation minimizes nonlinearities
that can arise with linear interpolation used by GBD
above. The P/D range for this Series is slightly less than
that of GBD. This Series can be used to approximate
performance of flat faced, commercial propellers
typically found on small high speed vessels with heavily
loaded propellers, including recreational boats.
More information on the above Propeller Series can be
found under Quick Series Facts.
STEP 2: Select Tools \ Density Table from the Main
Menu and select Salt Water or Fresh Water. If known,
enter the water temperature; if not, enter 59 degrees.
STEP 3: If you are entering boat speed and engine
RPM click on the MPH/RPM checkbox in the Series
Dialog Box. Otherwise, click on the Adv. Coef. J
checkbox.
STEP 4: Change any information that needs to be
changed in the Series Dialog Box, and click
the Calculate Button or press the Return Key.
1) The calculated J vs. Kt, Kq, and Efficiency curves are
graphed in the Graph Window on the Main Screen for
the propeller parameters entered in the Series Dialog
Box.

2) Calculation results are shown in the Data Window on


the lower half of the Main Screen. Calculated values of
Kt, Kq, and Efficiency are shown for the Advance
Coefficient, J. If boat speed and RPM were entered
into the Series Dialog Box then torque and horsepower
absorbed by the propeller, as well as J, will be
calculated. Calculated torque and horsepower do not
included losses due to bearings or a reduction gear.
STEP 5: After several rows of data are in the Data
Window, select Tools \ Graph Cols... from the main
menu. A dialog box opens allowing data in columns to
be graphed on the screen. This is helpful, for example,
if boat speed values have been entered and you would
like to see propeller torque graphed against boat speed
or horsepower.
STEP 6: Click File \ Save As... on the main menu to
save the data just created to a file.

Quick Series Facts:


The following is a description of the various Propeller
Series used in PSModel.
Notes:
1) Blade Area Ratio (BAR) as used in PSModel is a
generic term referring to either Expanded Area Ratio
(EAR) or Developed Area Ratio (DAR). Normally, the
EAR and DAR of a propeller are very close in value.
The tables below show which ratio, EAR or DAR, was
used in the published data or reference for each Series.
2) Efficiency curves for all Series in PSModel are
calculated from Kt and Kq values as follows:
Efficiency = (J Kt) / (6.28319 Kq)
3) PSModel uses linear data interpolation for Series that
utilize tabular data such as 'GBD', 'GBA', 'NR', 'NV3' and
'NV4'. In most cases, linear interpolation works fine.
However, in some cases -- such as interpolating Kt or
Kq at very low Cavitation Numbers -- linear interpolation
may not be accurate. This is due to the highly nonlinear
nature of the data associated with these cases. Series
that are represented by polynomials -- such as 'GBL',

'GRJ', and 'GBR' -- eliminate this problem and also


produce smoother propeller curves. Keep this in mind
while evaluating propellers.
4) Use PSModel as a guide only. Keep in mind that the
following items can affect predicted propeller
performance:
-- angle of propeller shaft with respect to inflow
-- wake, or flow velocity into the propeller, is usually an
approximation
-- pitch and diameter values may differ slightly from
values marked on the propeller or advertised
-- the published BAR for a propeller is usually not exact:
e.g., 0.70 published, but actual may be 0.69 or 0.71
-- boat speed and RPM need to be as accurate as
possible
(B) -- B Series
Description -- A noncavitating Series that uses a
polynomial to represent a large body of experimental
data. This Series can be used to evaluate propeller
performance on low speed vessels including yachts,
recreational boats, and ships. This Series has a unique
geometry but can be used to approximate performance
of many commercially available propellers including 2
and 3 blade propellers commonly used on sailboats.
Calculation method used by PSModel -- Polynomial
evaluation, see reference 1

Blades EAR

P/D
Ratios

Cavitation Number
Range

0.20 to
0.40

0.50 to
1.40

Noncavitating Series

0.35 to
0.80

0.50 to
1.40

Noncavitating Series

0.40 TO
1.00

0.50 to
1.40

Noncavitating Series

0.45 to
1.050

0.50 to
1.40

Noncavitating Series

0.50 to
0.80

0.50 to
1.40

Noncavitating Series

0.55 to
0.85

0.50 to
1.40

Noncavitating Series

Notes:
1) The EAR range for the 2 bladed propellers tested is
actually 0.30 to 0.38 butPSModel allows 0.20 to 0.40 by
extrapolating the polynomial calculations. This was
done because commercial, two bladed, sailboat
propellers are available with EAR values less than 0.30.
The value 0.38 was rounded to 0.40 for uniformity
purposes.
2) P/D ranges used by PSModel (as shown in the Table
above) are slightly larger, in some cases, than presented
in the available literature concerning the B-Series. This
was done to make the Series more uniform.
3) PSModel output is for a Reynolds Number based on
chord length of 2x106

4) Propellers being evaluated can have some cavitation


present as long as Kt Breakdown has not occurred.
5) Click here for propeller Series geometry details.
6) The most resent version of the B Series can be
obtained from the Marine Research Institute Netherland
(MARIN) at http://www.marin.nl.
(GBA) -- Gawn Burrill Atmospheric, Digitized
Description -- A 3 blade subcavitating Series used by
many to approximate performance of flat faced
commercial propellers typically found on small high
speed vessels including recreational boats.
Calculation method used by PSModel -- linear
interpolation of digitized Kt\Kq curves from reference 2
Blade
DAR P/D Ratios
s

Tested Cavitation
Numbers

0.50

0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2,


2.0

6.3

0.65

0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2,


1.4, 1.6, 2.0

6.3

0.80

0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2,


1.4, 1.6, 2.0

6.3

0.95

0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4,


1.6, 2.0

6.3

1.10

0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4,


1.6

6.3

Notes:

1) Series 'GRJ' below calculates Gawn Burrill Kt\Kq


curves from a polynomial obtained by regression
analysis. A polynomial produces smoother curves and
reduces nonlinear errors. However, the P/D range of
'GRJ' is less than that of 'GBA'.
2) Efficiency curves calculated by PSModel for 'GBA' in
some cases do not appear smooth. This occurs
because PSModel calculates Efficiency directly from Kt
and Kq values as presented in reference 2, and does
not fair or smooth the resulting curve. For smoother
Gawn Burrill Kt, Kq, and Efficiency curves, see Series
'GRJ' below.
3) Blade section shapes, except near the hub, are
segmental (flat face and circular back).
4) Click here for propeller Series geometry details.
5) Experimental work for this Series was funded by the
U.K. Ministry of Defence.
(GBD) -- Gawn Burrill Cavitating, Digitized
Description -- A 3 blade cavitating Series used by many
to approximate performance of flat faced commercial
propellers typically found on small high speed vessels
including recreational boats.
Calculation method used by PSModel -- linear
interpolation of digitized Kt\Kq curves from reference 2.
To reduce nonlinear errors, linear interpolation is
performed both vertically and diagonally.
Blade DAR P/D Ratios

Tested Cavitation

Numbers

0.50

0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2,


2.0

0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5,


2.0

0.65

0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2,


1.4, 1.6, 2.0

0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5,


2.0

0.80

0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2,


1.4, 1.6, 2.0

0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5,


2.0

0.95

0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4,


1.6, 2.0

0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5,


2.0

1.10

0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4,


1.6

0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5,


2.0

Notes:
1) Series 'GBR' below calculates Gawn Burrill Kt\Kq
curves from a polynomial obtained by regression
analysis. A polynomial produces smoother curves and
reduces nonlinear errors. However, the P/D range of
'GBR' is less than that of 'GBD'
2) Efficiency curves calculated by PSModel for 'GBD' in
some cases do not appear smooth. This occurs
because PSModel calculates Efficiency directly from Kt
and Kq values as presented in reference 2, and does
not fair or smooth the resulting curve. For smoother
Gawn Burrill Kt, Kq, and Efficiency curves, see Series
'GBR' below.
3) Blade section shapes, except near the hub, are
segmental (flat face and circular back).
4) Click here for propeller Series geometry details.

5) Experimental work for this Series was funded by the


U.K. Ministry of Defence.
(NV3) -- Navy 3 Blade
Description -- Cavitating Series that consist of
commercial, flat faced, 3 bladed propellers typically
found on small commercial vessels, yachts, and
recreational boats. Blade Area Ratio (BAR) is limited to
0.54. This Series was tested by the Navy, using 2 ft.
diameter propellers on an instrumented boat under
actual sea conditions.
Calculation method used by PSModel -- linear
interpolation of tabular data, see reference 3
Blade EA
s
R

P/D
Ratios

Tested Cavitation
Numbers

Cup

0.54 1.004

2.334, 3.963, 5.136,


11.692, 16.914

None

0.54 1.239

2.396, 3.630, 5.544,


12.939, 18.581

None

0.54 1.503

2.729, 4.013, 5.445,


12.359, 18.198

None

0.54 0.996

2.741, 3.630, 5.334,


Light
12.050, 17.618, 19.760

0.54 1.244

2.729, 3.581, 4.791,


Light
11.173, 17.038, 19.760

0.54 1.497

2.717, 4.001, 5.544,


12.828, 19.760

Light

0.54 0.996

2.704, 3.605, 5.198,

Mediu

11.754, 17.865, 19.760 m


3

0.54 1.504

2.754, 3.926, 5.433,


12.470, 19.760

Mediu
m

0.54 1.00

2.766, 3.642, 4.988,


Heavy
10.865, 16.593, 19.760

0.54 1.492

2.717, 3.568, 5.334,


Heavy
11.840, 17.420, 19.760

Notes:
1) Cavitation Numbers used in PSModel are based on
inflow velocity to the propeller but Cavitation Numbers
reported in reference 3 are based on boat speed.
Cavitation Numbers reported in reference 3 were divided
by (1-w)2 [or 0.92 = 0.81] to obtain the values above.
2) The Michigan Wheel Dyna Jet propellers tested were
commercially available and had flat faced, circular back,
blade sections.
3) The nominal EAR value reported in reference 3 was
0.50, but reference 4 reported additional details about
this Series including measured EAR values which
ranged from 0.53 to 0.55 with 0.54 appearing as the
average. Therefore, PSModel uses a nominal EAR =
0.54 for 'NV3'.
4) Click here for propeller Series geometry and cupping
details.
(NV4) -- Navy 4 Blade
Description -- Cavitating Series that consist of flat
faced, 4 bladed propellers similar to those found on

small commercial vessels, yachts, and recreational


boats. Blade Area Ratio (BAR) is limited to 0.70. This
Series was tested by the Navy, using 2 ft. diameter
propellers on an instrumented boat under actual sea
conditions.
Calculation method used by PSModel -- linear
interpolation of digitized data, see reference 4
Blade EA
s
R

P/D
Ratios

Tested Cavitation
Numbers

Cup

0.70 1.058

1.20, 1.80, 2.20, 3.40,


5.50, 11.70

Non
e

0.70 1.224

1.30, 1.70, 2.30, 3.40,


5.60, 11.80

Non
e

0.70 1.472

1.20, 1.70, 2.30, 3.30,


5.80, 12.20

Non
e

Note:
1) EAR = 0.70 is nominal. EAR values for test
propellers varied between 0.70 and 0.72.
2) The propellers tested were specially manufactured to
have an approximate EAR = 4/3 of the 3 bladed
propellers used for the 'NV3' Series, but otherwise were
similar to the 3 bladed Michigan Wheel Dyna Jet
propellers.
3) Click here for propeller Series geometry details.
(NR) -- Newton Rader

Description -- High speed, 3 bladed, cavitating Series


based on a unique propeller geometry. Predictions from
this Series should be limited to use with propellers with
the Newton Rader geometry.
Calculation method used by PSModel -- linear
interpolation of tabular data, see reference 5
Blade DA
s
R

P/D Ratios

Tested Cavitation Numbers

0.48

1.05, 1.26,
1.67, 2.08

0.25, 0.30, 0.40, 0.50, 0.60,


0.75, 1.00, 2.50, 5.50

0.71

1.05, 1.25,
1.66, 2.06

0.25, 0.30, 0.40, 0.50, 0.60,


0.75, 1.00, 2.50, 5.50

0.95

1.04, 1.24,
1.65, 2.04

0.25, 0.30, 0.40, 0.50, 0.60,


0.75, 1.00, 2.50, 5.50

Notes:
1) The blade section shapes were designed with
cavitation in mind; hence, the shapes are unique to this
Series.
2) Click here for propeller Series geometry details.
3) Experimental work for this Series was funded by the
U.K. Ministry of Defence.
(GBL) -- Segmental Sections, Blount Polynomial
Description -- Noncavitating Series uses a polynomial to
represent performance of 3 and 4 bladed, flat faced
propellers typically found on slower recreational boats,
yachts, and commercial vessels. The polynomial for this

Series was synthesized from published data for other


experimental Series. The polynomial was validated by
comparing performance predictions with existing data for
commercial, flat faced,segmental section propellers.
Calculation method used by PSModel -- Polynomial
evaluation, see reference 6
Blade
EAR
s

P/D Ratios

Cavitation Number
Range

0.50 thru
1.10

0.80 thru
1.40

Noncavitating Series

0.50 thru
1.10

0.80 thru
1.40

Noncavitating Series

Notes:
1) Segmental sections are composed of flat faces with
circular backs. This is typical of many commercially
available propellers.
2) Propellers being evaluated can have some cavitation
present as long as Kt Breakdown has not occurred.
3) Geometry that is representative of this Series is
shown by 'GBD', 'NV3', and 'NV4'.
(GRJ) -- Gawn Burrill Atmospheric, Radojcic
Polynomials
Description -- Series uses a polynomial to represent the
performance of the subcavitating portion of the 3 bladed
Gawn Burrill Series: i.e., the portion of the Series that
does not show signs of Kt Breakdown. This Series can
be used for higher speed boats with flat faced,

commercial propellers with minimal cavitation, i.e.,


higher speed lightly loaded propellers. Also see the
'GBA' Series above.
Calculation method used by PSModel -- Polynomial
evaluation, see reference 7
Blade
DAR
s
3

0.50 thru
1.10

P/D Ratios

Cavitation Number
Range

0.80 thru
1.80

6.3

Notes:
1) Propellers being evaluated can have some cavitation
present as long as Kt Breakdown has not occurred.
2) Click here for propeller Series geometry details.
3) Polynomial was developed by Professor Dejan
Radojcic, Department of Naval Architecture, Faculty of
Mechanical Engineering, Belgrade University.
(GBR) -- Gawn Burrill Cavitating, Radojcic Polynomials
Description -- Series uses a polynomial to represent
performance of the cavitating portion of the 3 bladed
Gawn Burrill Series. The maximum cavitation number is
2.0. Representation with polynomials minimizes
nonlinear problems that can arise when linear
interpolation is used as in 'GBD' above. The P/D range
for this Series is slightly less than that of 'GBD'. This
Series can be used to approximate performance of flat
faced, heavily loaded, commercial propellers typically

found on small high speed vessels, including


recreational boats.
Calculation method used by PSModel -- Polynomial
evaluation, see reference 7
Blade
DAR
s

0.50
thru
1.10

P/D Ratios
Minimum P/D =
1.25 0.3DAR
0.2(Cavitation
Number)
but not less than 0.80,

Cavitation
Number
Range

0.50 thru 2.00

Maximum P/D = 1.60


Notes:
1) Click here for propeller Series geometry details.
2) Polynomial was developed by Professor Dejan
Radojcic, Department of Naval Architecture, Faculty of
Mechanical Engineering, Belgrade University.

Data Input:
Before asking PS Model to calculate Horsepower,
Torque, and Thrust, select the density of water that the
propeller is operating in. This is done by
selecting Tools \ Density Table from the main menu.

In the water Density dialog box that opens, enter the


water temperature and check either Salt or Fresh
Water. If the water is brackish, check Fresh Water
(brackish water usually has more fresh water near the
surface). If in doubt about the temperature, guess.
Water density, also called Rho, is not a critical
parameter in the calculations, but if known increases the
accuracy of Horsepower, Torque, and Thrust
predictions.

Check the Default Rho check box if the temperature or


type of water is not known. Once selected, the density
value is used until changed by opening the dialog box
and selecting a new density value.

To enter propeller data, select Series on the main menu


then choose the propeller series you would like to use.
A Series Dialog Box opens, allowing values to be
entered. The following is a description of the controls
(or input windows) located in the Series Dialog Box:
1) [Append Row] -- Clicking on this text allows the
following selections:
-- Append the next data row to the end of the data in
the Data Window. This is the default action.

-- Insert the next data row above the highlighted or


selected row in the Data Window. If Insert is selected,
[Append Row] changes to a yellow highlighted [Insert
Row].
-- Edit the highlighted or selected data row in the Series
Dialog Box. After editing in the Series Dialog Box, click
the Calculate button to see changes in the highlighted
row. If Edit is selected, [Append Row] changes to a
yellow highlighted [Edit Row].
-- Read the highlighted or selected data row into the
Series Dialog Box. Once the data is read into the Series
Dialog Box, it can be changed then Appended or
Inserted into the Data Window.
2) [Change Series] -- Clicking on this text allows
selecting another Series.
3) [Current Rho = ... ] -- Text shows current water
density (Rho), Salt Water (SW) or Fresh Water (FW),
and water temperature used for calculations. Clicking
on this text causes the Density dialog box to open.
4) Adv. Coef., J -- If this checkbox is checked, then the
Advance Coefficient (J) is input: Torque, Thrust, and
Horsepower are not calculated.
5) MPH / RPM -- If this checkbox is checked then MPH
and engine RPM are input; propeller RPM can also be
input by setting the Gear Ratio value to 1.0.

Note: text above some of the following input windows


may change to show ranges of possible input values.
6) Enter P/D -- Pitch/Diameter of the
propeller: Diameter and pitch are usually stamped on
the hub of small propellers. For example, the stamp 16
x 12 indicates a 16 inch diameter by 12 inch pitch (P/D
= 12/16 = 0.75).
7) Select Blade Number -- Allows selection of the
number of propeller blades if the Series has more than
one choice.
8) Enter BAR -- Blade Area Ratio of the propeller.
9) Sigma -- Cavitation Number: If the Series was tested
at several different Cavitation Numbers, this window
allows Cavitation Number input. If not, this window is
grayed.
10) Select Cupping -- If the Series supports cupping,
this input window allows selection of the amount of
cupping. Choices may include None, Light, Medium,
Heavy.
11) Enter J -- If the Adv. Coef. J checkbox is checked,
this window is active and a J value has to be
entered. Kt, Kq, and Efficiency values are interpolated
from the propeller curves at this J value and displayed in
the Data Window after the Calculate button is clicked or
the Return Key pressed.

12) Depth of Prop -- Enter the depth of the propeller


hub below the water surface, in feet; if not know, guess.
13) Wake Ftr. -- Enter the Wake Factor or (1-w).
14) Propeller Dia. -- Enter the propeller diameter in feet.
15) Gr. Ratio -- Gear Ratio is equal to the engine RPM
divided by the propeller RPM. For example, an engine
that turns at 4000 RPM while the propeller rotates
at 2000 RPM has a gear ratio of 2.0 (4000/2000 =
2.0). For an outboard engine or an inboard-outboard
(I/O) drive, the gear ratio is usually the same as the gear
ratio of the lower gear pod. This value can be obtained
from engine literature, a local retailer, or the
manufacturer. For inboard engine installations, the gear

ratio is the same as the reduction gear or transmission


ratio. The manufacturer's name, model, and serial
number should be on the reduction gear case. Write
this information down, then check on the Internet or
contact the manufacturer\retailer to determine the
gear ratio. If the propeller turns at the same RPM as
the engine, the gear ratio is 1.0.
16) Boat MPH -- The speed in Miles Per Hour recorded
during testing or trials.
17) Eng. RPM -- The engine Revolutions Per Minute
associated with the Boat MPH value entered. If
propeller RPM is entered, the Gr. Ratio entry should be
1.0.
18) Calculate -- Clicking this button or pressing the
Return Key causes PSModel to calculate data, and to
add or modify (if Editing) a data row in the Data Window.

Data Output:
Each time the Calculate button is clicked (or the Return
Key is pressed) in the Series Dialog Box a line of output
data is added to the Data Window. The
sections Working With Data andShortcuts provide
information on how to manipulate this data.
When output values become very large or very small
they are represented by Scientific Notation. For
example, the very large number 12,270,000,000 = 1.227
x 1010 is represented as 1.227E+10, and the very small
number 0.00003403 = 3.403 x 10-5 is represented as
3.403E-05.
The following is a column by column description of the
output data:
1) Row -- output line or row number.
2) Series -- propeller series used to calculate the current
row of data: e.g., NV4, B, GBD, etc.
3) Z -- input value, number of propeller blades.
4) BAR -- input value, Blade Area Ratio.
5) P/D -- input value, Pitch / Diameter.
6) Cup -- input value, propeller Cup: e.g., None, Heavy,
Medium, Light.

7) Sigma -- Cavitation Number: if the Adv. Coef., J


check box is checked in the Series Dialog Box then this
value is input, if the MPH / RPM check box is checked
then this value is calculated.
8) J -- Advance Coefficient: if the Adv. Coef., J check
box is checked in the Series Dialog Box then this value
is input, if the MPH / RPM check box is checked then
this value is calculated.
9) Kt -- calculated value, Thrust Coefficient = T / (n2D4).
10) 10Kq -- calculated value, 10 x Torque Coefficient =
10 x [Q / (n2D5)]. The Torque Coefficient, Kq, is
normally multiplied by 10 to make J vs. Kt, Kq, Efficiency
graphs more usable.
11) Eff. -- calculated value, propeller efficiency = (J Kt)
/ (2Kq).
12) Depth(ft) -- input value, depth of the propeller hub
below the water surface in feet.
13) 1-w -- input value, wake factor = Va / V, see
the Wake Factor section.
14) MPH -- input value, boat speed in Miles Per Hour.
15) ERPM -- input value, engine Revolutions Per
Minute.
16) Q(ft-lbs) -- calculated value, propeller torque in footpounds.
17) T(lbs) -- calculated value, propeller thrust in pounds.

18) Hp -- calculated value, horsepower absorbed by the


propeller = 2Qn / 550.
19) Gr. Ratio -- input value, gear box ratio.
20) Dia.(ft) -- input value, propeller diameter in feet.
21) Rho -- values in this column are a compact
representation of water density, type of water, and water
temperature input: e.g., Fresh water at 60 degrees
Fahrenheit has a density of 1.9383 lb-sec2/ft4 and is
represented as 1.9383F60; Salt water at 59 degrees
Fahrenheit has a density of 1.9905 lb-sec2/ft4 and is
represented as 1.9905S59.
22) Tc -- calculated value, Thrust Load Coefficient = T/
{ Ap [Va2 + (0.7nD)2]}. This value is used by
marine professionals as an aid in evaluating a
propeller's potential for cavitation.

Importing A Data File Into MS Excel:


PSModel data files (*.psm_data) can be imported into a
Microsoft Excel spreadsheet as follows:
1) From MS Excel's main menu select Data\ Import
External Data\ Import Data.
2) In the dialog box that opens select All Files (*.*) from
the "Files of Type" drop down list.
3) Navigate to the directory where the PSModel data
files are kept.
4) Double click on the PSModel data file (*.psm_data) to
be imported.
5) Under File Types in MS Excel's Text Import Wizard
dialog box, choose "Delimited".
6) Click Next.
7) Under Delimiters check the "Space" check box, also
check the "Treat consecutive delimiters as one" check
box, uncheck any other check boxes that may have
been checked.
8) Click Next.
9) In the data preview window of the Text Import Wizard
dialog box, all columns should be selected as "General".

10) Click Finish.


Column headers as well as column data should be
imported into Microsoft Excel, and should look similar to
the Data Window in PSModel. The above example is for
Microsoft Excel 2002, and should be similar for other
versions of Excel.

Main Menu:
Main menu and submenu items can be selected in three
different ways:
1. Left click the mouse on a menu or submenu item.
2. Press and release the Alt key on the keyboard; then
use the arrow keys to highlight a menu item; then press
the return key to execute the highlighted menu item or
command.
3. Press and release the Alt key on the keyboard; then
press the keys corresponding to the underlined
characters shown on the main and submenus. For
example, to save data, press the following sequence of
keys: Alt, F, S.
A brief description of the main and submenu items
follows:
File,
New... -- used for creating and naming a new data file
Open... -- open an existing data file
Save -- save all data to the current file being worked on
Save As... -- save the current file with the same or a
new name

Close -- close the current file without closing PSModel


Print Data... -- send all data to the printer
Print Graph... -- send the current screen graph to the
printer
Recent Files -- a short list of the last data files worked
on
Exit -- exit the program
Edit,
Undo (Ctrl+Z)* -- unlimited undoes of
previous Cut, Delete, Paste, and Clear All
Data operations
Redo (Ctrl+Y) -- unlimited redoes of Undo
Cut (Ctrl+X) -- copies the selected data rows in the Data
Window to the clipboard then deletes the rows
Copy (Ctrl+C) -- copies the selected rows to the
clipboard without deleting the rows
Paste (Ctrl+V) -- paste data rows that are in the
clipboard above the currently selected row
Delete (Del) -- deletes the selected data rows (deleted
rows are not copied to the clipboard)
Insert Row (Ctrl+I) -- insert a data row above the
currently selected row

Edit Row (Ctrl+E) -- edit the currently selected data row


in the Series Dialog Box
Read Row (Ctrl+R) -- read the currently selected data
row into the Series Dialog Box
Clear All Data -- deletes all data rows in the Data
Window
* keyboard shortcuts shown in parenthesis.
View,
Color,
Default Colors -- resets the Graph and Data Window
background colors to the default values
Data Background... -- opens a Color Dialog Box,
allowing the user to chose a background color for the
Data Window
Graph Background... -- opens a Color Dialog Box,
allowing the user to chose a background color for the
Graph Window
Fonts,
Default Fonts -- resets the Graph and Data Window
fonts to default characteristics
Data Font... -- opens a Font Dialog Box allowing a
choice of fonts for the Data Window

Graph Font... -- opens a Font Dialog Box allowing a


choice of fonts for the Graph Window
Dialog Box Position -- Docks or Undocks the Series
Dialog Box on PSModel's right border
Dialog Box Size -- choose Small or Large for select
dialog boxes, including the Series Dialog Box
Options,
Reset Column Header Order -- resets the Data
Window column headers back to default locations and
expands any columns that may have been collapsed
Series,
For a description of the various Series in this submenu
see Quick Series Facts.
Tools,
Density Table... -- allows selection of water density for
calculations involving horsepower, torque, and thrust:
For more information, see the section on Data Input.
Graph Cols.... -- allows data columns to be graphed in
the Graph Window: For more information, see the
section on Screen Graphs.
Identify Curves... -- used to identify the Kt, Kq, or
Efficiency curves in the Graph Window
Help,

Help Topics... -- displays help topics for PSModel


About PSModel... -- dialog box containing PSModel
version, company, and copyright information.

Main Screen:
The image below shows the various parts of
the PSModel screen.
Title Bar -- contains path of current data file
Main Menu -- menu of commands for all PSModel
functions
Graph Window -- propeller curves and column data
graphs are shown here
Data Window -- propeller parameters and calculated
data are displayed in this window
Data Column Header -- left clicking two column
headers generates a graph of column data
Highlighted or Selected data row -- left or right clicking
a data row highlights the row and graphs the propeller
curves for that row; right click a data row for a pop-up
menu of possible operations

Scroll Hot Spots -- point the mouse cursor at a hot spot


and the Data Window scrolls right or left: Scroll speed is
set by right clicking on the Data Column Header and
selecting Horizontal Scroll Speed from the pop-up menu.

Printing Graphs and Data:


Printing a Graph:
To print the current Graph Window, select File \
Print Graph from the main menu. A dialog box for your
printer opens. Graphs can be printed in Portrait or
Landscape modes.
Printing the Data:
To print all data rows in the Data Window,
select File \ Print Data from the main menu. A dialog
box for your printer opens. Data can be printed in
Portrait or Landscape (default) modes.

Screen Colors and Fonts:


Default Colors:
Default screen or background colors can be reset for the
Graph and Data Windows by selecting View \ Colors \
Default Colors from the main menu. These colors were
chosen to enhance contrast with overlaying text and
graphics, and to minimize eye strain. The paragraphs
below discuss how to change the background colors for
the Data and Graph Windows separately.
Data Window Color:
To set a different background color for the Data Window,
choose View \ Colors \ Data Background... from the
main menu. In the Color Dialog Box that opens, select
one of theBasic colors or create your own color by
selecting Define Custom Colors. If you select Define
Custom Colors, the dialog box expands showing a
rainbow of colors to choose from, see the screen
capture below. For help using the Color Dialog Box, left
click the question mark ? in the title bar of the dialog
box. Use the resulting pointer/question mark cursor to
left click on any item in the dialog box. A help window
will popup explaining the function of the item.

Graph Window Color:


A new background color can be set for the Graph
Window by selecting View \ Colors \ Graph
Background... from the main menu. The Color Dialog
Box opens as discussed above.

Default Fonts:
Default fonts (typeface and size) can be set for the Data
and Graph Windows by selectingView \ Fonts \
Default Fonts from the main menu. The default fonts
were chosen for readability over a wide range of screen
types and resolutions. The paragraphs below discuss
how to change Data and Graph Window fonts
separately.
Data Window Fonts:
To select a different font for the Data Window,
select View \ Fonts \ Data Font... from the main menu.

In the Font Dialog Box that appears, a range of fonts,


styles, and sizes are available. For help on any item in
the Font Dialog Box click on the question mark in the
dialog box title bar then click on the item.

Graph Window Font:


To select a different font for the Graph Window,
select View \ Fonts \ Graph Font... from the main
menu. The Graph Font Dialog Box appears with a
selection of typefaces and sizes. When the PSModel
program window is resized, the graphics (in the Graph
Window) are also resized along with the graphics text. If
the graphics text becomes too large or too small, resize
the text using the Graph Font Dialog Box.

Screen Graphs:
There are two types of screen graphs: propeller
curves and column graphs.
Propeller curves are displayed by selecting or
highlighting a data row, or by clicking the Calculate
button on a Series Dialog Box. Propeller curves consist
of three plots:
1) propeller Efficiency versus J (Advance Coefficient)
plot
2) Torque Coefficient (Kq) versus J plot
3) Thrust Coefficient (Kt) versus J plot
The propeller Series, Sigma, P/D, BAR, Z and Cup
values are shown above the propeller curves.

Column graphs are generated from data in


columns. Axis values are chosen by left clicking on two
column headers in the Data Window. The first column
clicked will contain X values (horizontal axis), and the
second will contain the Y values (vertical axis). To
change the Y values for a graph, simply left click a
different column header. To change the X values, first
click anywhere in the Graph Window then left click a
different column header. The column graph below was
created by clicking on the MPH column header first, then
clicking on the Horsepower column header.

Another way to generate a column graph is by


selecting Tools \ Graph Cols... from the main menu.
Simply follow the directions in the dialog box that is
displayed.

Shortcuts:
Shortcuts for selecting multiple data rows:
(The + symbol means hold down both keys at the same
time)
1) Highlight or select multiple contiguous data rows by
Left Clicking on the 1st data row, then Shift+Left
Click on the last data row.
2) Highlight or select multiple data rows that are not
contiguous by Left Clicking on the 1st data row,
then Ctrl+Left Click on each additional data row to be
selected.
Keyboard shortcuts for Editing data:
(The + symbol means hold down both keys at the same
time)
Ctrl+Z -- Undo previous operations on data: e.g.,
Deletes, Cuts, etc.
Ctrl+Y -- Redo last Undo
Ctrl+X -- Cut data rows that are highlighted
Ctrl+C -- Copy, to a clipboard, data rows that are
highlighted
Ctrl+V -- Paste data rows, from the clipboard, above the
highlighted row
Delete Key -- Deletes data rows that are highlighted

Keyboard shortcuts for the Main Menu:


1. To select the Main Menu, press the Alt key, then use
the arrow keys to maneuver through and to highlight a
menu or submenu item. Press the return key to execute
the highlighted item. (Note: you do not have to keep the
Alt key pressed.)
2. Or, press the Alt key followed by a key corresponding
to the underlined character in the text of a menu item.
For example, to save data, press the following sequence
of keys: Alt, F, S (press and release the Alt key, press
and release the F key, press and release the S key).

Working With Data:


PSModel Data Files:
All PSModel data files end with the
extension .psm_data.
Creating Data Files:
There are two ways to create a data file:
1) Select File \ New from the Main Menu. After
the NEW dialog box opens enter a new file name and
click Save. You can now input data with the Series
Dialog Box.
2) Or, open PSModel and start inputting data using a
Series Dialog Box. When you save the data, PSModel
will prompt for a file name.
Opening an Existing Data File:
There are three ways to open an existing data file:
1) Select File \ Open from the main menu, then select
a PSModel data file (*.psm_data) from the OPEN dialog
box.
2) Or, right click the mouse on the Graph Window, and
click Open on the popup menu. Select a PSModel data
file (*.psm_data) from the OPENdialog box.
3) Or, double click a PSModel data file (*.psm_data) in
Windows Explorer.

Save Data:
If you have made changes to an existing data file, you
can save the changes as follows:
1) From the main menu, select File \ Save.
2) Or, right click on the Graph Window, and
click Save on the popup menu.
3) Or, PSModel will prompt you to save any new or
modified data if you exit the program or open another
data file.
Save Data As:
If you would like to save a data file under another name,
or you are saving data that does not have a file name
associated with it, do one of the following:
1) From the main menu, select File \ Save As, and enter
a file name in theSave As dialog box.
2) Or, right click on the Graph Window, and
click Save As on the popup menu. Enter a file name in
the Save As dialog box that opens.
3) Or, select File \ Save from the main
menu, PSModel will prompt you for a file name if the
data does not have a name associated with it.
Selecting Data Rows:
To select or highlight a single data row:

1) Left click on a data row. This highlights the data row


and graphs thepropeller curves for the propeller
geometry shown in that row.
2) Or, right click on a data row. This highlights the data
row, graphs the propeller curves for the propeller
geometry shown in that row, and a popup menu with edit
commands appears.
3) Or, press a number key corresponding to the row
number shown in column one of the Data Window.
To select or highlight multiple data rows:
1) Left click on the first data row, then press the Shift key
while left clicking a second data row. This highlights all
contiguous rows (rows that touch) between the first data
row and the second data row clicked on.
2) Or, press the Ctrl key while left clicking the mouse on
data rows. This highlights both contiguous and non
contiguous rows of data.
Copy:
Selected or highlighted data rows can be copied to
the clipboard for subsequent paste operations. To copy
a data row or rows, do one of the following:
1) Select the data rows, as discussed above, then
select Edit \ Copy from the main menu.

2) Or, select the data rows, then right click the mouse on
a highlighted row and select Copy from the popup
menu.
3) If only one data row is to be copied, a quick way is to
right click the mouse on the data row, then
select Copy from the popup menu.
Cut:
Selected or highlighted data rows are copied to the
clipboard for subsequent paste operations, and then
deleted. To cut a data row or rows, do one of the
following:
1) Select the data rows, as discussed above, then
select Edit \ Cut from the main menu.
2) Or, select the data rows, then right click the mouse on
a highlighted row and select Cut from the popup menu.
3) If only one data row is to be cut, a quick way is to
right click the mouse on the data row, then
select Cut from the popup menu.
Paste:
To insert or paste data rows from the
clipboard above the currently selected row, do one of the
following:
1) Select or highlight a data row, then
select Edit \ Paste from the main menu,

2) Or, right click the mouse on a data row, then


select Paste from the popup menu.
Delete:
To delete data rows without copying them to the
clipboard, do one of the following:
1) Select the data rows, then select Edit \ Delete from
the main menu.
2) Or, select the data rows, then right click the mouse on
a highlighted row and select Delete from the popup
menu.
3) If only one data row is to be deleted, a quick way is to
right click the mouse on the data row, then
select Delete from the popup menu.
Clear All Data:
To delete all data rows from the Data Window,
select Edit \ Clear All Data from the main menu. All
rows, whether selected or not, are deleted.
Undo:
By repeatedly invoking the undo command, previous
data operations such as Delete, Cut, Paste, Clear All
Data, New Row are undone, returning the Data Window
to the state before the operations. The number of
operations that can be undone is unlimited. Two ways
to invoke the Undo command follow:
1) Select Edit \ Undo from the main menu.

2) Or, right click the mouse any place in the Data


Window, and selectUndo from the popup menu.
A handy keyboard shortcut for Undo is to press both the
Ctrl key and Z key at the same time (Ctrl+Z).
Redo:
By repeatedly invoking the redo command, previous
Undo commands are reversed. That is, the Data
Window is returned to the state that existed prior to the
Undo command. The number of Redoes is limited only
by the number of previous Undos. Two ways to invoke
the Redo command follow:
1) Select Edit \ Redo from the main menu.
2) Or, right click the mouse any place in the Data
Window, and selectRedo from the popup menu.
A handy keyboard shortcut for Redo is to press both the
Ctrl key and Y key at the same time (Ctrl+Y).
Graphing Data:
See the section on Screen Graphs.
Importing a Data File into Microsoft Excel:
See the section on Importing A Data File Into MS Excel.

Testing:
Testing a propeller on any size boat--from outboard
to mega yacht--can be fun and easy.
Preparation:
Test Materials:
-- a tachometer
-- stopwatch or radar gun to determine boat speed
-- pencil, paper, and a clip board
-- if possible, a relatively clean boat bottom
A tachometer should hook up to the outboard or inboard
engine directly; however, in a pinch you can try the
dashboard tachometer. The more accurate the RPM
reading the better.
For outboard engines, several companies sell handheld
tachometers. Search the internet or contact your local
outboard dealer for sources.

For inboard engines, there are a number of accurate


tachometers available in the marketplace. Some hook
directly to the engine, and others read light pulses from
a reflective strip attached to the propeller shaft or
rotating part of the engine.
Test Course:
The easiest and most accurate way to determine boat
speed is with an inexpensive stopwatch and a measured
distance on the water. Navigation charts usually show
buoys that are set and surveyed specifically for this
purpose. The distance between these buoys is typically
a half nautical mile, but check the charts.
On lakes or rivers, a range can be set up on shore by
setting two markers, and measuring the distance
between them. One MPH is approximately 1.467 feet
per second, so if your boats top speed is 30 MPH you
will cover 44 (1.467 x 30) feet every second. If you want
at least 5 seconds between clicks of the stop watch,
your markers need to be at least 220 feet apart. For 10
seconds between clicks, you need to separate the
markers by 440 feet. In general, set the distance
between the markers as great as possible, greater
distances minimize errors. Perpendicular to the course
and approximately 20 feet behind each marker set a
pole. The pole and marker will serve as a range. When
the pole and marker are lined up during testing, start or
stop the stopwatch.
On the water testing:

Test conditions:
Try to pick a test day when the wind is below 10 MPH,
and tides or water currents are minimal. Wave action
beyond a chop will have a significant impact on test
results. Usually the higher the waves the more thrust is
required from the propeller for a given speed. If the boat
is normally used in waves, then it may be better to test
in waves. If you are interested in top speed in calm
water, then definitely test in calm water.
The boat should be loaded in the condition most likely to
be encountered, or under the conditions that maximum
propeller performance is desired. This includes fuel,
gear, and people. For boats less than 40 feet in length,
maintaining the location of these loads between runs is
important. This especially applies to people loads.
Slight changes in trim or heel can have a significant
influence on consistency of test results.
Water temperature:
if possible take the temperature of the water, and note if
it is fresh, salt, or brackish water. This information is
needed by PSModel.
Recording Test Data:
Prior to testing, create a test sheet for recording test
data. On the sheet, create columns with the following
headings: Run Number, MPH, RPM, and Comments.
The Comment column is to record any additional
information that may occur during a particular run.

Also, on the test sheet, allow space for recording the


following information:
-- test date
-- wind speed\direction
-- fresh, salt, or brackish water
-- P/D (on small propellers, usually stamped on the hub)
-- propeller BAR
-- propeller manufacturer\model
-- number of propeller blades
-- propeller diameter
-- reduction gear ratio
-- water temperature
-- wave height
-- test course length
Obtaining the correct reduction gear ratio is important.
In some cases, the boat manufacturer's literature may
be incorrect, so always verify this ratio. Copy the model
and serial number down from the reduction gear case
and go to the reduction gear manufacturer's web site. If
you cannot verify the ratio there, contact the
manufacturer directly. If the manufacturer is out of
business, try to verify the ratio by surfing the Internet
with the reduction gear model number.
Finally, actual testing:
During testing, run the course at the same RPM or
Speed at least six times: three times in one direction and
three times in the opposite direction. It is very difficult to
repeat the exact RPM or speed six times, but try to keep

differences small. Preferably, use RPM rather than


speed as the controlling parameter for each run. During
each run, record the RPM reading several times, the
more times the better. If using a radar gun to determine
speed, record the radar gun reading several times for
each run.
Test data for the six runs should be averaged before
inputting it into PSModel. Averaging speed and RPM for
several runs minimizes errors due to water currents,
wind, and waves.
If you are interested in generating graphs of speed
versus horsepower, speed versus thrust, etc.
with PSModel, run the test course at several different
speeds always keeping RPM as constant as possible for
a particular speed. If the top speed of the boat is 20
MPH, make runs at 5, 10, 15, and 20 MPH. If the top
speed of the boat is 40 MPH, make runs at 10, 20, 25,
30, 35, and 40 MPH and so on. When test information
is entered intoPSModel, and the columns of data
are graphed, you will be able to see curves of propeller
torque, thrust, efficiency, and horsepower verses speed
or RPM