You are on page 1of 32









Normally large power generating stations are built far away from
the load centre’s. There are a number of transformations and
switching stations built between generating stations and the
ultimate consumers. These are generally known as substations. A
typical substation may include the following equipments:
transformer, circuit breaker, disconnecting switches, station buses
and insulators, reactors, capacitors, current and potential
transformers, grounding system, lightning arrestors and spark
gaps, wave traps protective relays, station batteries, etc.
Types of substations
A substation or switching functions as a connection and switching
points for transmission lines, sub transmission feeders, generating
units, and transformers. Depending upon the purpose, the
substations may be classified into five categories:
1. Generating or step-up substations: Normally the generating
voltages are limited and need to be stepped up to the
transmission voltage so that large amount of power can be
transmitted economically over long. Each generating unit is
connected to generating transformers to increase the
secondary voltage up to transmission voltages levels.

2. Grid substations: These substations are located in the
intermediate points between the generating station and load
centre’s. The main purposes of these substations are to
provide connections of low-voltages lines, some
compensating devices, etc.
3. Secondary substations: these substations are connected with
the main grid substation with help of secondary
transmission lines. The voltage at this substation is stepped
down to the sub-transmission voltages. Some large power
consumers are also connected to these substations.
4. Distribution substations: these are made where the subtransmission voltage is to be stepped down to the supply
voltage. These substations feed power to the actual
consumers through distributors and service lines.
5. Special purpose substations: some special substations for
bulk power and some industrial loads are set up. Traction
substations and mining substations are examples of these.
Special design considerations are required in these
substations such as load distribution in phases in traction
substations and safety precautions in the mining substation.
Some mobile substations are also used for construction
purpose. Which are temporary as mobile.
Depending upon the physical features, the s/s can also be of four
 Outdoor type: - Normally outdoor s/s is used for 33-kv
voltage and above for cost and safety reasons. The air
clearance required is large. All equipments lie open in the air

however control and monitoring is performed inside the
control rooms.
 Indoor type: - The equipments of this s/s lie in a room. The
operating voltages are normally 400V and 11kv. This s/s is
located in big cities.
 Pole mounted or open or kiosk type: - As its name, these s/s
are very simple and cheap as no building for housing the
equipments are required. This s/s is of low capacity usually
having up to 500-KVA T/F.
Underground type: - Used when space is not available whole s/s is
made underground. Size of s/s depends upon its capacity low or


It is an arrangement through which we connect mother line and
power transformer of substation.
The bus is a line in which the incoming feeders come into and get
into the instruments for further step up or step down. The first
bus is used for putting the incoming feeders in la single line. There
may be double line in the bus so that if any fault occurs in the one

the other can still have the current and the supply will not stop.
The two lines in the bus are separated by a little distance by a
conductor having a connector between them. This is so that one
can work at a time and the other works only if the first is having
any fault.
A bus bar in electrical power distribution refers to thick strips of
copper or aluminum that conduct electricity within a
switchboard, distribution board, substation, or other electrical
apparatus. The size of the bus bar is important in determining the
maximum amount of current that can be safely carried. Bus bars
are typically either flat strips or hollow tubes as these shapes
allow heat to dissipate more efficiently due to their high surface
area to cross sectional area ratio. The skin effect makes 50-60 Hz
AC bus bars more than about 8 mm (1/3 in) thick inefficient, so
hollow or flat shapes are prevalent in higher current applications.
A hollow section has higher stiffness than a solid rod of equivalent
current carrying capacity, which allows a greater span between
bus bar supports in outdoor switchyards. A bus bar may either be
supported on insulators or else insulation may completely
surround it. Bus bars are protected from accidental contact either
by a metal enclosure or by elevation out of normal reach.
Neutral bus bars may also be insulated. Earth bus bars are
typically bolted directly onto any metal chassis of their enclosure.
Bus bars may be enclosed in a metal housing, in the form of bus
duct or bus way, segregated-phase bus, or isolated-phase bus.

It is device which works as controlling switch which can operate
whenever fault is occurred b/w mother. Station and receiving end.
It also behaves as a safety device .When we isolate the main line.
We earth the line to make it safe for working
The use of this isolator is to protect the transformer and the other
instrument in the line. The isolator isolates the extra voltage to the
ground and thus any extra voltage cannot enter the line. Thus an
isolator is used after the bus also for protection.

An isolator is a manually operated mechanical switch which separates a
part of electrical power system normally at off load condition. Circuit
breaker always trip the circuit but opens contracts of breaker cannot be
visible physically from outside of the breaker and that is why it is
recommended not to touch any electrical circuit just by switching off the
circuit breaker. So for better safety there must be some arrangement so
that one can see open condition of the section of the circuit before touching
it. It is a mechanical switch which isolates a part of circuit from system as
when required. Electrical isolator’s separates the part of the system from
rest for safe maintenance works
As no arc quenching techniques is provided insulator it must when there is
no chance of current flowing through circuit. No live circuit should be
closed or open by isolator operation. A complete live closed circuit must be
opened by isolator operation and also a live circuit must not be closed and
completed by isolator operation to avoid huge arching in between isolator
That’s why isolator must be opened after circuit breaker is open and these
must be closed before circuit breaker is closed. Isolator can be operated by
hand locally as well as by motorized mechanism from remote position. For
voltages up to 145kv system hand operated isolators are used
Motorized operation arrangement costs more compared to hand operation
hence decision must be taken before choosing an isolator for system
whether hand operated or motor operated economically optimum for the
system used for 245kv or 420kv

Lightening Arrester
Lightening arrestors are the instrument that are used in the
incoming feeders so that to prevent the high voltage entering the
main station. This high voltage is very dangerous to the
instruments used in the substation. Even the instruments are very
costly, so to prevent any damage lightening arrestors are used.
The lightening arrestors do not let the lightening to fall on the
station. If some lightening occurs the arrestors pull the lightening
and ground it to the earth. In any substation the main important
is of protection which is firstly done by these lightening arrestors.
The lightening arrestors are grounded to the earth so that it can
pull the lightening to the ground. The lightening arrestor works
with an angle of 30° to 45° making a cone.

Instrument Transformer
Instrument transformers are used to step-down the current or
voltage to measurable values. They provide standardized, useable
levels of current or voltage in a variety of power monitoring and
measurement applications. Both current and voltage instrument
transformers are designed to have predictable characteristics on
overloads. Proper operation of over-current protection relays
requires that current transformers provide a predictable
transformation ratio even during a short circuit.
These are further classified into two types which are discussed

Current Transformer

Current transformers are basically used to take the readings of
the currents entering the substation. This transformer steps down
the current from 800 amps to 1 amp. This is done because we
have no instrument for measuring of such a large current. The
main use of this transformer is
a. Distance Protection
b. Backup Protection
c. Measurement
A current transformer is defined as an instrument transformer in
which the secondary current is substantially proportional to the
primary current (under normal conditions of operation) and
differs in phase from it by an angle which is approximately zero
for an appropriate direction of the connections. This highlights
the accuracy requirement of the current transformer but also
important is the isolating function, which means no matter what
the system voltage the secondary circuits need to be insulated only
for a low voltage.
The current transformer works on the principle of variable flux.
In the ideal current transformer, secondary current would be
exactly equal (when multiplied by the turn’s ratio) and opposite to

the primary current. But, as in the voltage transformer, some of
the primary current or the primary ampere-turns are utilized for
magnetizing the core, thus leaving less than the actual primary
ampere turns to be transformed into the secondary ampere-turns.
This naturally introduces an error in the transformation. The
error is classified into current ratio error and the phase error

Potential Transformer

There are two potential transformers used in the bus connected
both side of the bus. The potential transformer uses a bus isolator
to protect itself. The main use of this transformer is to measure
the voltage through the bus. This is done so as to get the detail

information of the voltage passing through the bus to the
instrument. There are two main parts in it
a. Measurement
b. Protection
The standards define a voltage transformer as one in which the
secondary voltage is substantially proportional to the primary
voltage and differs in phase from it by an angle which is
approximately equal to zero for an appropriate direction of the
connections. This in essence means that the voltage transformer
has to be as close as possible to the ideal transformer.
In an ideal transformer, the secondary voltage vector is exactly
opposite and equal to the primary voltage vector when multiplied
by the turn’s ratio.
In a practical transformer, errors are introduced because some
current is drawn for the magnetization of the core and because of
drops in the primary and secondary windings due to leakage
reactance and winding resistance. One can thus talk of a voltage
error which is the amount by which the voltage is less than the
applied primary voltage and the phase error which is the phase
angle by which the reversed secondary voltage vector is displaced
from the primary voltage vector.

SF6 Breaker

It is installed b/w bus bar and power transformer. It is also used
to isolate the power transformer from main bus. It operates at
time of fault automatically. Sf6 is used instead of oil. Because it is
much safer than oil.
The gas is put inside the circuit breaker by force i.e. under high
pressure. When if the gas gets decreases there is a motor
connected to the circuit breaker. The motor starts operating if the
gas went lower than 20.8 bar. There is a meter connected to the
breaker so that it can be manually seen if the gas goes low. The
circuit breaker uses the SF6 gas to reduce the torque produce in it
due to any fault in the line. The circuit breaker has a direct link
with the instruments in the station, when any fault occur alarm
bell rings.


There are three transformers in the incoming feeders so that the
three lines are step down at the same time. In case of a 220KV or
more KV line station auto transformers are used. While in case of
lower KV line such as less than 132KV line double winding
transformers are used.
The transformer is transported on trailer to substation site and as
far as possible directly unloaded on the plinth. Transformer tanks
up to 25 MVA capacity are generally oil filled, and those of higher
capacity are transported with N2 gas filled in them positive
pressure of N2 is maintained in transformer tank to avoid the
ingress of moisture. This pressure should be maintained during
storage, if necessary by filling N2 Bushings - generally
transported in wooden cases in horizontal position and should be
stored in that position. There being more of fragile material, care
should be taken while handling them. Radiators – These should
be stored with ends duly blanked with gaskets and end plates to
avoid in gross of moisture, dust, and any foreign materials inside.
The care should be taken to protect the fins of radiators while
unloading and storage to avoid further oil leakages. The radiators
should be stored on raised ground keeping the fins intact.

The working principle of transformer is very simple it depends
upon faradays law of electromagnetic induction between two or
more winding is responsible for transformer action in electrical
Rate of change of flux linkage with respect to time is directly
proportional to the induced EMF in a conductor or coil.
PARTS:  CORE: - Core is used to support the winding in the
transformer. It also provides a low reluctance path for the flow
of magnetic flux. It is made laminated soft iron core in order to
reduce eddy current loss and hysteresis loss. Diameter of core is
directly proportional to copper loss and is inversely
proportional to the iron loss.
 Winding: - there are two winding wound over the transformer
core which are insulated from each other. Winding consist of
several turns of copper coil bundled together an each bundles
are connected in series to form a winding.
 Transformer oil: - Transformer oil performs two important
functions of insulation as well as cooling for the core and coil
assembly. Core and winding of the transformer must be
completely immersed in the oil. Normally hydrocarbon mineral
oil is used as transformer oil. Oil contamination is a serious
problem because it robs its dielectric properties and renders it
useless as an insulating medium.
 Conservator: - conservator conserves the transformer oil. Is an
airtight metallic cylindrical drum which is fitted above the
transformer. The conservator tank is vented to the atmosphere
at top and the normal oil level is approximately in the middle

of the conservator to allow the expansion and contraction of oil
during the temperature variations. It is connected to the main
tank inside the transformer which is completely filled with
transformer oil through a pipeline.
 Breather: - The insulating oil of transformer is provided for
cooling and insulating purpose. Expansion and contraction of
oil during the temperature variation cause pressure change
inside the conservator. The change in pressure is balanced by
the flow of atmospheric air into and out of the conservator.
Transformer breather is a cylindrical container which is filled
with silica gel. Insulating oil react with moisture can affect the
paper insulation or may be even lead to some external faults.
So it is necessary that the air entering the tank is moisture free.
It consists of silica gel contained in a chamber. For this purpose
breather is used. When the atmospheric air filters for the
transformer and controls the moisture level inside a
transformer. It is connected to the end of breather pipe.
 Cooling tubes: - Cooling tubes are used to cool the transformer
oil. The transformer oil is circulated through the cooling tubes.
The circulation of the oil may either be natural or forced
circulation. In natural circulation, when the temperature of oil
rises the hot oil naturally moves to the top end cool oil moves
downwards. Thus the oil keeps on circulating through the
tubes. In forced circulation, the external pump is used for
circulating the oil.
 Buchholz Relay: - It is a protective device container housed
over the connecting pipe from main tank to conservator tank.
It is used to sense the faults occurring inside the transformer. It
is simple relay which is operated by the gases emitted due to
the decomposition of transformer oil during internal faults. It
helps in sensing and protecting the transformer from internal

 Explosion vent: - Explosion vent is used to expel the boiling oil
in the transformer during heavy internal faults in order to
avoid the explosion of the transformer. During heavy faults the
oil rushes out of the vent. The level of the explosion vent is
normally maintained above the level of the conservatory tank.
 Tap changer: - The output voltage may vary according to the
input voltage and load. During loaded conditions the voltage on
the output terminal fall and during off load condition the
output voltages increases. In order to balance the voltage
variations tap changers are used. Tap changer can be either on
load tap changer or off load tap changer. In on load tap
changers the tapping can be changed without isolating the
transformer from the supply and in off load tap changer it is
done after disconnecting the transformer. Automatic tap
changer is also available.

Circuit Breaker

The circuit breakers are used to break the circuit if any fault
occurs in any of the instrument. These circuit breaker breaks for
a fault which can damage other instrument in the station. For any
unwanted fault over the station we need to break the line current.
This is only done automatically by the circuit breaker.
Types: Oil circuit breaker :- A high voltage circuit breaker in which
the arc is drawn in oil to dissipate the heat and extinguish
the arc; the intense heat of the arc decomposes the oil,
generating a gas whose high pressure produce a flow of fresh
fluid through the arc that furnishes the necessary insulation
to prevent a re-strike the arc.
 Vacuum circuit breaker: - A vacuum circuit breaker is such
kind of circuit breaker where the arc quenching takes place
in vacuum. The technology is suitable for mainly medium
voltage application. For higher voltage vacuum technology
has been developed but not commercially viable. The

operation of opening and closing of current carrying
contracts and associated arc interruption take place in a
vacuum chamber in the breaker which is called vacuum
interrupter. The vacuum interrupter consists of a steel arc
chamber in the centre symmetrically arranged ceramic
insulators. The vacuum pressure inside a vacuum
interrupter is normally maintained at 10 -6bar.
 Air circuit breaker: - The working principle of this breaker
is rather different from those in any other types of circuit
breakers. The main aim of all kind of circuit breaker is to
prevent the reestablishment of arcing after current zero by
creating a situation where in the contact gap will withstand
the system recovery voltage. The circuit breaker does the
same but in different manner. For interrupting arc it creates
an arc voltage in excess of supply voltage. Arc voltage is
defined as the minimum voltage required maintaining the

Control and Relay Panel

The control and relay panel is of cubical construction suitable for
floor mounting. All protective, indicating and control elements are
mounted on the front panel for ease of operation and control. The
hinged rear door will provide access to all the internal
components to facilitate easy inspection and maintenance.
Provision is made for terminating incoming cables at the bottom
of the panels by providing separate line-up terminal blocks. For
cable entry provision is made both from top and bottom. The
control and relay panel accepts CT, PT aux 230 AC and 220V/10V
DC connections at respective designated terminal points.
220V/10V DC supply is used for control supply of all internal
relays and timers and also for energizing closing and tripping
coils of the breakers. 230V AC station auxiliary supply is used for
internal illumination lamp of the panel and the space heater.
Protective HRC fuse are provided within the panel for P.T
secondary. Aux AC and battery supplies. Each Capacitor Bank is
controlled by breaker and provided with a line ammeter with
selector switch for 3 phase system & over current relay (2 phases
and 1 Earth fault for 3 ph system). Under voltage and over
voltage relays. Neutral Current Unbalance Relays are for both
Alarm and Trip facilities breaker control switch with local/remote
selector switch, master trip relay and trip alarms acknowledge
and reset facilities.

Protective Relaying
Protective relays are used to detect defective lines or apparatus
and to initiate the operation of circuit interrupting devices to

isolate the defective equipment. Relays are also used to detect
abnormal or undesirable operating conditions other than those
caused by defective equipment and either operates an alarm or
initiate operation of circuit interrupting devices. Protective relays
protect the electrical system by causing the defective apparatus or
lines to be disconnected to minimize damage and maintain service
continuity to the rest of the system. There are different types of
I. Over current relay
ii. Distance relay
iii. Differential relay
iv. Directional over current relay
i. Over Current Relay
The over current relay responds to a magnitude of current above
a specified value. There are four basic types of construction: They
are plunger, rotating disc, static, and microprocessor type. In the
plunger type, a plunger is moved by magnetic attraction when the
current exceeds a specified value. In the rotating induction-disc
type, which is a motor, the disc rotates by electromagnetic
induction when the current exceeds a specified value.
Static types convert the current to a proportional D.C mill volt
signal and apply it to a level detector with voltage or contact
output. Such relays can be designed to have various currentversus-time operating characteristics. In a special type of rotating
induction-disc relay, called the voltage restrained over current
relay. The magnitude of voltage restrains the operation of the disc
until the magnitude of the voltage drops below a threshold value.
Static over current relays are equipped with multiple curve
characteristics and can duplicate almost any shape of
electromechanical relay curve. Microprocessor relays convert the
current to a digital signal. The digital signal can then be
compared to the setting values input into the relay. With the
microprocessor relay, various curves or multiple time-delay
settings can be input to set the relay operation. Some relays allow

the user to define the curve with points or calculations to
determine the output characteristics.
ii. Distance Relay
The distance relay responds to a combination of both voltage and
current. The voltage restrains operation, and the fault current
causes operation that has the overall effect of measuring
impedance. The relay operates instantaneously (within a few
cycles) on a 60-cycle basis for values of impedance below the set
value. When time delay is required, the relays energizes a
separate time-delay relay or function with the contacts or output
of this time-delay relay or function performing the desired output
functions. The relay operates on the magnitude of impedance
measured by the combination of restraint voltage and the
operating current passing through it according to the settings
applied to the relay. When the impedance is such that the
impedance point is within the impedance characteristic circle, the
relay will trip. The relay is inherently directional. The line
impedance typically corresponds to the diameter of the circle with
the reach of the relay being the diameter of the circle.
iii. Differential Relay
The differential relay is a current-operated relay that responds to
the difference between two or more device currents above a set
value. The relay works on the basis of the differential principle
that what goes into the device has to come out .If the current does
not add to zero, the error current flows to cause the relay to
operate and trip the circuit.
The differential relay is used to provide internal fault protection
to equipment such as transformers, generators, and buses. Relays
are designed to permit differences in the input currents as a result
of current transformer mismatch and applications where the
input currents come from different system voltages, such as
transformers. A current differential relay provides restraint coils
on the incoming current circuits. The restraint coils in

combination with the operating coil provide an operation curve,
above which the relay will operate. Differential relays are often
used with a lockout relay to trip all power sources to the device
and prevent the device from being automatically or remotely
reenergized. These relays are very sensitive. The operation of the
device usually means major problems with the protected
equipment and the likely failure in re-energizing the equipment.
iv. Directional Over current Relay
A directional over current relay operates only for excessive
current flow in a given direction. Directional over current relays
are available in electromechanical, static, and microprocessor
constructions. An electromechanical overcorrect relay is made
directional by adding a directional unit that prevents the over
current relay from operating until the directional unit has
operated. The directional unit responds to the product of the
magnitude of current, voltage, and the phase angle between them
or to the product of two currents and the phase angle between
them. The value of this product necessary to provide operation of
the directional unit is small, so that it will not limit the sensitivity
of the relay (such as an over current relay that it controls). In
most cases, the directional element is mounted inside the same
case as the relay it controls. For example, an over current relay
and a directional element are mounted in the same case, and the
combination is called a directional over current relay.
Microprocessor relays often provide a choice as to the polarizing
method that can be used in providing the direction of fault, such
as applying residual current or voltage or negative sequence
current or voltage polarizing functions to the relay.


It consists of number of capacitors connected in series or parallel
combination. They used to improve power factor of sub-station.
In this RVT (Regulation vol. transformer) is used
Capacitor bank is used to improve power factor.
The use of capacitor bank in the power supply system effectively
cancel out or counteracts the phase shift issues making the power
supply far more effective and cost effective. The installation of a
capacitor bank is also one of the cheapest methods of a correcting
power lag problem and maintaining a power factor capacitor
bank is simple and cost effective. One thing that always kept in
mind when working with any capacitor or capacitor bank is the
fact that the stored energy, if incorrectly discharged, can cause
serious burns or electric shocks.


The safety accessories which are installed in control relay panel
which operates at 220DC volt. This D.C supply is provided with
help of DC cell. One cell has two volt capacity. So, there are 110
cells in arrangement in series to achieve desire voltage.
DC power is used to feed essential services such as circuit breaker
trip coils and associated relays, supervisory control and data
acquisition (SCADA) and communications equipment.


Roll No. 1302277