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THIT K SN NM

GS. NG TH PHONG

THIT K SN NM
Ti liu ny c vit da trn bi ging ca GS. Ng Th Phong - Trng i hc Xy Dng.
1. KHI NIM CHUNG
Sn nm l sn khng c dm, bn sn da trc tip trn ct (Hnh 1). Dng sn nm s gim c
chiu cao kt cu, vic lm vn khun n gin v d dng b tr ct thp. Sn nm c mt di
phng nn vic chiu sng v thng gi tt hn sn c dm. Ngoi ra vic ngn chia cc phng trn
mt sn cng s linh hot v rt thch hp vi cc bc tng ngn di ng.

Hnh 1. V d v sn nm
Khi chu ti trng thng ng, bn sn c th b ph hoi v ct theo kiu b ct m thng. tng
cng kh nng chu ct, c th to ra m ct theo cc dng nh Hnh 2a hoc Hnh 2b.

Hnh 2. M ct chng chc thng


Bn c chiu dy ln hn trn u ct cn c tc dng tng cng kh nng chu momen, v tit
din st n ct, momen un trong bn t gi tr ln nht.

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THIT K SN NM

GS. NG TH PHONG

Chiu rng nhp thch hp vi sn nm, thng l 4 n 8 mt i vi b tng ct thp thng, khi
nhp ca bn t 7m tr ln nn c ct thp ng lc trc c th gim chiu dy bn v gim
vng.
Chiu dy cc bn sn nm khng c ng lc trc, c th ly khong 1/30 nhp hoc tnh s b theo
cng thc:

(1)

Trong :
- l2, l1: nhp ni ca bn (khong cch gia hai mp ct) theo phng di v phng ngn.
- q: ti trng ton phn (kN/m2) bao gm c hot ti v trng lng bn thn
- k1: h s xc nh nh sau:
k1 = 1 i vi bn nm gia
k1 = 1.3 i vi bn nm ngoi v c dm bo
k1 = 1.6 i vi bn nm ngoi v khng c dm bo
- hb: chiu dy ca bn sn
i vi sn c m ct th chiu dy sn c xc nh theo:

(2)

M ct phi c b dy c tng thm t nht bng 1/4 chiu dy ca bn gia v b rng ca m


ct thng khng nh hn 1/3 khong cch gia hai trc tim ct (hai trc ca m ct trng vi trc
ca tim ct).
i vi bn sn nm c ct thp ng lc trc, chiu dy ca bn c th s b gi thit khng nh
hn 1/40 cnh ln ca bc ct i vi bn sn c khng di hai nhp.
Chiu dy ca bn hoc chiu dy ca m ct phi c tnh ton kim tra loi tr kh nng bn
b m thng. Theo tiu chun thit k TCVN 5574-91 th phi tho mn iu kin sau:
(3)

Hnh 3. Mt ph hoi trong trng hp chc thng


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THIT K SN NM

GS. NG TH PHONG

Trong :
- P: Ti trng gy nn s ph hoi theo kiu chc thng. Gi thit mt ph hoi nghing mt gc
45o nh Hnh 3. Gi s li ct l l1, l2 v q l ti trng phn b u trn bn (k c trng lng
bn thn), kch thc m ct l c
[

c th :
(

) ]

(4)

- h0: chiu dy hu hiu ca m ct (chiu cao lm vic ca ct thp)


- b: chu vi trung bnh ca mt m thng; b = 4*(c + h0)
- Rk: cng chu ko ca b tng
(* Ch thch: bi ging c bin son trc khi c ban hnh TCVN 5574:2012; phn tnh ton
chc thng theo TCVN 5574:2012 c khc so vi TCVN 5574:1991; c gi c th tra cu mc
6.2.5.4 ca TCVN 5574:2012 cp nht phn tnh ton ny. Ngoi ra, vic tnh ton kim tra chc
thng cho sn khng dm nn tham kho thm tiu chun nc ngoi, v d EuroCode 2, k thm
nh hng ca ct thp sn v ct thp chng ct)
Trong tnh ton v cu to bn sn nm, ngi ta thng chia bn ra thnh di bn trn u ct v
gii gia nhp, hai gii ny u c chiu rng bng 1/2 bc ct nh Hnh 4.

Hnh 4. Hnh nh bin dng v m men trong cc gii bn


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THIT K SN NM

GS. NG TH PHONG

Gi s ti trng trn bn l phn b u, xem xt bin dng ca di trn u ct A-1-B ta thy ti v


tr u ct (A, B) vng ca bn bng khng, ti v tr gia nhp (1) vng l ln nht. T ng
n hi ( vng) ta suy ra dng ca biu momen un di trn u ct nh Hnh 4b, trong
MA v MB l momen m, M1 l momen dng. i vi di gia nhp 3-2-4 vng ti v tr 3 l f3
s nh hn vng ti v tr 2 l f2. C th tng tng rng di gia nhp 3-2-4 ging nh mt dm
lin tc k ln cc gi ta l cc di trn u ct A-3-D, B-4-C, v.v T suy ra dng ca biu
momen un nh trn Hnh 4c, trong M2 l momen dng v M3, M4 l momen m. Hon ton
tng t, c th suy ra hnh nh bin dng v momen un ca di trn u ct v di gia nhp ca
phng vung gc.
2. TNH TON NI LC
tnh c cc gi tr ni lc mt tit din no ca bn c th dng nhiu cch khc nhau da
trn l thuyt n hi hoc cn bng gii hn, c th dng phng php gii tch hoc phng php
s. y ch trnh by cch tnh hay c dng trong thit k.
Vn t ra l cn phi tnh c cc gi tr momen un trong cc di bn trn u ct v di bn
gia nhp theo c hai phng ca h li ct. Ngi ta thng s dng phng php phn phi trc
tip v phng php khung tng ng.
Phng php phn phi trc tip l xc nh trc tip cc gi tr ni lc ca cc di gia nhp v
gii trn u ct. Cc nc khc nhau cho cc h s phn phi khc nhau tu theo quan nim v s
phn phi li ni lc trong kt cu, tnh cht lm vic n hi do ca vt liu. Di y trnh by
mt cch tnh ton kh n gin ca nc Anh. Theo , phng php phn phi trc tip ch c
p dng khi :
- n nh ngang ca h kt cu khng ph thuc vo s lm vic ca bn v lin kt gia ct v bn.
- Gi tr ca hot ti khng c vt qu 5 T/m2 v khng vt qu 1.25 ln gi tr ca tnh ti.
- Sn phi c t nht ba khong ca bn vi nhp xp x nhau theo phng ang xt.
Cc gi tr momen v lc ct c phn phi cho bn v cho ct trong Bng 1.
Bng 1: M men un v lc ct ca sn nm
Gi ta bin

M men un trong bn
Lc ct
M men un ca ct

Nhp th

Gi ta

Nhp

Gi ta

th 2

gia

gia

L ct

L vch

-0.04FL

-0.02FL

0.83FL

-0.063FL

0.71FL

-0.055FL

0.45F

0.4F

0.6F

0.5F

0.04FL

0.022FL

0.022FL

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THIT K SN NM

GS. NG TH PHONG

Trong :
- F: tng ti trng tc dng ln mt bn; F = (g + q)*l1*l2
- L: nhp tnh ton theo phng ang xt; L = l - 2hc/3
- hc: cnh ca ct hoc m ct
Gi tr momen un ca bn c phn phi cho cc gii bn trn u ct v gia nhp theo t l cho
trong Bng 2.
Bng 2: Phn phi m men ln cc gii bn
Di trn u ct

Di gia nhp

M men m

75%

25%

M men dng

55%

45%

Khi khng c m ct, vic chia ra di gia nhp v gii trn u ct c thc hin theo Hnh 4. Khi
c m ct m cnh nh ca m ct nh hn 1/3 cnh nh ca bn (tnh theo trc tim ct) th b qua
s c mt ca bn u ct. Trong trng hp ngc li th b rng ca di trn u ct ly bng b
rng ca m ct. Khi b rng ca di trn u ct v b rng ca di gia nhp c th s khng
bng nhau, vic phn phi momen cho hai di ny theo Bng 2 ng thi cn phi t l vi b rng
ca di.
Momen phn phi cho ct theo Bng 2 cn phi chia cho ct trn v ct di theo t l cng ca
chng.
so snh di y trnh by thm phng php trc tip ca c xc nh momen un.
Phng php ny p dng khi s khc nhau v nhp (bc ct) khng qu 10%. Vic phn chia cc
di gia nhp v di trn u ct ly theo Hnh 4a. Theo tng phng ngi ta tnh gi tr momen
un M0 nh trn hnh 5.
M0 l gi tr momen un cho mt bn k t do trn u ct vi gi thit gn ng rng phn lc gi
ta nm cch trc ct mt on bng 2/3(c/2) vi c l b rng quy c ca m ct. Nh vy ta c:
(5)
Trong : q l ti trng ton phn phn b trn mt n v din tch bn
Khi tnh ton theo phng vung gc, phi hon v l1 l l2
Gi:
MG l tng momen m trn gi ta gia ca bn.
MN l tng momen dng gia nhp gia ca bn.
MGB l tng momen m trn gi ta th 2 (gi ta B) ca bn .
MNB l tng momen dng gia nhp bin ca bn.
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THIT K SN NM

GS. NG TH PHONG

MGA l tng momen m gi ta th nht (gi ta 1) ca bn.

Hnh 5. a) S tnh m men ca bn; b) phn phi m men nhp gia;


c) phn phi m men nhp bin
Vic phn phi momen M0 cho gi v nhp c tin hnh nh sau:
- i vi cc bn bn trong :
MN = 0.35M0
MG = -0.65M0
- i vi cc bn bin ( pha ngoi) th phn phi theo Bng 3.
Bng 3: Phn phi m men bn bin
Tnh trng gi ta bin

MGA/M0

MNB/M0

MGB/M0

Ta t do

0.00

0.60

0.80

Ta trn ct

0.25

0.50

0.75

Ta trn ct v dm bin

0.30

0.50

0.70

Ngm hon ton

0.65

0.35

0.65

Vic chia cc gi tr momen m v dng cho cc di trn u ct v gia nhp cng theo t l cho
trong Bng 2.
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THIT K SN NM

GS. NG TH PHONG

Phng php khung tng ng c dng xc nh ni lc (momen un v lc ct) cho bn


sn v ct khi chu ti trng thng ng v ti trng ngang, nhp ca bn c th u hoc khng u.
Ngi ta coi sn nh ghp t hai h khung phng vung gc vi nhau tnh ton ni lc mt cch
ring bit, ct khung l ct nh cn dm khung l bn sn vi chiu rng bng khong cch gia hai
trc ca hai bn ln cn vi ct. Hnh 6 cho mt s v d v vic xc nh b rng ca bn tham gia
vo dm ca khung tng ng theo hai phng X v Y. C th dng cc phng php c hc kt
cu khc nhau xc nh momen un trong bn v ct. Ti trng trn mi khung tng ng l
ton b ti tc dng ln sn. Vic phn chia cc gi tr momen tnh c cho cc di trn u ct v
cc di gia nhp c th theo Bng 2

Hnh 6. Xc nh b rng ca dm khung tng ng

3. TNH TON CT THP DC TRONG BN SN


T cc gi tr momen trong cc di bn trn u ct v di bn gia nhp c th xc nh c din
tch ct thp dc trong bn sn theo cc cng thc chung phn cu kin c bn. xt n nhng sai
lch thin v an ton trong tnh ton ni lc v tnh ton tit din, c th gim bt ct thp dc trong
bn theo cng thc:
(6)

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THIT K SN NM

GS. NG TH PHONG

C th ly gn ng = 0.9
Cn phn bit chiu cao h0 ca bn i vi phng c ct thp t di v phng c ct thp t
trn khi c bn m ct, chiu cao h0 ly theo chiu dy ca bn v bn m ct. Ct thp chu momen
m ca di trn u ct s c t hai phn ba (2/3) trn bng chy qua nh ct c chiu rng bng
1/2 chiu rng ca di trn u ct, 1/3 cn li t sang hai bn.
4. B TR CT THP TRONG BN SN NM
Vic b tr ct thp v ct ct thp i vi bn chu ti trng phn b u c th theo quy tc n
gin v an ton th hin trn hnh 7

Hnh 7. B tr ct thp trong bn sn nm


(* Ch thch: trong hnh nh trn, ct thp trn ti gi gia c b tr 100% ti trong khong
0.15*l; v 50% ct thp c ko ra n khong 0.3*l; ct thp di c b tr 100% gia nhp
v 40% ct thp c ko vo gi ta)
5. B TR CT THP TRONG M CT
B tr ct thp trong m ct c th hin trn hnh 8

Hnh 8. B tr ct thp trong m ct

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