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God created Universe about 15 billion years ago in a violent explosion known as Big Bang.

After the
Big Bang the Universe started to expand. It contained only 90% Hydrogen and 10% Helium atoms in
gas form. Due to high pressure and temperature heavier elements started forming from Hydrogen and
Helium in a process known as Nucleosynthesis.Our Galaxy formed sometimes after the beginning of
Universe. Since our Galaxy took shape over 10 billion years ago stars have been forming continuously
Nucleosynthesis takes place inside the stars. In massive stars having mass of more than 4 Solar masses
formation of heavy elements takes place and nuclear burning known as Nucleosynthesis occurs in
which heavier fuels burns step wisely.
H → He →

C → O → Ne → Si → Fe

In the last Iron core formed which does not burn and release energy. Due to the collapse of Iron core
there occurs a large explosion known as Supernova (Death of massive Stars). In formation of Universe,
Galaxies and stars there takes place Nucleosynthesis process which obeys Einstein’s theory E=mc 2.In
Supernova explosion Einstein’s theory is not valid because of the greatest mass defect since for every
one kilogram of Hydrogen converted into Iron, 8 gram would be released in the form of energy E≠mc 2
(In Supernova explosion the destruction of Stars)
Research Problem:
Quantification of Supernova Emissions
Research Objectives:
1) Define Quantification of Supernova emissions.
2) Is it possible to Quantify Supernova emissions?
3) Why it is important to study Supernova emissions?
4) What is the Source term of Supernova emissions? (Give in detail)
5) What things are emitted in Supernova emissions?
6) How can we detect Supernova emissions?
7) What is the impact of Supernova emissions on Earth and Human beings?
8) What is the affect of Supernova emissions on other Planets and Stars?
9) What will be Sun become after Supernova explosion?
10) Why we can not Quantify Supernova emissions give reasons?
Quantification means the act of counting and measuring hence quantification of Supernova emission is
the act of counting and measuring Supernova emissions.
Quantification of Supernova emissions is not possible 1)because there is greatest mass defect 2)Due to
the absorption of Supernova emissions in interstellar cloud we can not quantify Supernova emission but
we Qualitatively analyze it.
It is important to study Supernova emissions because every thing on Earth can be affected by
Supernova emissions

As a result attempting to fuse additional Protons or Neutrons to it weakens the bonds and absorbs energy. The two main categories of Supernova are Type1 and Type11 Supernova.Nothing remains to support the star and so its interior begins to collapse.This group can be sub grouped a.s force of gravity is immense and it crushes the core. Type1 Supernova: Type1 Supernova is the explosion of a Star caused by transfer of matter to a White dwarf from it. Matter is transferred to a white dwarf from it. The Nickel sprayed into space by the explosion is highly Radio active and rapidly decays into Cobalt which finally decays to Iron 56Fe each decay adding additional energy to the out burst and Gamma rays released. decline rapidly at first and then fade more slowly. Thus.Type1 Supernova arise from old low mass stars. Protons and Electron may themselves” merge” neutralizing their charge and becoming Neutron .Type1 Supernova leave only a cloud of rapidly expanding gas rich in the left over Carbon and Oxygen plus the Silicon.Fuel exhaustion occurs a star core to shrink and Source term is Supernova explosion. Type1 Supernova leaves no remnant Star .s life cycle.and although initially too cold to burn will eventually reach their ignition temperature and begin Nuclear fusion.the core shrivels from an Iron ball the size of the Earth to a ball of Neutrons about 10 kilometers(about 6 miles) in radius.The brightening of the Supernova after the first few weeks seems to have been caused by the decay of radioactive Nickel into Cobalt .the Star. Iron core can not burn and release energy.The Iron nucleus turns out to be the most tightly bond of all nuclei . Type11 Supernova occurs when Iron core of a massive Star (More than 10 solar masses) collapses. This give rise to the assumption that the Progenitors for Type1b/c are from young short -lived massive Stars. Cobalt and Iron are clearly visible in the Infrared Spectra of the Supernova. In less than a second. Most of the pressure that supported the core was supplied by Electrons but they have been absorbed by Proton. Carbon and Oxygen fuse to form Silicon (12C+16O becomes 28Si) which in turn fuses into Nickel (2 28Si become Ni). But in high mass stars the shrinkage presses the Iron nuclei so tightly that a new reaction can occur. Supernova explosion: A Supernova is a gigantic Stellar explosion that takes place at the end of a massive star. Supernova Type1 contain no Hydrogen emission lines in their spectra.Gamma rays from decay of Cobalt to Iron were detected.b or c.Iron and other elements made during the nuclear burning. The two types of Supernovae are related but the explosion mechanism is different.It is 4 billion times more luminous than the Sun. However because the matter is so dense.s companion star raising the mass of White dwarf above the Chandrasekhar limit and causing the star to collapse and may explode.Type1 Supernova occurs in binary stellar system in which one star is a white dwarf. Thus Nuclear fusion stops with Iron and a star with an Iron core is out of fuel. Supernova explosion is the death of massive stars.Iron is a dead end.s companion star.Type1b shows strong Helium and Type 1c shows the absence of Helium lines.Cobalt are also unstable but they decay more slowly.Type1a Supernova shows strong Si11 lines.s core pressure suddenly drops . If a Neutron star more massive 2 to3 Solar masses the degenerate neutrons would not be able to able to support the the weight and object would collapse into a black . Carbon and Oxygen in the collapsing star will be compressed and heated. rather than releasing it.The energy released in the burning may enough to blow the entire star apart resulting in type 1 Supernova explosion. Type 1b and 1c are exclusive to late Type Spiral and Irregular galaxies and have never been discovered in Elliptical galaxies.The shrinking core is thus transformed from a sphere of Iron into a sphere of Neutrons.

Neutron Star :Neutron star is a very dense compact star composed almost entirely of tightly packed neutrons with density 1016 to1018 Kg /m3 and having radius about 10 Km. If beam is pointed towards up. As the Neutron star rotates it emits beams of radiation that sweeps around the sky.6 billion times more luminous than the Sun. A Type1 Supernova leaves no remnants. Neutron Stars Black Hole:.s. Type 11 Supernova are classified through the presence Hydrogen Balmer lines in their Spectra. Supernova Spectra exhibit emission that is generally blue shifted. . The mechanism that produces the beams involves the spinning Neutron star and its magnetic field generates powerful electric fields and field causes the production of electron-Positron pairs. The Type11 Supernova very strongly shows the presence of the element Hydrogen in their Spectra and found in Spiral and Irregular Galaxies.The Blue shifted absorption feature occurs due to material moving towards the observer.we detect no energy. While a beam points roughly towards Earth we detect a may accrete mass from its neighbor and explode either as a nova or as a Type1 Supernova.Type1 Supernova leaves only a cloud of rapidly expanding gas rich in the left over Carbon and Oxygen plus the Silicon Iron and other elements made during the nuclear burning. Many or most Neutron stars are Pulsars. short lived massive stars like the type 1b/c. Older Neutron star rotates too slowly to generate detectable Radio beams. Most Pulsars have rotating period of ¼ to13 seconds. Only about 950 years old the Crab Pulsar is so powerful it emits Photons of Radio infrared.hole. As the charged particles are accelerated through the magnetic field also known as Synchrotron radiation they emit Photons in the direction of their motion which produces powerful beams of electromagnetic radiation.ray and Gamma ray wavelength. Neutron stars in binary system sometimes emit intense X – ray binaries. A young Neutron emits powerful beam of radiation.visible X. White Dwarfs burn no Nuclear fuel and shine by residual heat. Neutron Stars and black holes are the remnants of Supernova explosion. Their Progenitors are also young. If a White dwarf is in a binary system. and decline in a more irregular way. Type 11 supernova become only 0. A rapidly rotating Neutron star is known as Pulsar. Stellar Remnants: White Dwarfs. A White dwarf forms when a low-mass star (mass less than 10 Solar masses) expels its outer layers to form a Planetary nebula shell and leaves its hot core exposed and its mass must be less than the Chandrasekhar limit or it collapse having no fuel supply a White dwarf cools and grows dim. The detection of the Neutrino blast confirms that collapsing core gave birth to the Neutron star. They are the end stage of stellar evolution for stars like the Sun. The fastest spinning Pulsar spins 642 times every second. The overall rate of Supernova in Milkyway Galaxy is about 1-2 per Century most of which occur in Spiral arms or in galactic bulge. Type 11 Supernova results from the collapse of a massive star Iron core and which leaves a Neutron star or Black hole. White Dwarfs: A White Dwarf is a dense dying star that has collapsed to the size of Earth having low luminosity and high surface temperature having mass equal to the Sun.

In addition Gamma rays are almost totally absorbed by our atmosphere. They can not be focused or detected as X-rays can. The essential Physical process that causes a dying star to produce GRBs or XRFs and not just a Supernova is still unknown.Orbiting X ray telescopes have observed a number a number of Supernova remnants.This often outlines a shell where the expanding Supernova remnants is colliding with the interstellar medium.the X-ray images are produced as false color maps. The observed Gamma rays can be explained reasonably by a combination of efficient acceleration of Nuclear Cosmic rays at Supernova shock and shock cloud interactions.long duration gamma-ray(GRBs) including the sub class of X-ray flashes(XRFs) have been revealed to be a rare variety of type 1bc Supernova. If a Black hole has a companion star we may able to see x-rays from an accretion disk as gas from the neighbor fall towards the hole.Supernova remnants are not empty however X-ray observation reveal that they are filled with the high temperature gas.Neutron stars and Black hole. Black hole is an object whose gravitational attraction is so strong that its escape velocity equals the speed of light preventing light or any radiation or material body from leaving its surface. Although the Hypernova may produce no Supernova explosions it can emit jet of Gamma rays.spherical events like XRF 060218.the .The Gamma ray bursters appear to be produced by the merger of two Neutron stars or by Hypernovae. Gamma rays:Gamma rays have wavelength even shorter than X-rays and that means they have even higher energies they are produced by the hottest and most violent objects in the Universe exploding stars. They may form Black holes. . The Gamma ray emission is spatially extended broadly consistent with the Radio and X -ray extent of SNRW51C. So Gamma ray telescopes must observe from orbit. These X-rays are Synchrotron radiation from gas at very high temperature so the X-rays shows where the gas is hottest. The decay of neutral Pi measons produced in hadronic collisions provides a plausible explanation for the Gamma ray emission. Although all these events result from the death of massive stars the electromagnetic luminosities ofGRBs and XRFs exceed those of ordinary type 1bc Supernovae by many orders of magnitude. NASA has operated three important Gamma-ray telescopes aboard satellites. This suggest that the production of relativistic ejecta is Key physical distinction between GRBs or XRFs and ordinary Supernova while the nature of the central engine (black hole or magnetar may distinguish typical bursts from low luminosity. Black hole: If the remnant core has more than about 5 Solar masses. The discovery of bright Gamma-ray emission coincident with Supernova remnant(SNR) W51C reported using the Large Area Telescope(LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope W51C is a middle aged remnant(~10 4 yr) with intense Radio Synchrotron emission in its shell and known to be interacting with a molecular cloud . Emissions of Supernova explosion: Gamma rays. This event is a hundred times less energetic but ten times more common then Cosmological GRBs. Also Gamma rays are high energy Photons. Over the past decade. The 17-ton Ray observatory was launched April 1991.Energetic particles and X-rays are emissions of Supernova explosions.Neutrinos. Radio images of Supernova remnants reveal that they are emitting Synchrotron radiation. Because human eyes can not see X-rays.At 10 to 50 times the sensitivity of any previous Gamma-ray telescope.

The space between the stars is a glowing fog of Cosmic rays.s Neutrinos escape freely into space so the Supernova. Because they are atomic particles with electric charges they are deflected by the magnetic field spread through our galaxy and that means we can. The theory predicts that 99 percent of the energy released in the collapse will appear as Neutrinos. most of the energy of its blast is carried by a burst of Neutrinos. Neutrino: Neutrino is a neutral massless atomic particle that travels at or nearly the speed of light.s Neutron escape as well.X. Focusing X-ray is difficult because the higher energy X-ray Photons do not reflect off conventional mirrors but rather penetrate into the mirrors.mass and composition of ejecta and on the nature of the ambient medium (e.g type. Affect of Supernova emissions on Earth: Over all effect of a GRB on the Earth: We begin with depletion of Ozone which results from catalytic reactions with Nitrogen oxide compound NOY most importantly NO2 and NO. Just as CCD chip records visible light Photons the detector in Chandra has been designed to absorb and record X-rays Photons to produce an X-rays image. These compounds are created when Gamma-ray dissociate and ionize N2 in the Stratosphere which reacts rapidly with O 2 to form NO. Catalytic reactions then proceed to develop O3 through the cycle. Almost no Cosmic rays reach the ground but they do smash into gas atoms in the upper atmosphere and fragments of these collisions shower on us day and night our entire lives. A pulse of such neutrinos was detected in February 1987 when a Supernova SN 1987A below up in the large Magellanic cloud. 1) NO+O3 → NO2+O2 2) NO2+O → NO+O2 3) O3+O → O2+O2 . Some rays are emitted by the Sun.s atmosphere from space.t tell where they are coming from.rays: These Photons can be produced only by High-energy processes . Energetic particles: Cosmic rays are extremely energetic particles (85% Protons) traveling at nearly the speed of light that enter the Earth.t be sure where Cosmic rays come from. and if one happened to collide with an electron in our eye ball. Cosmic rays however are not really rays they are subatomic particles.So we see them coming from very hot region in stars and from violent events such as matter smashing into a Neutron star. the same tiny penetrating particles generated in the Sun as it converts Hydrogen into Helium. Radio Detection of Cosmic Rays:Air shower emit a coherent Radio pulse in the forward direction. A Supernova emits more than just visible light.g uniform Stellar wind). but most come from more distant sources perhaps exploding Supernovas. Chandra can detect X-ray emitting objects 50 times fainter than any previous X -ray telescope and can resolve details 10 times smaller.explosion. The X-ray emissions contains information on the Supernova (e. Just as Sun. The optics in Chandra are especially designed mirrors in which the Xray Photons graze the surface of the mirrors at very small angles. Under these circumstances the Photons are reflected to form an image. The dominant emission mechanism is the deflection of electrons and positrons in the shower by the geomagnetic field. it would have a tiny flash of light. We Neutrinos more than one trillion of them passed through us.

Cosmic rays.The atoms needed to build the rock of Planet and bones of living creatures were supplied to Interstellar gas from Supernova explosion.ll collapse down into a White Dwarf and slowly cool down to the background temperature of Universe. but they do smash into gas atoms in the upper atmosphere and fragments of these collisions shower down on us day and night our entire life. Then it. .s affect on Earth’s Upper Atmosphere : Cosmic rays from Supernova explosion do not reach the ground.NO2 is a brown gas.The Cosmic rays effect on terrestrial processes such as electrical phenomena lightning discharges cloud formation and cloud coverage. Gamma rays dissociate and ionize N2 in the Stratosphere which reacts rapidly with O2.s climate and the effects GCRs on human health. For a few million years it will expand into a red giant. Due the absorption of Supernova emissions in Interstellar cloud the Interstellar gas is thereby enriched in heavy element form new generations of Stars . The affect of Supernova Emissions on Planets and Stars: The explosion creates free neutrons that rapidly combine with atoms in the star to build up heavy and rare element such as Gold. The net result is NO2. NO 2 this may be significant for climate cooling since it would lead to reduction in melting of Polar ice during summer. The UVB flux enhances DNA demage especially in Simple life forms such as Phytoplankton. Affect of Neutrinos on Earth : Neutrinos are massless highly penetrating particles travelling at nearly speed of light comes to earth harm lessly and about 1 trillion of them passes through us every time. it too will reach the end of its life.All these observation are directly related to climate variation on short terms as well as long term. Affect of X-rays on Earth: Ozone and ordinary Oxygen in atmosphere block completely X-rays so Xrays do not reach the ground. Puffing away its outer layers.The destruction of Stratospheric Ozone depletion leads to an increase in Solar UVB radiation at the surface hence Solar UVB penetrate more effectively to the ground. This may lead to climate cooling due to decrease in surface heating. QN) what will be the Sun become after a Supernova explosion? Ans) Once our Sun has consumed all the Hydrogen fuel in its core. Astronomers estimate this to be 7 billion years from now.temperature variation space weather phenomena Earth.Platinum and Uranium. The primary effect is generation of Nitrogen Oxide compounds which deplete Ozone. This may lead to climate cooling due to decrease in Surface heating.


Bristol BS1 6NX. England 335 East 45th Street. ARNY AN INTRODUCTION TO ASTRONOMY Published by Mc Graw-Hill Mc Graw. Inc.New York. Inc. MOCHE Published by John Wiley & Sons.California A Division of Wadsworth.Inc. Redcliffe Way. HART MANN Wadsworth Publishing Company Belmont. Bristol 4) The Cosmic Voyage By WILLIAM K. USA Printed in Great Britain by JW Arrow Smith Ltd.References: Books: 1) EXPLORATIONS BY THOMAS T. NY 10017-3483.New york 3rd edition up dated 2004 2) Astronomy by DINAH L. Hoboken.New Jersey Printed in the United States of America Sixth Edition 2004 3) Astronomy Structure of The Universe by A.Hill Companies.E Roy(Third Edition) Published under the Adam Hilger Imprint by10p Publishing Ltd Techno House. Printed in the United States of America 1990 by Wadsworth Publishing Company 5) FOUNDATIONS OF ASTRONOMY Seventh Edition . 1221 Avenue of the Americas.

CA 93950 USA Research papers: 1) Cosmic rays Non relativistic Shocks of young Supernova remnants in Kinetic Simulation 2) Scholarly Articles for Quantification of Supernova Emission 3) New Journal of Physics (Gamma-ray bursts and terrestrial planetary atmosphere) 4) Gamma and Neutrino Radiation Dose from Gamma Ray bursts and Nearby Supernova 5) Toward a Comprehensive Global Electric Model . 6) Thermal X-Ray EMISSION and Cosmic -ray production in Young Supernova remnant 7) Analysis of blue -shifted emissions peaks in type11 Supernova 8) Fermi LAT Discovery of extended Gamma.A.ray emission in the Direction of Supernova remnants W51C .Atmospheric conductivity and its variability in CESMI (WACCM) Model Simulation.MICHAEL. SEEDS (2003) THOMSON BROOKS/ COLE-THOMSON Learning 511 Forest Lodge Road Pacific Grove.