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HUNGARY

ORIGO 14. TÉTEL:
 Magyarország természeti értékei
 tájak, egy-egy város leírása, turisztikai nevezetességek
 a főváros és/vagy szülővárosa legfontosabb nevezetességei
 hagyományos és nemzeti ünnepek
 szokások
 nemzetiségek Magyarországon, magyar nemzetiségek más
országokban
 kulturális értékeink
Hungary is situated in Central Europe at approximately an equal distance
from the Equator and the North Pole. The country occupies a territory of
about 93,000 square kilometres. Almost two thirds of this territory
consists of fertile plains no more than 200 metres above sea level.
Hungary is divided into the capital, 19 counties and 22 towns of county
rank. Our country can be divided into three large regions: Transdanubia,
the Great Plain and Northern Hungary. The Transdanubian part is mainly
hilly with the exception of the northern region, which is called the Small
Plain. The soil is exceptionally good there for crops and vegetables. A
similar area is the Great Plain, where most of Hungáry's crops are grown.
Northern Hungary is fairly mountainous and the country's highest peak
can also be found there. Hungary belongs to the drainage system of
Europe's second largest river, the Danube. The Tisza is another long river
and Lake Balaton is the second largest freshwater lake in Central and
Western Europe.
Hungary is in the temperate zone and has a continental climate. This
means that the weather is quite easily predictable and there are big
differences between the weather in the four seasons: spring, summer,
autumn and winter. Occupying a relatively flat area in the Carpathian
Basin, Hungary is protected from the extremes of weather by the
mountain ranges encompassing her from almost all sides. Her climate is
influenced by both moderate maritime and mild Mediterranean air
currents. Temperatures above 30°C may occur in July and August but
generally do not last long. January and February are the coldest months,
but even then the average temperature does not fall below minus 5°C.
Bad weather conditions usually mean that the crop will be of poor quality
or there will be no crop at all. Hail can damage the wheat or maize, whole

There are parliamentary elections every four years.Transdanubia: . People began to feel free as they realised that their minds were no longer manipulated centrally and they were allowed to join any political party or movement they sympathised with. In the parliamentary elections held in March and April 1990. But I think it’s not true. the Great Hungarian Plain . on the south by Serbia. and the leader of the winning party is asked by the president to form the government. part of the Finno-Ugric language family. The official language of Hungary is Hungarian. A lot of people think that Hungarian is a Slavonic language because we are surrounded by Slavic countries. Some of Historians think that the language of Hungarian is a Uralic language.Northern Hungary On the north Hungary is bordered by the Czech and Slovak Republic. but quite a few other languages are spoken as native languages by the several ethnic minorities living near the country's borders. It’s the official position. The supreme power is vested in the Parliament whose members are .Southern Transdanubia . but it doesn’t mean that we are a language family. The government consists of representatives of the parties that are in majority. The Hungarian Republic was proclaimed on 23rd October.Alföld. on the east Romania. the Little Hungarian .fields can dry up and fruit in the trees can refuse to ripen owing to long periods of drought. Hungary is a parliamentary republic.Central Transdanubia and Lake Balaton . I think that the Hungarian language is a unique which doesn’t belong to any family of languages. on the north-east by The Ukraine. the Hungarian Democratic Forum (MDF) formed a coalition government in May 1990. Soon afterwards the ruling (then the only) party split up and new parties were formed. The president of the most successful party. Croatia and Slovenia while on the west the country borders on Austria. We haven't had enough precipitation for the past few years so we have had to irrigate the fields to get a good yield. Regions . 1989.Western Hungary (Kisalföld. These are German and the Slavonic languages spoken in the countries around us. The president is elected by the parliament every five years. The Finns and the Hungarians perhaps lived together in our original homeland. six parties received enough votes to be represented in Parliament. This meant the end of a forty-year-long totalitarian system in Hungary and the pullout of the Soviet troops.

agriculture and housing construction. MPs. but she is still best known for her food processing industry. There is an important entrepreneurial business sector being encouraged by the government's economic policy. It is also difficult to put an end to inflation. rabbits and poultry. especially pigs. Due to the favourable weather conditions and the high productivity of agriculture we have a considerable amount of surplus crops such as wheat and maize. sometimes more days a week. These two parties are coalition and they govern the country. five parties have seats in the Hungarian Parliament. Their basic policies are difficult to identify. the KDNP and the Jobbik Movement are political right wing. The FIDESZ. which is encouraged in the country. These effects can be felt even today. the Parliament has been in session almost continually. . The ruling parties in Hungary today are right wing parties. Private economic activity is responsible for most of the output of service industries. unlike a few years ago when everything was accepted by a unanimous vote. Hungary exports pharmaceutical products. The opposition parties in Hungary today are social-liberal parties. As a result of the latest elections. They put emphasis on preserving the traditions. the Christian Democratic People's Party (KDNP). Their aim is to establish an efficient economy based on private property combined with a social security net. It is difficult to find a market for them anywhere but in the former socialist countries. Hungary was the first country in the region to switch to a market economy. In the last few years private shops and restaurants have expanded rapidly. Hundreds of thousands of Hungarians live below the poverty line as living standards are declining and unemployment is growing. Farmers are also active in animal husbandry. work three. But unfortunately. values and national consciousness of Hungarians at home and abroad. hot paprika and juicy apples. There are three opposition party in Hungarian parliament. The MSZP and LMP are the political left wing. These are the FIDESZ—Hungarian Civic Alliance (FIDESZ). In the agricultural sector. Hungary is in the forefront of change in Eastern Europe. the Jobbik Movement and the Politics Can Be Different (LMP). private business is gaining ground in the form of both small-and large-scale enterprises. in this period of transition the establishment of a free market economy is not without cost. Hungary is still unique in the Eastern World for the level of private economic activity. agricultural machinery and buses.elected for four years. A lot of Hungary's gross national product is generated through private economic activity and this ratio is still improving. The Hungarian Socialist Party (MSZP). private farms produce much of the country's fruit and vegetables. Since Hungary became a parliamentary democracy. There are constant debates and heated discussions whenever the government is trying to push a bill through. In industry.

cultures. who are autochthonous to their homeland. who demonstrate a sense of belonging together that is aimed at preserving all of these and at expressing and protecting the interests of their historical communities” (Act LXXVII of 1993 on the Rights of National and Ethnic Minorities. and generally they also constitute a minority within these settlements. Chapter 1. Armenian. Polish. it was during these centuries that the minorities living in Hungary moved into the territory of today’s country. Subsection are national and ethnic minorities recognised as constituent components of the state. Serb. Nowadays. Croatian. In the first one are those. who left Hungary at various times for example the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. 3. and traditions. whose members are Hungarian citizens. who represent a numerical minority in the country's population. especially to countries such as Germany or England although this has not been as drastic. This act defines the German. Slovak. There are two main groups of the diaspora. The other main group are the emigrants. with mass spontaneous migration or the organised resettlement of people in the 17-18th centuries. “All groups of people who have lived in the territory of the Republic of Hungary for at least one century. Bulgarian. Section 1. the real number of Roma in Hungary is a disputed . nonHungarian nationalities living within the borders of the country constituted more than 50 percent of the total population. Towards the end of the 19th century. There has been some emigration since Hungary joined the EU. Slovene and Ukrainian ethnic groups (listed in Hungarian alphabetical order) as national or ethnic minorities native to Hungary. With the exception of the Slovene population on the western border. Roma. The modern ethnic and linguistic composition of the country was basically established following the decimation and the movement of the population during the Ottoman occupation. This lengthy historical coexistence is an important criteria in the definition formulated in the Minority Act. Ruthenian.500 settlements.3 million Hungarians found themselves outside the new borders. who are distinguished from the rest of the population by their own languages. As a consequence. and live outside Hungary since the border changes of the post-World War I Treaty of Trianon of 1920. (The national and ethnic minorities in Hungary – Fact sheets on Hungary (No. The Roma minority and the illegal immigrants has caused the biggest source of problems in Hungary till today. A characteristic feature of the situation in Hungary is that the minorities live scattered geographical throughout the country in some 1. Greek. Romanian. (Demographics of Hungary – WIKI) The Romani people arrived in Hungary in the fifteenth century from Turkey. 3/2000)) Several national communities have lived in the territory of Hungary since the foundation of the state one thousand years ago.(Határon túli magyarok – WIKI) Hungarian diaspora is a term that encompasses the total ethnic Hungarian population located outside of current-day Hungary. The victorious forces redrew the borders of Hungary so that it runs through Hungarian majority areas.

In North of Pest. During the Austro-Hungarian Empire Újpest became one of the largest industrial centre of Hungary. I have lived here all my life. and internationally most prestigious firms.question. So it became important to build a new Danube port in Újpest. In 1835. Since then. this village was the largest in the country. primarily the textile and furniture industry. Richter s two chemical engineers. there was an empty site/tract of land that was owned by the Károlyi nobles. Nowadays they have bad chances for work because of their education. The History of Újpest: Isaac Löwy owned a shoe factory that he wanted to move to Pest but was unable to attain a settlement permit. and the right to engage in business. but only one third continue studies into the intermediate (secondary) level. The village’s industry began to develop rapidly.000 and 1. Káposztásmegyer. Löwy bought the land. Újpest was annexed by Budapest. Nowadays the biggest and the most famous companies are Tungsram and Chinoin. In 1910.000 Roma living in Hungary. it was the 4th biggest industrial centre of Hungary. oldest. Slightly more than 80% of Roma children complete primary education. the settlement reached village status. a 2006 estimate by Central European Management Intelligence claims that the proportion of the Roma population will double by 2050. In the 2001 census only 190 000 called themselves Roma. Újpest is the largest. Emil Wolf and György Kereszty. The deed included the right of religious freedom. Újpest. The district is composed of six parts. the right to self-government. he decided to create a new town where he would build the factory. This is far lower than the more than 90% proportion of children of nonRoma families who continue studies at an intermediate level. In 1870. At that time Újpest’s industry included the leather processing by Löwy family and the woodworking by Neuschloss family. I live in a detached house in the 4th district in the North of Budapest. (WIKIPEDIA) It is located on the left bank of the Danube River. . the light-source manufacturer Tungsram. General Electric acquired the majority of the share in one of Hungary's largest. Due to closeness of Pest the industry left it and settled in Újpest. By 1910. Most of the Roma people live in significantly worse conditions than others. By the 1840. but experts and Roma organisations estimate that there are between 450. Tungsram is a Hungarian manufacturer of light bulbs and vacuum tubes since 1896. left the company to establish their own business Chinoin Pharmaceutical Factory. but the district also includes Megyer. the size of the Roma population has increased rapidly. Based on current demographic trends. There are problems related to the Roma minority in Hungary. Istvántelek. I live in Budapest. putting the percentage of its Roma community at around 14-15% of the country's population. Today every fifth or sixth newborn child belongs to the Roma minority. Less than 1% of Roma hold higher educational certificates.000. In 1950. Székesdűlő and the northern tip of the island Népsziget. the capital city of Hungary.

on the hills of the Bükk Mountains. from east to west. The historical importance and the wine culture melted together over the centuries. dishes and red wines. built by the Ottomans during the occupation. nearby the regional medicinal springs. and historic buildings such as the northernmost Turkish minaret and the Castle of Eger. Egri Leányka and other distinguished quality wine from the region. Moreover. The city of Eger is rich in monuments and natural attractions. Additionally. relax on one of the numerous beaches of Lake Balaton. They can go for outings to the romantic 'Puszta'. between the Bükk and Mátra Mountains. It is reasonably considered as the baroque pearl of Hungary. which makes it 19th largest city in Hungary. The factory is called Sanofi nowadays. At the heart of the historic . Hungary also has various tourist attractions. (EKTF. Visitors can enjoy the wonderful sights of Budapest. Tourism also plays an important role in our economy as millions of tourists come to Hungary from year to year. thermal baths. The city remains a historic key in every-day common knowledge. the Great Hungarian Plain. and the second largest city after Miskolc in Northern Hungary. Eger also ranks in the top place in Hungary when it comes to the thermal bath culture it has to offer. the primary sight in the city is the middle age castle where the Turks were defeated. the town is also the cultural.HU weblap alapján) Eger is the most outstanding touristic centre of the Eastern region.It became one of the most famous drug factories in Hungary. the Carpathian Basin is at a crossroads for the traveller from north to south. go and see the lovely Hungarian villages where traditions of folk art are preserved and treasured or visit some of the smaller but beautiful towns like Veszprém. The city is located on the Eger Stream. we have to mention the Minaret with its 40 m and 93 stairs is the oldest Turkish European monument located in the East. Among all. The world famous vine producing region developed alongside the slope of the South-West part of the Bükk Mountains. Eger is the county seat of Heves. I went to the College of Eszterházy Károly in Eger so I knew this city very well and I liked it. I think one reason for so many tourists coming to our country is the hospitality of the Hungarians. Its pools are regularly visited by foreign and local tourists. Our winemakers are proud of their traditional varieties work such as the Egri Bikavér. primarily because the town was the scene of the honourable battle with the Turks in 1552. Eger or Szentendre. symbolizing national heroism and patriotism. One of the country's most beautiful indoor swimming pool (Aladár Bicskey pool) designed by Imre Makovecz is also located in Eger. but patients in need of locomotion organ rehabilitation can easily find cure here. Kőszeg. It is best known for its castle. educational as well as parochial center of Eastern Hungary. It has an estimated population of 56000 as of 2011. Besides. where they can see the famous Hungarian stud farms.

Széchenyi Street has its own vibe. which says: To God. The biggest lake is Lake Balaton with a surface of 595 sq km. the Archidiocesan Library. Its fall is steeper and its flow is faster upstream in Germany and Austria and as soon as it enters Hungary. In the tower of the Lyceum. The average width of Danube is 400 m. the land is almost level and the river's flow slows down. commissioned by Count Bishop Károly Eszterházy of Eger has been dedicated to higher education purposes since 1774. The institution was transferred to the Lyceum Building in 1852 where complemented by a demonstration elementary school functioned as an Archdiocesan Teachers' Training College until 1948. one of the most stunning baroque church of Central Europe. Hungary's two great rivers are the Danube and the Tisza.014 m. This lake is exceptionally shallow with the average depth of 90 cm and this is the reason why it is threatened by slow drying. The Cathedral's organ is the biggest one in the country. nothing is enough for'. bars and confectionaries are awaiting for their guests. aiming not primarily at the training of primary school teachers (schoolmasters).city. It is the largest lake in Central Europe and the third largest lake on the Continent. Lyceum is the centre of Eszterházy Károly College. The strong link between tourism and culture resulted numerous yearly touristic events and festivals. the 'Spekula Observer'. The building was constructed in 1758 and speaks for itself via the carved line on the particularly exquisite bosses locking the vault. to what our biggest hotel offers numerous conference rooms. the late baroque style Lyceum shall be visited with one of the most outstanding libraries in Hungary. Facing the Cathedral. In 1828 Bishop László János Pyrker established the first Pedagogical College offering instruction in Hungarian. The Hungarian section of the Tisza is 530 km long. The present area of Lake Velence is about 26 sq km. 87 sq km of the 335 sq km Lake Fertő is in Hungary. the Ratio Educationis issued in 1777 hindered the education promotion efforts. The walking street. Conference tourism also receives a prior role in Eger's touristic life. the first Hungarian Astronomy Museum is operating. The nicest ornament of Eszterházy square is the classicist archbishop cathedral. The highest point in Hungary is Kékestető in the Mátra Hills and its height is 1. the second biggest church in the country. on Dobó square. the Padau Saint Antal church is located. While the Lyceum building complex. This place is one of the most popular tourist centres in Hungary. 'I have to go to Eger! Since my heart cannot surmount this much sweet temptation' – wrote Sándor Petőfi in his poem'. Restaurants. The Hungarian section of the Danube is 416 km long. Hungary has a lively cultural life. The most popular cultural events attended by a lot of tourists seem to be the open-air summer festivals . but preparing students for the pedagogical profession.

In Hungary the most popular musical festivals are Sziget in Budapest. open-air theatres and museums are also visited by a lot of tourists who are genuinely interested in the cultural life of the country. the Opera House. The later centuries. István Tarlós was elected the Mayor of Budapest. silver. Mother’s Day (first Sunday in May). graduation day. Christmas Eve (24 th December). The Boxing Day (26 th December). golden. especially the nineteenth century saw the flourishing of Pest lying on the other side of the River Danube. the Volt festival in Sopron and the Balaton Sound in Zamárdi. On this day we commemorate the founding of our state almost a thousand years ago. Good Friday (Friday before Easter Sunday). works of art and natural beauties. concert halls. On October 23rd we celebrate the declaration of the Hungarian Republic and commemorate the revolution of 1956. commercial. because this is the best point from . FAMILY CELEBRATIONS IN HUNGARY: We celebrate our birthday. New Year’s Day (1 st January). TRADITIONAL AND NATIONAL HOLIDAYS: On March 15th we commemorate the Hungarian Revolution and War of Independence of 1848-49. August 20th is the day of king Stephen I. This day is Labor Day in EU and Hungary. industrial. Valentine’s Day (14 th February). Easter Monday. Christmas Day (25 th December). It is the country's principal political. (WIKIPEDIA – Budapest) Budapest is the capital and the largest city of Hungary and one of the largest cities in the European Union. Real urbanisation began in the fifteenth century when under the rule of Sigismund of Luxemburg the royal castle on the Buda hills was built. cultural. To introduce Budapest to a tourist from abroad I would tell him some historical and geographical data about the Hungarian capital. that is the 'city of waters' because there were and still there are a lot of hot water springs and medicinal baths in this region. and transportation centre. the Day of the Dead (early in November). I think I would start the tour of Budapest by taking the tourist up to the Gellért Hill. wedding anniversary. Besides. Today Budapest is a busy metropolis with a population of 2 million people.held in different towns. 2000 years ago the Romans called this settlement Aquincum. The city is extremely rich in historical and cultural monuments. Easter Sunday. the Sopron Festival Weeks. a new-born baby’s christening. name-day. such as the Szeged Open-air Festival. May 1st is a spring holiday when maypoles are put up in gardens. Apart from festivals. diamond jubilee. Pentecost. the Szentendre Summer or the Veszprém Castle Concerts while in spring the greatest event is the Budapest Spring Festival. New Year’s Eve (31st December). Budapest has improved day by day since 2010.

It was erected in 1896 to commemorate the 1000th anniversary of the founding of Hungary. There is also a fortress on the top of the hill called the Citadel. Then I would take the visitor to the centre of Buda where we can find the Castle Hill. the Trinity Square. Margaret. The island was named after the pious Princess Margaret. the National Sport Swimming Pool. In its central square. -It is also called the Coronation Church and several kings of Hungary were buried here. The most popular park for the people living in Budapest is the beautiful Margaret Island. . the Grand Hotel. On its top the Royal Castle District was built. On the tall column stands the figure of an angel bearing the ancient emblem of Hungary and its base is surrounded by bronze horsemen representing the Magyar chieftains who led their tribes to this land. and that of Janos Hunyadi. who came to Hungary in the eleventh century to convert the inhabitants to Christianity. stands the famous Matthias Church.. One of the best-known monuments in Pest is the one in Heroes' Square. Next to the church we can see the bronze statue of King Stephen I. such as the Open-air Theatre of the State Opera House. who founded a Dominican convent on the island. which is right in the middle of the Danube. His daughter. Standing high above the city on the highest point of the hill is the Statue of Liberty. Today a lot of different establishments provide recreation facilities for the inhabitants of the capital. which was built in 1851. daughter of King Béla IV. lived there. or the Palatinus Medicinal and Open-air Baths. His statue stands on the very spot from where the pagans threw him into the Danube.which to see the panorama of the city. from which there is a magnificent view of the Danube with the Houses of Parliament on the opposite bank. Behind the church the Fishermen's Bastion can be found. It was built in the thirteenth century in Gothic style so it is more than 700 years old. The hill was named after a Venetian bishop.