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Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003

)
SE Civil-2012 Course

Experiment No. ___

Date:

Name of Experiment:Determination of Specific Gravity of Fine Grained Soils

Aim:To determine the specific gravity of fine-grained soil by density bottle method as per IS: 2720 (Part
III/Sec 1) - 1980.

Scope:This experiment lays down the methods of test for the determination of the, specific gravity of soil
particle of fine grained soils. The method may also be used for medium and coarse grained soils if the coarse
particles are grained to pass 4.75 mm sieve before using.

Principle:Specific gravity is the ratio of the weight in air of a given volume of a material at a standard
temperature to the weight in air of an equal volume of distilled water at the same stated temperature.

Apparatus:
a. Two density bottles of approximately 50ml capacity alongwith stoppers,
b. Constant temperature water bath (27 +0.20C),
c. Oven, capable of maintaining a temperature of 105 to 1100C,
d. Weighing balance, with an accuracy of 0.001g,
e. Wash Bottle
f.

Spatula

Sample Preparation:The soil sample (50g) should, if necessary, be ground to pass through a 2 mm IS Sieve. A
5 to 10g sub-sample should be obtained by riffling and oven-dried at a temperature of 105 to 1100C.

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Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003)
SE Civil-2012 Course

Procedure:
a. The density bottle along with the stopper, should be dried at a temperature of 105 to 1100C, cooled
and weighed to the nearest 0.001g (m1).
b. The sub-sample, which had been oven-dried, should be transferred to the density bottle directly. The
bottles and contents together with the stopper should be weighed to the nearest 0.001g (m2).
c. Cover the soil with air-free distilled water from the wash bottle and leave for a period of 2 to 3hrs for
soaking. Add water to fill the bottle to about half.
d. Entrapped air can be removed by heating the density bottle on a water bath until there is no further
loss of air.
e. Gently stir the soil in the density bottle and see that no soil particles are lost.
f.

Repeat the process till no more air bubbles are observed in the soil-water mixture.

g. Observe the constant temperature in the bottle and record.
h. Insert the stopper in the density bottle, wipe and weigh (m3).
i.

Now empty the bottle, clean thoroughly and fill the density bottle with distilled water at the same
temperature. Insert the stopper in the bottle, wipe dry from the outside and weigh (m4).

j.

Take at least two such observations for the same soil sample.

Observations and Calculations:

Sr.
No.

Description

1.

Weight of density bottle (m1) (gm)

2.

Weight of bottle and dry soil (m2) (gm)

3.

Weight of bottle, dry soil and Water (m3) (gm)

4.

Weight of bottle and Water (m4) (gm)

Sample – 1

Sample – 2

Sample – 3

5.
6.

Average Specific Gravity

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Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003)
SE Civil-2012 Course

Reporting of Result:
a. The average of the values obtained shall be taken as the specific gravity of the soil particles and shall be
reported to the nearest 0.01. If the two results differ by more than 0.03 the teats shall be repeated.
b. The specific gravity should be calculated at a temperature of 270C. If the room temperature is different
from 270C, the following correction should be done:G' = k * G
Where,
G' = Corrected specific gravity at 270C,

Specific gravity of the given soil sample at a temperature of 270C =

Relative density of water at various temperatures, as given below, can be used in the above calculation:

Result: Specific Gravity of given Soil sample is ……..

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Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003)
SE Civil-2012 Course

Experiment No. ___

Date:

Name of Experiment:Sieve analysis, particle size determination and IS classification as per ISCodes.

Aim:To determine the quantitative determination of grain size distribution in soils by sieve analysis as per IS:
2720 (Part 4) - 1985.

Scope:Thisexperiment lays down the methods of test for the determination of thegrain size distribution in
soil passing 4.75mm IS sieve and retained on 75-micron IS sieve. Two methods are given for finding the
distribution of grain sizes larger than 75-micron IS Sieve; the first method, wet sieving shall be applicable to
all soils and the second, dry sieving, shall be applicable only to soils which do not have an appreciable
amount of clay. Current experiment details the dry sieving method.

Apparatus:
a. A set of IS Sieves of sizes - 20mm, 10mm, 4.75mm, 2mm, 600μm, 425μm, 212μm and 75μm
b. Weighing balance, with an accuracy of 0.001 gm.
c. Hot air oven
d. Mechanical sieve shaker
LID

4.75 mm
2.36 mm
2.00 mm
1.70 mm
600
425
300
150
75
PAN

SIEVE SHAKER

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Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003)
SE Civil-2012 Course

Principle:This method covers the quantitative determination of particle size distribution in an essentially
cohesionless soil, down to fine sand size. The combined silt clay can be obtained by difference. If the soil
does not contain particles retained on a 2 mm test sieve in significant quantity, thehydrometer method shall
be used.

Sample Preparation:
a. Soil sample, as received from the field, should be dried in air or in the sun. In wet weather, oven may
be used in which case the temperature of the sample should not exceed 600C. The clod may be
broken with wooden mallet to hasten drying. Tree roots and pieces of bark should be removed from
the sample.
b. The big clods may be broken with the help of wooden mallet. Care should be taken not to break the
individual soil particles.
c. A representative soil sample of required quantity as given below is taken and dried in the oven at
105 to 1200C.
Maximum size of material present
in substantial quantities (mm)
75
40
25
19
12.5
10
6.5
4.75

Weight to be taken for
test (kg)
60
25
13
6.5
3.5
1.5
0.75
0.4

Procedure:
a. The soil fractions retained on and passing 4.75-mm IS Sieve shall be taken separately for the analysis.
b. The portion of the soil sample retained on 4.75-mm IS Sieve shall be weighed and the mass shall be
recorded.
c. The sample shall be separated into various fractions by sieving through the Indian Standard Sieves as
specified in the figure.
d. While sieving through each sieve, the sieve shall be agitated so that the sample rolls in irregular
motion over the sieve. Any particles may be tested to see if they will fall through but they shall not
be pushed through.
e. Soil retained on each sieve is weighed.

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Weight of total Soil sample taken for analysis: …………… gm Sr.300 8. Sieve Size(A) Weight Retained(B) Cumulative Weight(C) (mm) (gm) (gm) 1.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course Observations: After completing mechanical analysis. 4.600 6. 0. 0. 1. all the observations shall be recorded in the tabular as given below to calculate percentage smaller than the specified diameter.150 9.36 3. 0. 2. calculate following: D10 = 10 percent finer than size = ………… D30 = 30 percent finer than size = ………… D60 = 60 percent finer than size = ………… Cu = Cc = Page 6 of 58 . 0. 2.00 4.70 5. 0. No. plotting particle size (sieve diameter) on the log scale (X-axis) against percentage finer than the corresponding size (% weight passing) on the ordinary scale (Y-axis).75 2.075 % Weight retained(D) % Weight passing(100D) Reporting of Result: A grain size distribution curve shall be drawn on a semi-logarithmic chart. IS Classification of the soilsample: Based on the grain size distribution curve plotted on a semi-logarithmic chart.425 7.

Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course As per IS 1498.36mm sieve: If 5% and less is passing through 75µ sieve If Cu>=6 AND Cc<=3 Then soil can be classified as ‘SW’ If Cu<6 OR Cc>3 Then soil can be classified as ‘SP’ If 5% to 12% is passing through 75µ sieve Then use dual symbols If 12% and more is passing through 75µ sieve Then Conduct Limit tests and then classify Result:IS Classification of given Soil sample is ……. following procedure shall be adopted for classification of given sample based on grain size distribution curve: If more than 50% sample retained on 2. Page 7 of 58 ..36mmIS sieve: If 5% and less is passing through 75µ sieve If Cu>=4 AND Cc<=3 Then soil can be classified as ‘GW’ If Cu<7 OR Cc>3 Then soil can be classified as ‘GP’ If 5% to 12%is passing through 75µ sieve Then use dual symbols If 12% and more is passing through 75µ sieve Then Conduct Limit tests and then classify If more than 50% sample passing through 2.

Variations in the moisture content in a soil may have significant effect on its shear strength. Scope: Thisexperiment lays down the methods of test for the determination of Consistency limits of fine grained cohesive soil. mentioned that a fine grained soil can exist in four states.1985. especially on fine-grained soils. Consistency of a soil is indicated by terms as soft. ___ Date: Name of Experiment:Determination of Consistency limits and their use in soil classification as per IS Codes Aim: To determine the Consistency limits of fine grained soils as per IS: 2720 (Part 5) . It is used to denote the degree of firmness of a soil. Soil consistency provides a means of describing the degree and kind of cohesion and adhesion between the soil particles as related to the resistance of the soil to deform. viz. Atterberg. Page 8 of 58 . The water contents at which the soil changes from one state to the other are known as ‘Consistency limits’ or ‘Atterberg’s Limits’. firm or hard.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course Experiment No. a Swedish engineer. plastic. Theory and Principle: The consistency of a fine grained soil is the physical state in which it exists. semi-solid or solid state. liquid. In 1911.

01g accuracy g. As the water content is reduced. The water content at which the soil changes from liquid state to plastic state is known as ‘Liquid Limit’. with 0. At some particular water content. In other words. Apparatus: a. Casagrande’s liquid limit device b. therefore. Liquid Limit: A soil containing high water content is in a liquid state. the soil becomes stiffer and starts developing resistance to shear deformation. It offers no shearing resistance and can flow like liquids. Hot air Oven d. Air-tight and non-corrodible container for determination of moisture content Casagrande Grooving Tool ASTM Grooving Tool Page 9 of 58 . the soil becomes plastic. Spatula e. the liquid limit is the water content at which the soil ceases to be liquid. Grooving tools of both standard and ASTM types c. the shear strength is equal to zero. It has no resistance to shear deformation and. IS Sieve of size 425μm f. Weighing balance.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course A.

Page 10 of 58 . Don’t mix dry soil to change its consistency. holding the tool perpendicular to the cup. About 100g of the specimen passing through 425μm IS Sieve is mixed thoroughly with distilled water in the evaporating dish and left for 24hrs for soaking. b. 13. Level the mix so as to have a maximum depth of 1cm.6mm wide at the top and 10mm deep. the handle is rotated at the rate of about 2 revolutions per second and the no. By altering the water content of the soil and repeating the foregoing operations.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course Sample Preparation: a. Repeat the test. etc. k. Procedure: a. with no. i. of blows counted. Liquid limit is determined by plotting a ‘flow curve’ on a semi-log graph. Remove the organic matter like tree roots. For normal fine grained soil: The Casagrande's tool is used to cut a groove 2mm wide at the bottom. Take about 10g of soil near the closed groove and determine its water content. obtain at least 5 readings in the range of 15 to 35 blows. e. pieces of bark. For sandy soil: The ASTM tool is used to cut a groove 2mm wide at the bottom. of blows as abscissa (log scale) and the water content as ordinate and drawing the best straight line through the plotted points. g. The soil of the cup is transferred to the soil paste and mixed thoroughly after adding a little more water. h. Place a portion of the paste in the cup of the liquid limit device. is the value of the liquid limit. till the two parts of the soil sample come into contact for about 10mm length. b. Air-dry the soil sample and break the clods. After the soil pat has been cut by a proper grooving tool. d. Water content corresponding to 25 blows. c. f. Draw the grooving tool through the sample along the symmetrical axis of the cup. 11mm wide at the top and 8mm deep. j.

. Mass of empty dish + wet soil (m2) (gm) 5. Mass of dry soil = (m3 – m1) 8. No.%. Water Content Dish No. of Blows (N) 2. Descriptions 1 2 3 4 5 Observations 1. Mass of empty dish (m1) (gm) 4. Sr. Mass of water = (m2 – m3) 7. Page 11 of 58 . No. Draw a flow curve on a semi-log paper between log (N) on X-axis and water content on Y-axis.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course Observations: Sample No. 3. Water Content. Mass of empty dish + dry soil (m3) (gm) Calculations 6. Result:Liquid Limit (for N=25) of given Soil sample is …….

Take about 8gm of the soil and roll it with fingers on a glass plate.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course B.3mm dia. It begins to crumble when rolled into threads of 3mm diameter. it means that the water content is more than its plastic limit. Plastic Limit: The plastic limit of fine-grained soil is the water content of the soil below which it ceases to be plastic. b. Ground glass plate .20cm x 15cm f. Hot air Oven e. Mix the soil with distilled water in an evaporating dish and leave the soil mass for nurturing.01g d. without any cracks appearing. Apparatus: a. Balance. The rate of rolling should be between 80 to 90 strokes per minute to form a 3mm dia. Knead the soil to reduce the water content and roll it into a thread again. and about 10cm long Sample preparation: Take out 30g of air-dried soil from a thoroughly mixed sample of the soil passing through 425μm IS Sieve. of the threads can be reduced to less than 3mm. This period may be up to 24hrs. Rod . Repeat the process of alternate rolling and kneading until the thread crumbles. with an accuracy of 0. Container to determine moisture content c. Procedure: a. Spatula b. If the dia. c. Page 12 of 58 .

%. Mass of dry soil = (m3 – m1) 7. Mass of empty dish + dry soil (m3) (gm) Calculations 5. No. Sr. 2. Descriptions 1 2 3 4 5 Observations 1. Mass of empty dish (m1) (gm) 3. Repeat the process at least twice more with fresh samples of plastic soil each time. Mass of water = (m2 – m3) 6.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course d. 8. Collect and keep the pieces of crumbled soil thread in the container used to determine the moisture content.. Observations: Sample No. Water Content. Plasticity Index = (Liquid Limit) – (Plastic Limit) Plasticity Index (PI) = ………. Mass of empty dish + wet soil (m2) (gm) 4. Average % water content Result:Plastic Limit of given Soil sample is ……. Water Content Dish No. % IS Classification: The fine-grained soils shall be further divided into three subdivisions on the basis of the following arbitrarily selected values of liquid limit: Page 13 of 58 . e.

Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course a. Page 14 of 58 . b. The laboratoryclassification criteria for classifying the fine-grained soils are given in the plasticity chart as given below: Result:IS Classification of given Soil sample is …….. Silts and clays of high compressibility — having a liquid limit greater than 50. c. Silts and clays of medium compressibility — having a liquid limit greater than 35 and less than 50. Silts and clays of low compressibility — having a liquid limit less than 35.

Measuring cylinder. Prong plate. Spatula. Shrinkage dish. A Page 15 of 58 . and material for the test could therefore conveniently be prepared as part of the Liquid Limit test.01 gm j. sufficient to fill the glass cup to overflowing.Otherwise a 150 g sample should be prepared in the same way as specified for the Liquid Limit test.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course C. i.1 g and 0. g. Such a value is also relevant to the converse condition of expansion due to wetting. f. b. originally having the moisture content of the Liquid Limit.Linear Shrinkage method covers the determination of the total linear shrinkage from linear measurements on a soil sample passing a 425 m test sieve. Hot air Oven h. 425-micron IS Sieves. d. Shrinkage Limit: Shrinkage due to drying is significant in clays. glass cup. but less significant in silts and sands. Sample Preparation:This test commonly is performed as a continuance of the Liquid Limit and Plastic Limit tests. Balances — sensitive to 0. Mercury — clean. the soil will continue to decrease in volume. c. Apparatus: a. e. Plain plate. If the drying process is prolonged after the plastic limit has been reached. which is also relevant to the converse condition of expansion due to wetting. Straight edge. The Linear Shrinkage value is a way of quantifying the amount of shrinkage likely to be experienced by clayey material.

k. h.6). weigh the shrinkage dish with dry pat to find the dry mass of soil (m2). Press prong plate on the top of cup firmly allowing spilling of mercury in the evaporating dish. e. 13. g. Dry the soil in shrinkage dish in air till the color of the pat turns from dark to light. d. f. n. j. Remove excess mercury by pressing the plain glass plate over the top of shrinkage dish. Tap the shrinkage dish on a firm surface and allow the paste to flow to the edges. Place the soil specimen in the center of the shrinkage dish equal to one third the volume of the shrinkage dish. Take out the dry pat of the soil from shrinkage dish and immerse in the glass cup full mercury.01gm. m. Page 16 of 58 . The volume of the dry pat (V2) is equal to the mass of the mercury divided by the specific gravity of the mercury. Repeat the above test procedure for atleast 3 samples. Determine the mass of mercury to an accuracy of 0. Remove the glass cup with full of mercury and place it in another evaporating dish with spilling any mercury from the glass cup. c. The volume of shrinkage dish (V1) is equal to the mass of mercury in grams divided by the specific gravity of mercury (i.e. o. Clean it and determine its mass. Procedure: a. Remove excess mercury by pressing prong plate over the top of glass cup. Take the shrinkage dish. After cooling the dry pat. Repeat the process till getting full level of shrinkage dish. Transfer the mercury from shrinkage dish to mercury weighing dish and determine the mass of the mercury to an accuracy of 0. l.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course sample of material passing through a 425-micron sieve shall be thoroughly mixed with distilled water until the mass becomes a smooth homogeneous paste with moisture content at about the Liquid Limit of the soil. b. Wipe off all soil adhering to the outside of the shrinkage dish. Place a glass cup in an evaporating dish and fill it with mercury. Coat the inside of the shrinkage dish with wax or grease or Vaseline. i. Collect the mercury displaced by dry pat in mercury weighing dish. Determine the mass of wet soil (m1). Fill mercury in the shrinkage dish. Then dry the pat in the oven at 105 – 1100C to constant mass.01gm.

Mass of Dry soil (Ms) = (8 – 5) 10. Shrinkage Ratio. Mass of empty mercury dish + Mercury equal to volume of Dry pat (gm) 11. Sr. No. 14. Mass of Empty shrinkage dish + Wet soil (gm) 7.1) 12.%. Mass of Empty shrinkage dish + Dry soil (gm) 9. Page 17 of 58 . Volumetric Shrinkage. Mass of empty mercury dish + Mercuryequal to volume of shrinkage dish (gm) 3. Calculations 13. Descriptions 1 2 3 Observations 1. 15. 5. Mass of Empty shrinkage dish (gm) 6. Shrinkage limit. Result:Average Shrinkage Limit of given Soil sample is ……. Mass of Wet soil (M1) = (6-5) 8. Mass of empty mercury dish (gm) 2. Mass of Mercury displaced by Dry pat (gm) = (10 . Mass of Mercury (gm) = (2-1) 4.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course Observations: Sample No. Volume of Dry pat.. Volume of Shrinkage dish.

___ Date: Name of Experiment:Determination of Field Density Aim: To determine the in-situ dry density of soil by various methods (i) core cutter method and (ii) Sand replacement method as per IS: 2720 (Part XXIX . So it is required to report the test result in terms of dry density. Sand Replacement method covers the determination of the dry density of natural or compacted fine. w = Water Content Page 18 of 58 . Field Density by core cutter method covers the method for the determination of the in-place density of fine-grained natural or compacted soils free from aggregates using a core-cutter. For the purpose of the test. where compaction is required. for the determination of pressures on underlying strata for the calculation of settlement and the design of underground structures.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course Experiment No. particularly when they are wet.1975 and Part XXVIII – 1974).75mm IS Sieve.These errors are caused by the slumping of the sides of the excavated density hole and always result in an over-estimation of the density. there is a danger of errors in the measurement of dry density by this method. in the cases like embankment and pavement construction.and medium-grained soils for which a small sand pouring cylinder is used. In such situation. Theory:The in situ density of natural soil is needed for the determination of bearing capacity of soils. the sand replacement method is employed to determine the dry density. a soil shall be termed as fine-grained soil if not less than 90 percent passes through 4. The relationship that can be established between the dry density with known moisture content is as follows: Where. The moisture content is likely to vary from time to time and hence the field density also. it is possible to determine the field density of the soil. d = Dry Density. Determination of field density of cohesionless soil is not possible by core cutter method. By conducting field density test by either method. for the purpose of stability analysis of slopes. The method is applicable to layers not exceeding 150 mm in thickness. With granular material having little or no cohesion. because it is not possible to obtain a core sample. It is very quality control test. b = Bulk Density. Scope: Experiment viz.

including unit weights. Determine the internal diameter and height of the core cutter to the nearest 0.25mm. Apparatus: a. Expose a small area of the soil to be tested. Steel dolley d. Spade or pickaxe g. Field Density by Core Cutter Method Core cutter method of determining the field density of soil is only suitable for fine grained soil (Silts and clay). Steel rule f.01gm. about 300mm2 in area. Cylindrical core cutter b. Determine the mass (M1) of the cutter to the nearest 0. Page 19 of 58 . Level the surface. Straight edge h. Knife Procedure: a. b. cannot be maintained in a core sample. This is because collection of undisturbed soil sample from a coarse grained soil is difficult and hence the field properties. Steel rammer c. c. Balance e.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course A.

Dry Density of soil (gm/cm3) 8.. g. Observations: Sr. Determination of Water Content: a. Bulk Density of soil (gm/cm3) 7. Determine the water content. Volume of Core Cutter (mm3). Weight of Container + Wet Soil (gm) (W2) d. b. Weight of Core Cutter + Field Soil (gm) (M2) 6. Sample No.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course d. Remove the soil surrounding the core cutter. f. Page 20 of 58 . h. Average Dry Density (gm/cm3) 2 3 Result:Average Field Dry Density of Soil is ……. Water Content Container No. Weight of Core Cutter (gm) (M1) 5. Trim the tip and bottom surface of the core cutter carefully using a straight edge. 4. Weight of Container + Dry Soil (gm) (W3) e. Internal Diameter of Core Cutter (d) (mm) 2. Place the dolley over the top of the core cutter and press the core cutter into the soil mass using the rammer. i. Remove the core of the soil from the cutter. Weight of Container (gm) (W1) c. e. and take out the core cutter. Take a representative sample for the water content determination. Weigh the core cutter filled with the soil to the nearest gram (M2). Moisture Content. Internal Height of Core Cutter (h) (mm) 3. No. Stop the pressing when about 15mm of the dolley protrudes above the soil surface.gm/cm3. Remove the dolley. Soil would project from the lower end of the cutter. f. Description 1 1.

Scraper tool Procedure: a. Weighing balance. Sand pouring cylinder b. h) of the calibrating can and compute its internal volume. Moisture content bins g. Calibrating can c. ii. d and height. Fill the sand pouring cylinder with sand with 10mm top clearance (to avoid any spillover during operation) and find its weight (W1). Field Density by Sand Replacement Method The basic principle of sand replacement method is to measure the in-situ volume of hole from which the material was excavated from the weight of sand with known density filling in the hole. Metal tray with a central hole d. The in-situ density of material is given by the weight of the excavated material divided by the in-situ volume.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course B. Page 21 of 58 .01gm f. Apparatus: a. V = πd2h/4. Glass plate h. Calibration of the Cylinder i. Measure the internal dimensions (diameter. with an accuracy of 0. Metal tray i. Standard sand (passing through 600 micron sieve) e.

through the hole in the plate. Find the weight of the sand pouring cylinder with the remaining sand (W4). Open the slit to allow the sand to run down until the sand flow stops by itself. When there is no further downward movement of sand in the sand pouring cylinder.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course iii. x. Place the sand pouring cylinder on a glass plate. This operation will fill the calibrating can and the conical portion of the sand pouring cylinder. before placing the sand pouring cylinder over the pit. Care should be taken in excavating the pit. iv. The sand will freely run down till it fills the conical portion. Determine the moisture content of the excavated soil. till there is no downward movement of sand level in the sand pouring cylinder and then close the slit. ix. Excavate a pit into the ground. Page 22 of 58 . No loose material should be left in the pit. xi. open the slit above the cone by operating the valve and allow the sand to run down. Now close the slit and find the weight of the sand pouring cylinder with the remaining sand (W3). Find the weight of the sand pouring cylinder along with the sand remaining after filling the cone (W2) v. If for any reason it is necessary to excavate the pit to a depth other than 12 cm. v. The hole in the tray will guide the diameter of the pit to be made in the ground. vi. iii. vii. Place the sand pouring cylinder concentrically on top of the calibrating can. the standard calibrating can should be replaced by one with an internal height same as the depth of pit to be made in the ground. over the pit so that the base of the cylinder covers the pit concentrically. Measurement of Soil Density i. Place the tray with a central hole over the portion of the soil to be tested. It should not be forgotten to remove the tray. iv. close the slit. ii. as this will result in lower density being recorded. Place the sand pouring cylinder. approximately 12 cm deep (same as the height of the calibrating can). b. so that it is not enlarged by levering. with sand having the latest weight of W3. viii. Collect the excavated soil into the tray and weigh the soil (W). Clean and level the ground surface where the field density is to be determined. Open the slit of the sand pouring cylinder and allow the sand to run into the pit freely.

. W3 (gm) (After filling calibrating can). Weight of Container + Dry Soil (gm) (M3) 21. Dry unit weight of the soil γdry=γwet/(1+w) (gm/cm3) Result:Average Field Dry Density of Soil is ……. Unit weight of sand. Description Trial No. Weight of sand pouring cylinder. 6. Weight of sand pouring cylinder + sand. Weight of sand in the pit Wp = (W3-W4)-Wc (gm) 14. Volume of calibrating container (cm3). W2 (gm) (After filling conical portion on a flat surface). 4. Weight of sand required to fill cone & can Wcc=W2-W3 (gm) 9. Wet unit weight of the soil γwet=W/Vp (gm/cm3) Determination of Water Content 17. Weight of sand required to fill cone. Water Content Container No. Weight of sand pouring cylinder + sand.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course Observations: Sr. 18. Page 23 of 58 . Internal Height of calibrating container (h) (cm) 3. W4 (gm) (After filling the hole & conical portion) 12. Weight of Container + Wet Soil (gm) (M2) 20. Weight of Container (gm) (M1) 19. Weight of sand pouring cylinder + sand. 7. Weight of the excavated soil from the pit (W) (gm) 16. Volume of sand required to fill the pit Vp=Wp/γsand (cm3) 15. 1 2 Calibration of the Cylinder 1. Weight of sand in the hole and cone (W3-W4) (gm) 13. Moisture Content. Wc = W1-W2 (gm) 8. W1 (gm) 5. Internal Diameter of calibrating container (d) (cm) 2. Weight of sand in calibrating can = Wcc-Wc (gm) 10. γsand = (Wcc-Wc)/V (gm/cm3) Determination of Field Density of Soil 11. No. 22.gm/cm3.

L = Length of specimen. A = Cross sectional area Page 24 of 58 . the head causing flow through the specimen remains constant throughout the test. Scope: The knowledge of coefficient of permeability is much useful in solving problems involving yield of water bearing strata. In the constant head permeameter. q = Discharge. Aim: To determine the coefficient of permeability of a soil using constant head method and variable head method. and embankments of canal bank affected by seepage. The permeability is the ease with which water can easily flow through soil medium. A soil is termed impervious when the permeability is extremely low. seepage through earthen dams.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course Experiment No. settlement etc. the permeability is very low and water cannot easily flow through it. The coefficient of permeability (k) is obtained from the relation: Where. as all the soils are pervious to some degree. This experiment covers the methods for laboratory determination of coefficient of permeability of soils using falling head and the constant head methods as per the procedure mentioned in IS 2720-Part XVII. Q = Total volume of water. Theory:The rate of flow under laminar flow conditions through a unit cross sectional area of soil medium under unit hydraulic gradient is defined as coefficient of permeability. t = Time period. However. ___ Date: Name of Experiment: Determination of coefficient of permeability. such completely impervious soils do not exist in nature. A soil is highly pervious when water can flow through it easily. stability of earthen dams. A completely impervious soil does not permit the water to flow through it. The coefficient of permeability is equal to the rate of flow of water through a unit cross-sectional area under a unit hydraulic gradient. In an impervious soil. h = Head causing flow.

Weigh the empty permeameter mould. d.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course A. Coefficient of permeability by Constant Head Method The coefficient of permeability of a relatively more permeable soil can be determined in a laboratory by the constant head permeability test. The permeability mould assembly (including drainage base and drainage cap). Page 25 of 58 . A 2. f. Constant Head Tank d. g. Graduated cylinder. b. Apparatus: a. Measuring scale. e. Constant Head Test set-up Variable Head Test set-up Preparation of Sample: a. to slightly below the apparent optimum moisture content or sufficient water to assure good compaction. Add water to bring the test specimen. b. e. c. mixing pan. Stop watch etc. c. After greasing the inside slightly. clamp it between the compaction base plate and extension collar. Mix the soil thoroughly. Compaction Rammer.5 kg sample shall be taken from a thoroughly mixed oven dried material.

h. c. and the permeability at any temperature ‘T’ is related to K27 by the following ratio: Page 26 of 58 . Water temperature = ………0C Cross Section area of the specimen/mould (A) = …………… cm2 Sr. Establish steady flow of water. Average Permeability (cm/sec) Result: The viscosity of the water changes with temperature. Time Elapsed (t) (Seconds) 2. the specimen shall be connected through the top inlet to the constant head reservoir. The quantity of flow for a convenient time interval may be collected. After completion of a compaction the collar and excess soil are removed. Open the bottom outlet. The coefficient of permeability is standardized at 270C. i. g. d. No. Place the mould with sample in the permeameter. For the constant head arrangement. Find the weight of mould with sample. Repeat three times for the same interval. 3. Procedure: a. Place the assembly on a solid base and fill it with sample in three layers and compact each layer thoroughly. Now the specimen is ready for the test. Height of Specimen (L) = ………… cm Hydraulic Gradient.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course f. As temperature increases viscosity decreases and the permeability increases. Description 1. with drainage base and cap having saturated porous stones. Observations and Calculations: Head of Water (H) = ………… cm. (i) = (K/L) = …………. e. Discharge collected (Q) (cm3) Trial-1 Trial-2 Trial-3 Trial-4 Trial-5 Permeability (cm/sec). 4. b.

00981 0.007169 0.00597 Average Coefficient of Permeability of Soil is …….00874 0..01005 0.007568 0.00894 0.00914 0.00936 0.00958 0.00836 0.006369 0.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course Where.007368 0.cm/sec = …….006769 0.00818 0.006569 0..00855 0. From the following table obtain the viscosities and compute K27.006969 0. k27 = Permeability at 270C T and 27 = Coefficient of water viscosities at the temperature 'T' and at 270C respectively.007768 0.006169 0.00801 0. Temperature (0C) 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Viscosity (Poise) 0.m/sec Page 27 of 58 .

the specimen is ready for test. Put the 3 cm collar to the other end. g. Page 28 of 58 . Grease the inside of the mould and place it upside down on the firm base. Preparation of Sample: a. And fix the top cap. Weigh the assembly correct to a 0. b. Turn the assembly upside down and remove the compaction plate. Coefficient of permeability by Variable Head Method The falling head permeability test is a common laboratory testing method used to determine the permeability of fine grained soils with intermediate and low permeability such as silts and clays. Place the filter paper or fine wire mesh on the top of the soil specimen and fix the perforated base plate on it.01gm (W1). Now. Procedure: a. c. Insert the sealing gasket and place the top perforated plate on the top of soil specimen. Remove the collar and then trim off the excess. Assemble the permeameter for compaction. Measuring scale.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course B. mixing pan. Before starting the flow measurements. Apparatus: a. Take 800 to 1000 gm of representative soil and mix it with water to get optimum moisture content (OMC). the soil sample is saturated and the standpipes are filled with de-aired water to a given level. The permeability mould assembly (including drainage base and drainage cap). The test then starts by allowing water to flow through the sample until the water in the standpipe reaches a given lower limit. This testing method can be applied to an undisturbed sample. Now. e.5 kg tool. c. Stop watch etc. e. f. d. b. Graduated cylinder. Weigh the mould assembly with the soil (W2). b. Compaction Rammer. compact the wet soil in 2 layers with 15 blows to each layer with a 2. Constant Head Tank d.

. Often. e. 7. d. Final Time (Tf) (seconds) 4. Final Head (h2) (cm) Trial – 1 Trial – 2 Trial – 3 (cm/sec) 5.m/sec Page 29 of 58 . 6. No. Observations and Calculations: Diameter of specimen (D) = …………… cm Length of specimen (L) = …………… cm Area of specimen (A= /4*D2) = …………… cm2 Volume of specimen (V=A*L) = …………… cm3 Area of stand-pipe (a) = …………… cm2 Temperature of water = …………… 0C Sr. (cm/sec) Average Coefficient of Permeability of Soil is ……. Description 1. The recorded time should be the same for each test within an allowable variation of about 10% otherwise the test is failed. the standpipe is refilled and the test is repeated for couple of times.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course c. Permeability at 270C.cm/sec = …….. The time required for the water in the standpipe to drop from the upper to the lower level is recorded. Initial Head (h1) (cm) 3. Initial Time (Ti) (seconds) 2.

1986. Balance.for providing the required normal loads. The shearing resistance offered by the soil as one portion is made to slide on the other is measured at regular intervals of displacement. and the procedure cannot be used for undrained tests. Apparatus: a. The test specimen is consolidated under a vertical normal load until the primary consolidation is completed. h. Stop Clock. porous stones. e. partial drainage is inevitable. Weights . Principle:In the direct shear test a square prism of soil is laterally restrained and sheared along a mechanically induced horizontal plane while subjected to a pressure applied normal to that plane. Page 30 of 58 . f. The shear box apparatus can be used only for carrying out drained tests for the determination of effective shear strength parameters. When silty clays and silts are involved. consolidated undrained and consolidated drained conditions. Proving-Ring of suitable capacity. There is no control of drainage. d. and loading pad and water jacket etc. It is then sheared at a rate of displacement that is slow enough to prevent development of excess pore pressures. b.75 mm in undrained. Sample Trimmer. Straight edge etc. base plates. Scope: This experiment covers the methods for determination of shear strength of soil with a maximum particle size of 4. g. c.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course Experiment No. Spatula. The shear box including grid plates. the relationship between measured shear stress at failure and normal applied stress is obtained. ___ Date: Name of Experiment:Determination of Shear Strength of soil by Direct Shear Test Aim: To determine the shear strength of soil by direct shear test as per IS: 2720 (Part XIII) . By carrying out tests on a set of specimens of the same soil under different normal pressures. Failure occurs when the shearing resistance reaches the maximum value which the soil can sustain. The undrained test can be performed only for highlyimpermeable clays.

c. b. Using this information. plain grid plate over the base plate at the bottom of the specimen. plain plates of equal thickness should be substituted in their place so as to maintain the shear plane in the sample in the middle of its thickness. The orientations of the grid plates should be at right angles to the direction of shear. For Consolidated Undrained and ConsolidatedDrained Test: The apparatus should be assembled in a way similar to that for 'Undrained test' except that instead of the plain grid plates.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course Preparation of Sample: a. the bulk dry density of the specimen in the shear box shall be determined. The cut specimen shall be weighed and trimmings obtained during cutting shall be used to obtain the moisture content. For Undrained Test: The shear box with the specimen. The sample extracted and then trimmed to the required size. perforated grid plates and saturated porous stones should be used at the top and bottom of the specimen. Page 31 of 58 . Cohesive soils may be compacted to the required density and moisture content. Alternatively. and plain grid plate at the top of the specimen should be fitted into position in the load frame. the soil may be compacted to the required density and moisture content directly into the shear box after fixing the two-halves of the shear box together by means of the fixing screws.As porous stones are not used for the undrained tests. Cohesionless soils may be tamped in the shear box itself with the base plate and grid plate or porous stone as required in place at the bottom of the box.

as soon as possible after applying the normal force fill the box with water to a level just above the top of the specimen. Secure the horizontal displacement gauge in position. b. Record readings of the force measuring device. Record the initial readings of the horizontal displacement gauge. c. m. Start the clock at the same instant if consolidation readings are significant. Continue until the vertical deformation readings shows saturation (which indicates that primary consolidation is complete). III. II. smoothly and as rapidly as possible without jolting. Remove the clamping screws which lock the two halves of the shearbox together. Record the initial zero reading. at regular intervals of horizontal. and adjust the drive unit to the correct starting point of the shear test. the vertical deformation gauge and elapsed time. l. the horizontal displacement gauge. Secure the vertical deformation gauge in position so that it can measure the vertical movement of the center of the loading cap. ensuring that it allows enough movement in either direction. i. Initial Adjustment: a. Reverse the direction of travel of the carriage and return the two halves of the shear box to their original alignment. then stop the test. Shearing: h. If the specimen was sheared under water. k. j. Continue shearing and taking readings beyond the maximum force. Page 32 of 58 . d. siphon off the water from around the specimen and allow to stand for about 10 min to enable free water to drain from the porous plates. f. Record readings of the vertical deformation gauge and elapsed time at suitable intervals. Consolidation: e. to give the desired vertical stress. g. Except when testing dry soils. the vertical deformation gauge and the force measuring device. Assemble the loading system so that the loading yoke is supported by the ball seating on top of the load cap. or until the full travel of the apparatus has been reached if there is no defined peak. Apply a normal force to the specimen.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course Procedure: I. Position the box on its bearings on the machine bed. Start the test and at the same instant start the timer. and maintain it at that level throughout the test.

01 gm. For clayey soils. o. Bulk density of specimen( b) (gm/cm3) Dry density of specimen( d) (gm/cm3) Void ratio. a rate of strain of 0. taking care not to lose any soil. p.2 mm/min may be suitable. q.01 gm. Weight of Container (gm) (M1) Weight of Container + Wet Soil (gm) (M2) Weight of Container + Dry Soil (gm) (M3) Moisture Content. Weigh the specimen on the tray to 0.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course n. Transfer the specimen from the shear box to a small tray. Dry the soil in an oven at 1050C to 1100C and determine its dry mass (md) to 0. For sandy soils. Remove any free water with a tissue. Rate of displacement (mm/min) : Proving ring constant (PRConst) : Least Count of dial gauge : Page 33 of 58 . Remove the vertical force and loading yoke from the specimen. a rate of strain of 0.01 mm/min or slower may be used. and its final moisture content. Degree of Saturation (%). Observations and Calculations: Soil Specimen Measurements: Dimensions of the Specimen : …… (cm) x …… (cm) 2 Area of specimen (As) (cm ) : Thickness of specimen (cm) : 3 Volume of specimen (cm ) : Description Before Starting Test After Completing Test Wet weight of Specimen (gm) Water Content Container No.

.kg/cm2 (B) * PRConst Normal Stress = ………. Shear (E) (D) * PRConst Shear Stress kg/cm2 Normal Stress = ………...Shear Stress kg/cm2 (F) * As (E) * As (F) Hor.kg/cm2 Proving Ring Reading Horizontal Displacement (A) * LC of dial gauge Horizontal Dial Reading (A) (mm) Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course Page 34 of 58 . Shear (B) (F) * PRConst Shear Stress kg/cm2 Proving Ring Reading (D) Hor. Shear (C) (C) * As Normal Stress = ……….kg/cm2 Proving Ring Reading (B) Hor.

Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course Sr. Cohesion intercept (C). CohesionIntercept of given Soil sample is : ……. Angle of Internal friction ( )of given Soil sampleis : ……. Plot a graph between Normal stress (on X-axis) and Shear stress (on Y-axis) and find: i.0 Page 35 of 58 . Result: a. kg/cm2 b... 3. Normal Stress (kg/cm2) Max. and ii. Shear Stress (kg/cm2) 1. No. Angle of Internal friction ( ) or shearing resistance. 2.

remolded or compacted. Where.01gm e. undisturbed. ___ Date: Name of Experiment: Determination of Unconfined Compressive Strength Aim: To determine the Unconfined Compressive Strength(UCS) of soil as per IS: 2720 (Part X) . The unconfined compressive strength is defined as the maximum unit stress obtained within the first 20% strain. An axial load is applied using either strain-control or stresscontrol condition. Load and deformation dial gauge c. Moisture can Page 36 of 58 .Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course Experiment No. The unconfined compressive strength (qu) is the load per unit area at which the cylindrical specimen of a cohesive soil falls in compression. Compression device b. Sample trimming equipment d. Principle:The unconfined compression test is used to measure the shearing resistance of cohesive soils which may be undisturbed or remolded specimens. Balance. Scope: This experiment describes the method for determining the unconfined compressive strength of clayey soil.1991. accurate up to 0. using controlled rate of strain. Apparatus: a. P = Axial load at failure A = Corrected area of the specimen = A0 = Initial area of the specimen = axial strain = The undrained shear strength (S) of the soil is equal to the half of the unconfined compressive strength.

Specimen of required size may be carved from large undisturbed specimens.1 mm. This will avoid bending of the specimen and facilitate bringing specimen to vertical position.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course Preparation of Sample: The type of soil specimen to be used for test shall depend on the purpose for which it is tested and may be compacted. b. Measurements of height and diameter shall be made with suitable measuring device to the nearest 0. When the sample is ejected horizontally. d. remolded or undisturbed. The specimen for the test shall have a minimum diameter of 38 mm.5. c. Undisturbed sample: a. Three specimens obtained by trimming and carving from undisturbed soil samples shall be tested. The specimen shall be of uniform circular cross-section with ends perpendicular to the axis of the specimen. a curved plate may be provided to butt against the sampling tube such that the ejected specimen slips over it freely. The height to diameter ratio shall be within 2 to 2.There will be a significant variation in strength of undisturbed and remolded samples. Page 37 of 58 .

After the specimen is formed. Care shall be taken to avoid entrapped air.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course Remolded Specimen: The specimen may be prepared either from a failed undisturbed specimen or from a disturbed soil sample. Observations and Calculations: Page 38 of 58 . if possible. Compactionof disturbed material shall be done using a mould of circular cross-section with dimensions as given. and reported. preferably in multiples of 100.0 mm and. b. The upper plate shall be adjusted to make contact with the specimen. diameter and weight of the specimen shall be measured and the specimen shall be placed on the bottom plate of the loading device. or the stressstrain curve is well past its peak. readings may be taken at an interval of 0. Compacted specimen may be prepared at any predetermined water content and density. Compacted Specimen: a. In the case of failed undisturbed specimen. c. to obtain a uniform density. or until an axial strain of 20% is reached. The deformation dial gauge shall be adjusted to a suitable reading. d. Procedure: a. The water content of the specimen shall be determined. The initial length. beyond 12% axial strain it may be increased even further. The specimen shall be compressed until failure surfaces have definitely developed. The angle between the failure surface and the horizontal may be measured. b.5 mm of the deformation dial reading. the material shall be wrapped in a thin rubber membrane and thoroughly worked with the fingers to assure complete remolding. Force shall be applied so as to produce axial strain at a rate of 0. The force reading shall be taken at suitable intervals of the deformation dial reading. the ends shall be trimmed perpendicular to the long axis and removed from the mould.5 to 2% per minute. Representative sample cuttings shall be obtained or the entire specimen and shall be used for the determination of water content after the test. the interval may be increased to 1. After 6% axial strain. Up to 6% axial strain force. and to preserve the natural water content of the soil. e. to remold to the same void ratio as that of the undisturbed specimen.

. Weight of Container + Dry Soil (gm) (M3) 12. In the case of soils which behave as if the angle of shearing resistance = 00.…… cm2 Proving ring Constant (PRConst) : Sr. In case no maximum stress occurs within 20% axial strain. Weight of Container + Wet Soil (gm) (M2) 11. Weight of Container (gm) (M1) S Height of specimen (L0) : …..…… cm Least Count of the dial gauge (LC): Sample – 1 Sample – 2 Sample – 3 = P/A’ 10... qu. Water Content Container No. Undrained Shear Strength orCohesion (C)of given Soil sample is :……. a. Moisture Content.. the UCS shall be taken as the stress at 20% axial strain.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course Diameter of the Specimen : ….…… cm Area of specimen (A0) : …. Result: a. kg/cm2 b. Dial gauge reading at Failure (B) 4. d. Deformation at Failure ( L) = LC * B 5. The maximum stress from this plot gives the value of the UCS. Values of stress S. 8. Axial Strain. kg/cm2 Page 39 of 58 . Unconfined Compressive Strength of given Soil sample is : ……. b. 6. the undrained shear strength or cohesion of the soil may be taken to be equal to half the UCS. c. 7. Proving Ring reading at Failure (A) 2. Description 1. and strain obtained shall be plotted on a graph. No. Specimen Stress. 9. Load at Failure (P) = (PRConst) * A 3. Corrected Area.

b. Specimen container. however. The diameters and length of the stainless steel rod were limited to 2. Apparatus: a. Vane shear apparatus: The vane shear test apparatus consists of four stainless steel blades fixed at right angle to each other and firmly attached to a high tensile steel rod.1980.5mm and 60mm respectively. d. Scope: This experiment covers the procedure of conducting laboratory vane shear test on cohesive soils of low shear strength for determining their undrained shear strength. therefore. ___ Date: Name of Experiment: Determination of Undrained Shear Strength by laboratory Vane Shear test Aim: To determine the Undrained Shear Strengthof soil as per IS: 2720 (Part XXX) .Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course Experiment No. it is widely used in geotechnical investigations. c. the use of the vane shear test in in-situ testing is much more common. The length of the vane is usually kept equal to twice its overall width. Page 40 of 58 . The test is relatively simple. quick. Under special condition.5 mm diameter and 75 mm length in specimen. Need of Test:The vane shear test is an in-situ geotechnical testing methods used to estimate the undrained shear strength of fully saturated clays of low shear strength (less than 0. and provides a cost-effective way of estimating the soil shear strength. the vane shear test can be also carried out in the laboratory on undisturbed soil specimens. Calipers Sample Preparation: Prepare two or three specimens of the soil sample of dimensions of at least 37. Specimen.3 kg/cm2)without disturbance. (L/D ratio 2 or 3).

The shear surface is cylindrical and has a diameter equal to the diameter of the vane. b. Mount the specimen container with the specimen on the base of the vane shear apparatus and fix it securely to the base. a calibration curve to convert the readings to cm. This test is being performed based on the following assumptions: a.kgf of torque shall be used. Measure the height and overall diameter of vane. e. Note the readings of the torque indicator/angle of twist. d. g.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course Procedure: a. Rotate the vane at a uniform rate approximately 0. Torque readings and the corresponding strain readings may also be noted at desired intervals of time as the test proceeds. c.10/second by suitable operating the torque application handle until the specimen fails. Shearing strengths in the horizontal and vertical directions are the same. For vane testing instruments that do not read tile torque directly. Gently lower the shear vanes into the specimen to their full length without disturbing the soil specimen so that the top of the vane is at least 10 mm below the top of the specimen. shear strength is equally mobilized at the end surfaces as well as at the centre. Note the final reading of the torque indicator/angle of twist. At the peak value. f. b. Page 41 of 58 . c.

Result: Undrained Shear Strength of given Soil sample is: …….. 2.kg/cm2 Page 42 of 58 . Final Reading (Degrees) (Degrees) Difference Torque (T) G Shear Strength of Soil = T * G Average Shear Strength (Degrees) (kg-cm) (1/cm3) (kg/cm2) (kg/cm2) 1.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course Observations: Height of vane (H) (cm) : Diameter of vane (D) (cm) : Spring Constant : Initial Reading Sr. 3. No.

internal height of 115 mm and volume of 1000cm3) b. The second is a heavy compaction test using a 4. Metal rammer Page 43 of 58 . Steel straightedge f. Apparatus: a. Sieves of sizes 20mm and 4. Scope: The purpose of a laboratory compaction test is to determine the proper amount of mixing water to be used. but does not lend itself well to the study of the compaction characteristics of clean sand or gravels which displace easily when struck with the rammer. Cylindrical Metal mould (with internal diameter of 105 mm. e. Containers for measuring Water content. ___ Date: Name of Experiment: Determination of Water Content-Dry Density relation using Light and Heavy Compaction Aim: The objective of this test is to obtain relationships between compacted dry density and soil moisture content. a laboratory test which will give a degree of compaction comparable to that obtained by the field method used is necessary. Principle:The dry density which can be achieved for a soil depends on the degree of compaction applied and the moisture content. The moisture content which gives the highest dry density is called the optimum moisture content for that type of compaction. Hot Air Oven d.5 kg rammer (Standard Proctor). This procedure is satisfactory for cohesive soil.01gm. c.5 kg rammer with a greater drop on thinner layers of soil (Modified Proctor). Balance of sensitivity to 0. The first is a light compaction test using a 2. using two magnitudes of manual compaction effort as per IS: 2720 (Part VII-1980 and VIII-1983). Mixing tools h. To accomplish this. In general the optimum moisture content is less than the Plastic Limit. The test is used to provide a guide for specifications on field compaction.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course Experiment No.75mm g. when the soil in the field is being compactedand the resulting degree of denseness which can be expected from compaction at optimum moisture content.

Procedure (For Standard Proctor Test): a.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course Sample Preparation (For Standard as well as Modified Proctor Test): a.5kg) (dropping from a height of 310mm) before each additional layer of loose soil is poured. only separated individual particles would be retained. Aggregations of particles shall be broken down so that if the sample was sieved on a 4. e. Determine the empty weight of the Proctor Mold + base plate (not extension). Obtain about 6kg of sample as prepared.75mm IS sieve. d. b. Pour the moist soil in three equal layers. Page 44 of 58 . c. or about 15 kg of material passing a 20-mm IS sieve (for soil susceptible to crushing during compaction). A representative portion of air dried soil material and large enough to provide about 6 kg of material passing 20-mm IS sieve (for soils not susceptible to crushing during compaction). shall be taken. Attach the extension to the top of the mold. This portion shall be sieved on a 20-mm IS sieve and the coarse fraction rejected after its proportion of the total sample shall be recorded. b. Add water to the materials and mix thoroughly to bring the moisture content to about 5%. Compact each layer 25 times uniformly with the light hammer (2.

6. Weight of Container + Dry Soil (gm) (M3) 9. From the moist soil extruded.Determine the maximum dry unit weight of compaction. At the end of the three-layer compaction. g. l. Bulk Density (gm/cm3). the soil should extend slightly above the top of the rim of the compaction mold. m. In this process. the weight of the mold + base plate + moist soil will first increase with the increase in moisture content and then decrease. Determine the weight of the Proctor Mold + base plate + compacted moist soil. Page 45 of 58 . n. Weight of Mold + base plate + moist soil (W2) (gm) 3. Trial1 Trial2 Trial3 Trial4 Trial5 Plot a graph showing γd (On X-axis) and % Water content (On Y-axis). Add more water and mix to raise moisture content by 2%. Dry Density (gm/cm3). γd(max) and corresponding optimum moisture content. Remove the extension carefully. Repeat steps from ‘d’ to ‘k’. Break the rest of the soil cylinder by hand and mix with leftover moist soil. Weight of compacted Moist Soil (W2 – W1) (gm) 4. Observation (For Standard Proctor Test): Sr. Weight of Container (gm) (M1) 7. Also plot zero air void line. 10. i. Moisture Content. No. Weight of Container + Wet Soil (gm) (M2) 8. k. Trim excess soil with a straight edge. h. Extrude the compacted moist soil cylinder using a jack. 5. Water Content Container No. Description 1. j. collect sample for determining moisture content.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course f. Continue the test until at least two successive decreased readings are obtained. Weight of Mold + base plate (W1) (gm) 2. Remove the base plate from the mold.

Trial1 Trial2 Trial3 Trial4 Trial5 Plot a graph showing γd (On X-axis) and % Water content (On Y-axis). Description 1. Moisture Content. Optimum Moisture Content of given Soil sample (%) Standard Proctor Test Modified Proctor Test Page 46 of 58 . Weight of Container + Dry Soil (gm) (M3) 9. Pouring the moist soil in five equal layers instead of three layers.5kg) dropping from a height of 450mm. Weight of Container + Wet Soil (gm) (M2) 8. Weight of Container (gm) (M1) 7. γd(max) and corresponding optimum moisture content. Use of Heavy rammer (of 4. 10. Weight of Mold + base plate (W1) (gm) 2. Observation (For Modified Proctor Test): Sr. Follow the same procedure as mentioned for the ‘Standard Proctor Test’ by considering the only variations as mentioned below: i.Determine the maximum dry unit weight of compaction. Weight of Mold + base plate + moist soil (W2) (gm) 3. No. No. ii. Weight of compacted Moist Soil (W2 – W1) (gm) 4. Dry Density (gm/cm3). Description a. 5. Result: Sr.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course Procedure (For Modified Proctor Test): a.5kg) instead of light rammer (of 2. Water Content Container No. 6. Also plot zero air void line. Maximum Dry Density of given Soil sample (gm/cm3) b. Bulk Density (gm/cm3).

The possibility of damage to structures due to swelling of expansive clays need be identified. ___ Date: Name of Experiment: Determination of Free Swell Index (Differential Free Swell) of Soils. by an investigation of those soils likely to possess expansion characteristics. Actual magnitude of swelling pressures developed depends upon the dry density. Scope: The purpose of determination of free swell index is to understand the increase in volume of soil without any external constraint when subjected to submergence in water. c. d. Balance (0. Apparatus: a. Sieve (425 micron). Aim: To determine the free swell index of soil as per IS: 2720 (Part XL) – 1977. Soil Sample Soil Sample in Kerosene Soil Sample in distilled water Page 47 of 58 . b. surcharge loading and several other environmental factors. initial water content.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course Experiment No. Oven (1050C to 1100C). Inferential testing is resorted to reflect the potential of the system to swell under different simulated conditions.01g accuracy). Theory:The expansive clays have a tendency to swell in small or more proportion when comes in contact with water. Graduated glass cylinder (100ml capacity).

d. % Page 48 of 58 . f. Fill one cylinder with kerosene and the other with the distilled water up to the 100ml mark. not less than 24 hours shall be allowed for soil sample to attain equilibrium state of volume without any further change in the volume of the soils. Pour each soil sample in to each of the two glass graduated cylinders of 100ml capacity.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course Procedure: a. kerosene being a non-polar liquid does not cause swelling of the soil. c. g. 1 2 3 Average Free Swell Index (%) Result: Free Swell Index (Differential Free Swell) of given Soil sample is: ……. e. The level of the soil in the distilled water cylinder shall be read as the free swell level.. b. Remove the entrapped air in the cylinder by gentle shaking and stirring. Observations and Calculations: The level of the soil in the kerosene graduated cylinder shall be read as the original volume of the soil samples. Take two representative oven dried soil samples each of 10gm passing through 425 micron sieve. Allow the samples to settle in both the cylinders. Sufficient time. Record the final volume of the soils in each of the cylinders. Volume of soil in cylinder containing Kerosene Volume of soil in cylinder containing distilled water (Vk) cm3 (Vd) cm3 Free Swell Index Sample No.

Page 49 of 58 . axial deformation. Specimen is encased by a thin rubber membrane and set into a plastic cylindrical chamber. Measurement of σd. Total vertical stress. Depending on the nature of loading and drainage condition.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course Experiment No. 70 and 100 mm and of height approximately equal to twice the nominal diameter and in case of remolded samples.This experiment covers the methods for determination of the shear strength of unconsolidated undrained specimen of saturated cohesive soil in the triaxial compression apparatus under conditions in which the cell pressure is maintained constant and there is no change in the total water content of the specimen. Principle:Triaxial test is more reliable because we can measure both drained and untrained shear strength. a. and sample volume change are recorded. Size of test specimen. the angle of shear resistance ( ). triaxial tests are conducted in three different ways. Cell confining pressures. b.e. Cell pressure is applied in the chamber (which represents σ3’) by pressurizing the cell fluid (generally water). ratio of diameter of specimen to maximum size of particle in the soil should not be less than 5. Unconsolidated Undrained (UU) Triaxial test b. 50.Vertical stress is increased by loading the specimen until shear failure occurs. pore pressure. Consolidated Drained (CD) Triaxial test Test Conditions: The following test conditions shall be specified before starting a series of tests: a.1993.3). ___ Date: Name of Experiment:Determination of Shear Strength of soil by Triaxial Shear Test Aim: To determine the shear strength of unconsolidated undrained soil specimen without measurement of pore water pressure by triaxial shear test as per IS: 2720 (Part XI) . the angle of shear resistance ( ') and the cohesion (C). nominal diameter 38. These values may be used to calculate the bearing capacity of a soil and the stability of slopes.e. Scope: The Triaxial test is primarily designed to determine the shear strength parameters of a soil sample either in terms of total stresses. c. i. i. Number of specimens to be tested (minimum 2 .or in terms of effective stresses. which is σ1 is equal to the sum of σ3 and deviator stress (σd). the cohesion (C) and the undrained shear strength (Cu). Consolidated Undrained (CU) Triaxial test c. Generally specimen shall be used: in case of undisturbed sample.

e. Apparatus for moisture content determination Sample Preparation: a. f. The height to diameter ratio should be between two and three. Balance. measured to the nearest 0.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course d. Measuring Scale. Page 50 of 58 . b. c. Triaxial test cell with all necessary accessories. The largest particle contained within the test specimen must be smaller than one sixth of the specimen diameter. Rubber rings.01gm. c.3 mm. g. Whether undisturbed or remolded specimens are to be tested. accurate up to 0. and either the dry density to be achieved or the compactive effort to be applied. e. Apparatus: a. Split Mould. d. Specimens should have a minimum diameter of 70 mm. Trimming knife. b. For remolded specimens the moisture content. h. Seamless rubber membrane.

with ends perpendicular to the axis. Page 51 of 58 . Prepare undisturbed specimens from samples obtained from thin walled sampling tubes or other acceptable undisturbed tube sampling procedures. Position the specimen in the chamber and assemble the triaxial chamber. During this procedure. Bring the axial load piston into contact with the specimen cap several times to permit proper seating and alignment of the piston with the cap. f. Test Procedure: a. Place the chamber in position in the axial loading device. j. Specimens should be of uniform circular cross section. Determine weight and dimensions of specimen. A rate of axial compression shall be selected such that failure is produced within a period of approximately 5 to 15 minutes. Carefully align the axial loading device. e. enclose in the rubber membrane. The chamber will produce an upward force on the piston that will react against the axial loading device. changes in cross section.5% of the estimated compressive strength. Handle specimens carefully to minimize disturbance. h. g. Record the initial reading on the deformation indicator when the piston contacts the specimen cap. Fill the chamber with the confining fluid to a predetermined level. and before the piston comes in contact with the specimen cap. The test shall be commenced. and the triaxial chamber to prevent the application of a lateral force to the piston during testing. g.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course d. Start the test with piston slightly above the specimen cap. h. l. take care not to apply a deviator stress to the specimen exceeding 0. the axial load-measuring device. k. e. b. or loss of moisture content. d. a sufficient number of simultaneous readings of the load and compression measuring gauges being taken to define the stress strain curve. Adjust the pressure-maintaining and measurement device to the desired chamber pressure and apply pressure to the chamber fluid. c. Attach the pressure-maintaining and measurement device. Remolded samples prepared at the desired moisture and density by static and dynamic methods of compaction or by any other suitable method. i. measure and record the initial piston friction and upward thrust of the piston produced by the chamber pressure. where necessary. f. and immediately seal it to the specimen base and cap.

The cell shall be drained of fluid and dismantled.kg/cm2 ………. Observations and Calculations: Rate of strain OR displacement (mm/min) : Proving ring constant (PRConst) : Least Count of dial gauge (mm) : Description Cell Pressure = Cell Pressure = Cell Pressure = ………. o.kg/cm2 ………. Prior to placing the specimen (or portion thereof) in the oven to dry. Bulk density of specimen( b) (gm/cm3) Dry density of specimen( d) (gm/cm3) Page 52 of 58 .. etc.kg/cm2 Diameter of the Specimen (DS) (mm) Length of specimen (LS) (mm) Area of specimen (As) (cm2) Volume of specimen (Vs) (cm3) Wet weight of Specimen (gm) Water Content Container No. The test shall be continued until the maximum value of the stress has been passed or until an axial strain of 20 percent has been reached. and the specimen taken out. n..Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course m.. Weight of Container (gm) (M1) Weight of Container + Wet Soil (gm) (M2) Weight of Container + Dry Soil (gm) (M3) Moisture Content. bulging. sketch a picture or take a photograph of the specimen showing the mode of failure (shear plane.). The specimen shall then be unloaded and the final reading cf the load measuring gauge shall be recorded as a check on the initial reading. The specimen shall be weighed and samples for the determination of the moisture content of the specimen shall be taken.

kg/cm2 Strain Gauge Reading (mm) Change in length of specimen ( H) Strain Gauge * LC of dial gauge Axial Strain (%) Proving Ring Reading Deviatric Force (kg) Proving Ring * PRConst Corrected area(cm2) Deviatric Stress ( 1) (kg/cm2) Effective Normal Stress Deviatric Force / AC ( 1+ 3) 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 425 450 475 500 525 550 575 600 Page 53 of 58 ..Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course Cell Pressure( 3) = ……….

3) /2) and center point at (( 1 + 3) / 2)plot Mohr’s circle for each cell pressure having Normal stress (on X-axis) and Shear stress (on Y-axis).Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course Sr.. Cohesion Intercept of given Soil sample is : ……. Record the observations atleast for three samples minimum with various cell pressure. With radius of (( 1. and ii. kg/cm2 b. d. Cohesion intercept (C). Result: a. Angle of Internal friction ( ) or shearing resistance. Slope of the tangent designates Angle of internal friction ( ) and Y-intercept designates Cohesion. Draw a smooth common tangent to the circlesfind: i.. No. Result Presentation: a. 2. Cell Pressure ( 3) Max.0 Page 54 of 58 . c. Angle of Internal friction ( )of given Soil sample is : ……. b. 3. Deviatric Stress ( 1) (kg/cm2) (kg/cm2) Radius of Mohr Circle Center of Mohr Circle ( 1- ( 1+ 3) /2 3) /2 1.

Aim: To determine the swellingpressure of expansive soil as per IS: 2720 (Part XLI) – 1977. Since the intrinsic swelling pressure is to be associated with the design of structures against such damages. c. The stress history of the soil including the confining pressure and e. Method. Drying and wetting cycles to which the soils have been subjected to. e. Dial gauge accurate upto 0. The nature of pore fluid. if the soil is not allowed to swell or the volume change of the soil is arrested. Page 55 of 58 . c. ___ Date: Name of Experiment: Determination of SwellingPressure of Expansive Soils. Consolidometer which provides means for submerging the sample and also enable dial gauge to fix b. Light structures founded on such type of clays-popularly known in India as black cotton soil. in which the volume change of the soil is permitted and the measurement of corresponding pressure required to bring back the soil to its original volume is explained.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course Experiment No. viz. The swelling pressure is dependent upon several factors namely: a. consolidometer method. Theory:Swelling Pressure is the pressure which the expansive soil exerts. Scope: This experiment covers the laboratory method of conducting one dimensional swelling pressure test using floating rings on remolded soils in the partially saturated condition to determine the swelling pressure of the soil. measurement of swelling pressure assumes importance.002mm d. Porous stones. Besides the dependence of swelling pressure on volume change makes a precise measurement of swelling pressure difficult. experience severe structural damage due to the swelling of the subsoil. Proving ring of 200kg capacity. The expansive clays increase in their volume when they come in contact with water owing to surface properties of these clay types. b. The type and amount of clay in the soil and the nature of the clay mineral. Water reservoir. Apparatus: a. The initial water content and dry density. d. The main purpose of swelling pressure test is to determine the intrinsic swelling pressure of the expansive soil tested.

Weighing balance. capable of maintaining a temperature of 1050 to 1100C. Theporous stones shall be saturated by boiling in distilled water for at least 15minutes. so that the maximumswelling pressure shall berecorded. b. The initial water content shall be at the shrinkage limit or field water content. The consolidometer shall be assembled with the soil specimen (in the ring) and porous stones at top and bottom of the specimen. b. All surfaces of the consolidometer which are to be enclosed shall be moistened. The porous stones shall be saturated. h. with an accuracy of 0. i. Soil trimming tool. The loading block shall then be positioned centrally on the top porous stone.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course f. providing a filter paper rendered wet between the soil specimen and the porous stone. In case where it is necessary to use disturbed soil samples the soil sample shall be compacted to the desired field density and water content in a standard compaction proctor mould. g. Page 56 of 58 . Oven. Procedure: a. Containers for water content determination Sample Preparation from disturbed soil specimen: a. Samples of 60mm diameter and 20mm thick are cut from it. The diameter to thickness ratio shall be a minimum of 3.01gm.

allowing smallmargin forthe compression of the soil. Thefreeswellreadingsshownby thedial gaugeunderthe seating loadof5kN/m2(0. Thickness of specimen (h) (cm) 5. the load when applied is transmittedtothesoilspecimen through the loading cap.shallthenbe screwedin placeand adjustedinsuch awaythatthedial gaugeisnear the end ofits release run. An initial setting loadof 0. Weight of container ring + Wet Soil specimen (gm) (W2) 3. No. Wet Density of soil (gm/cm3) 7. This assembly shall then be mounted on the loading frame such that. a. Weight of container ring (gm) (W1) 2. Water Content Container No.05 kgf/cm2)shall berecorded atdifferent timeintervals. Weight of Container + Dry Soil (gm) (W3) e. The assembly shall be so centered that the load applied is axial. The holder withthedialgauge to recordtheprogressive vertical heaveof the specimen under no load. if any. 6. Diameter of soil specimen (d) (cm) 4. Observations and Calculations: Sr.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course c. The equilibrium swellingis normally reached over a periodof 6 to 7daysin generalfor all expansivesoils. e. Moisture Content. Volume of soil sample (cm3). The dialgauge readings shall be taken till equilibriumis reached. b. f. The systemshallbeconnectedtoawaterreservoir beingataboutthesamelevelasthesoil with specimen the andwater levelof water allowed inthereservoir to flow inthesample. Determination of Water Content: 8.Thesoilshallthen be allowed to swell. h. g. Before Test After Test Dry Density of soil (gm/cm3) Page 57 of 58 .05 kgf/cm2 shallbeplacedontheloading hanger andtheinitial reading of thedialgauge shallbe noted. d. Weight of Container (gm) (W1) c. Description 1. Weight of Container + Wet Soil (gm) (W2) d.

* PRConst) (kg/cm2) 0. kg/cm2 Page 58 of 58 . A smooth curve shall be drawn joining these points.Laboratory Manual for Geotechnical Engineering (201003) SE Civil-2012 Course Initial Setting Load : Proving ring constant (PRConst) : Least Count of Proving ring : Cross section area of specimen (cm2): Elapsed Time (Hrs.….00 24.00 16. the swelling has reached its maximum.00 1.00 The observed swelling dial reading recorded shall be plotted with elapsed time as abscissa and swelling pressure as ordinates on natural scale.) Proving ring reading Start End Difference Load (kg) Swelling Pressure (Diff.50 2.25 1.00 4. If the curve so drawn becomes asymptotic with the abscissa.25 0.75 1. Result: Swelling Pressureof given Soil sample is: ……….50 0.00 8..00 0.