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3

Definite Integral

3.1

Definition, Necessary & sufficient conditions

Let f : [a, b] → R be a bounded real valued function on the closed, bounded interval [a, b].
Also let m, M be the infimum and supremum of f (x) on [a, b], respectively.
Definition 3.1.1. A partition P of [a, b] is an ordered set P = {a = x0 , x1 , x2 , ..., xn = b}
such that x0 < x1 < ... < xn .
Let mk and Mk be the infimum and supremum of f (x) on the subinterval [xk−1 , xk ],
respectively.
Definition 3.1.2. Lower sum: The Lower sum, denoted with L(P, f ) of f (x) with
respect to the partition P is given by
L(P, f ) =

n
!
k=1

mk (xk − xk−1 ).

Definition 3.1.3. Upper sum: The Upper sum, denoted with U (P, f ) of f (x) with
respect to the partition P is given by
U (P, f ) =

n
!
k=1

Mk (xk − xk−1 ).

For a given partition P , U (P, f ) ≥ L(P, f ). In fact the same inequality holds for any two
partitions. (see Lemma (3.1.6) below.)
Definition 3.1.4. Refinement of a Partition: A partition Q is called a refinement
of the partition P if P ⊆ Q.
The following is a simple observation.
Lemma 3.1.5. If Q is a refinement of P , then
L(P, f ) ≤ L(Q, f ) and U (P, f ) ≥ U (Q, f ).
Proof. Let P = {x0 , x1 , x2 , ..., xk−1 , xk , ..., xn } and Q = {x0 , x1 , x2 , ..., xk−1 , z, xk , ..., xn }.

1

Then
L(P, f ) = m0 (x1 − x0 ) + ... + mk (xk − xk−1 ) + ... + mn−1 (xn − xn−1 )

′′

≤ m0 (x1 − x0 ) + ... + mk (xk − z) + mk (z − xk−1 ) + ... + mn−1 (xn − xn−1 )
= L(Q, f )

′′

where mk = inf f (x) and mk = inf f (x).
[z,xk ]

[xk−1 ,z]

Lemma 3.1.6. If P1 and P2 be any two partitions, then
L(P1 , f ) ≤ U (P2 , f ).
Proof. Let Q = P1 ∪ P2 . Then Q is a refinement of both P1 and P2 . So by Lemma (3.1.8),
L(P1 , f ) ≤ L(Q, f ) ≤ U (Q, f ) ≤ U (P2 , f ).
Definition 3.1.7. Let P be the collection of all possible partitions of [a, b]. Then the
upper integral of f is
" b
f = inf{U (P, f ) : P ∈ P}
a

and lower integral of f is

"

b
a

f = sup{L(P, f ) : P ∈ P}.

An immediate consequence of Lemma (3.1.6) is
Lemma 3.1.8. For a bounded function f : [a, b] → IR,
"

b
a

f≤

"

b

f.
a

Definition 3.1.9. Riemann integrability: f : [a, b] → R is said to be Riemann integrable if
" b
" b
f=
f
a

and the value of the limit is denoted with

a

"

b
a

f (x)dx. We say f ∈ R[a, b].

Example 1: Consider f (x) = x on [0, 1] and the sequence of partitions Pn = {0, n1 , n2 , ..., n−1
, nn }.
n
2

Then
L(Pn , f ) = 0 ·

1
1 1
n−11
+ · + ... +
n n n
n n

1
[1 + 2 + ... + (n − 1)]
n2
n(n − 1)
=
2n2
=

#1
1
Thus lim L(Pn , f ) = . Hence from the definition 0 f (x)dx ≥ 12 . Similarly
n→∞
2
1 1
2 1
n1
· + · + ... +
n n n n
nn
1
= 2 [1 + 2 + ... + n]
n
n(n + 1)
=
2n2

U (Pn , f ) =

#1
1
Hence lim U (Pn , f ) = . Again from the definition 0 f (x)dx ≤ 12 .
n→∞
2

Example 2: Consider f (x) = x2 on [0, 1] and the sequence of partitions Pn = {0, n1 , n2 , ..., n−1
, nn }.
n
Then
$ %2
& n '2 1
1 1
2
1
U (Pn , f ) = 2 · +
· + ... +
n n
n
n
n n
1
= 3 [1 + 22 + ... + n2 ]
n
n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
=
6n3
1
Thus lim U (Pn , f ) = . Similarly
n→∞
3
$ %2
$
%2
1
1
1
n−1
1
L(Pn , f ) = 0 · +
· + ... +
n
n
n
n
n
1
= 3 [1 + 22 + ... + (n − 1)2 ]
n
n(n − 1)(2n − 1)
=
6n3
1
Therefore, lim L(Pn , f ) = .
n→∞
3
3

Hence from the definition

#b
a

f ≥ 1/3 and

Remark 3.1. In the above two examples

#b

f ≤ 1/3.

a

#1
0

f=

#1
0

f thanks to Lemma 3.1.8

The following example illustrates the non-integrability.

⎨1, x ∈ Q,
Example 3: On [0, 1], define f (x) =
⎩0, x ̸∈ Q.
Let P be a partition of [0, 1]. In any sub interval [xk−1 , xk ], there exists a rational number
and irrational number. Then the supremum in any subinterval is 1 and infimum is 0.
#1
#1
Therefore, L(P, f ) = 0 and U (P, f ) = 1. Hence 0 f ̸= 0 f .
Necessary and sufficient condition for integrability

Theorem 3.1.10. A bounded function f ∈ R[a, b] if and only if for every ϵ > 0, there
exists a partition Pϵ such that
U (Pϵ , f ) − L(Pϵ , f ) < ϵ.
Proof. ⇐: Let ϵ > 0. Then from the definition of upper and lower integral we have
"

b
a

f−

"

b
a

f ≤ U (Pϵ , f ) − L(Pϵ , f ) < ϵ( by hypothesis).

Thus the conclusion follows as ϵ > 0 is arbitrary.
#b
⇒: Conversely, since a f is the infimum, for any ϵ > 0, there exists a partition P1 such
that
" b
ϵ
U (P1 , f ) <
f+ .
2
a
Similarly there exists a partition P2 such that
L(P2 , f ) >

4

"

b
a

ϵ
f− .
2

Then Pϵ is a refinement of P1 and P2 . n→∞ Remark 3. f ) = 0. Remark 3. Remark 3. we #b #b have L(Pn . 2 2n n Similarly one can choose n in Example 2. Then U (Pn . f ) − " b f (x)dx| < ϵ. we have |S(P. f= f) a a This complete the theorem. b] → R is integrable if and only if there exists a sequence {Pn } of partitions of [a. b] → IR be a Riemann integrable function. /// Now it is easy to see that the functions considered in Example 1 and Example 2 are integrable. f ) − L(Pn . ξi ∈ [xi−1 . f ≤ S(P. there exists δ > 0 such that for any partition P with ∥P ∥ := max |xi −xi−1 | < 1≤i≤n δ. xi ]. then f is not integrable. f ) ≤ U (P. f ) → a f (x)dx. Let f f : [a. f ) − L(Pn . Then we have the follow- m(b − a) ≤ L(P. f )−L(Pn . From the above theorem. f : [a. f ) − L(P2 . Let S(P.2. Hence U (Pϵ . f ) = 1 1 (n(n + 1) − n(n − 1)) = < ϵ. f ) = n ! i=1 ing f (ξi )(xi − xi−1 ).Let Pϵ = P1 ∪ P2 . then for any sequence of partitions {Pn } with ∥Pn ∥ → 0.1. f ) " b " b ϵ ϵ ≤ f+ − f+ 2 2 a a " b " b = ϵ (as f is integrable. f ) ̸→ 0 as n → ∞. f ) ≤ M (b − a). one has the following Darboux theorem: Theorem 3. f ) → a f (x)dx and U (Pn . f ) ≤ U (P1 . b] such that lim U (Pn . For any ϵ > 0. b]. 5 .11. In fact.3. we note that if there exists a sequence of partition {Pn } such that ∥Pn ∥ → 0 and U (Pn . a Corollary: If f ∈ R[a.4. we can find n (large) and Pn such that n1 < ϵ. f ) − L(Pϵ . Then for a given ϵ > 0.

. f ) = f (1)(r − 1) + f (r)(r2 − r) + . + n−1 rn−1 (r − 1) r r = n(r − 1) 1 = n(b n − 1) 1 1 Therefore lim U (Pn .. + n) n 3 → as n → ∞ 2 U (Pn . f ) = (1 − 1 1 2 1 n 1 1 ) + (1 − ) + . Then U (Pn ... b]. 1] → IR ⎧ ⎨1 + x x ∈ Q f (x) = ⎩1 − x x ̸∈ Q is not integrable. r2 . + f (rn−1 )(rn − rn−1 ) 1 1 = (r − 1) + r(r − 1) + . nn = 1}... f ) = lim n→∞ n→∞ bn − 1 1 n = lim n→∞ 6 b n ln b( −1 ) n2 −1 n2 = ln b.. Divide the interval in geometric progression and x compute U (Pn .. n n n n n n 2 Hence f is not integrable. r. .. b]... though it is not achieved. Solution: Consider the sequence of partitions Pn = {0. 1 Problem: Consider f (x) = on [1. . b]. . f ) and L(Pn . f ) to show that f ∈ R[1... n2 ... n1 ] is 1 − n1 ..... f ) = (1 + Now using the fact that infimum of f on [0.Problem: Show that the function f : [0. + (1 − ) → as n → ∞. rn = b} be a partition on [1. + (1 + ) n n n n n n 1 = 1 + 2 (1 + 2 + . Solution: Let Pn = {1. Then 1 1 2 1 n 1 ) + (1 + ) + . we get L(Pn . n1 .

f ) < ϵ. By (3.Similarly L(Pn . b]. we need to show the existence of a partition P such that U (P. + f (rn )(rn − rn−1 ) 1 1 = (r − 1) + . Then f ∈ R[a. f ) = f (r)(r − 1) + f (r2 )(r2 − r) + .2). b] there exist x′k .10. Since f is continuous on [a. b]. (b − a) k=1 (b − a) Therefore f ∈ R[a. b]. 7 . By Theorem 3. f ) = = n ! k=1 n ! k=1 (Mk − mk )(xk − xk−1 ) ′′ ′ (f (xk ) − f (xk ))(xk − xk−1 ) n ! ϵ ϵ ≤ (xk − xk−1 ) = (b − a) = ϵ. f − L(P. b n Theorem 3.. this implies f is uniformly continuous on [a. xk ) such that mk = f (xk ) and ′′ ′ ′′ ′′ ′ ϵ Mk = f (xk ).1) Now choose a partition P such that sup |xk − xk−1 | < δ. (b − a) (3. b].. Let ϵ > 0.1) |f (xk ) − f (xk )| < (b−a) .1. f ) − L(P. Suppose f is a continuous function on [a. (3.12. b]. Thus U (P.2) 1≤k≤n ′′ ′ As f is continuous on [a. |xk − xk | < δ and hence by (3. + n rn−1 (r − 1) r r n 1 = (b n − 1) r 1 = n(1 − 1/n ) b 1/n b −1 = 1/n 1 → ln b as n → ∞. Proof.1.. xk ∈ (xk−1 . Therefore there exists δ > 0 such that |x − y| < δ ⇒ |f (x) − f (y)| < ϵ .

b] .2 Properties of Definite Integral: Property 1: For a constant c ∈ R. Suppose f : [a. U (P. f2 are integrable. In fact we have the following theorem. f ) − L(Pϵ .4) . for ϵ > 0 there exists P1 . f2 ) − L(P2 . f2 ) Since f1 . Example: Consider the following function f : [0. ⎧ ⎨1. 3. Then " b (f1 + f2 )(x)dx = a " " b f (x)dx. Hence f is integrable. Then L(Pϵ . f ) will be less than 1. P2 such that U (P1 . f1 + f2 ) ≤ U (P. Proof follows by constructing suitable partition with sub-intervals of sufficiently small length around the discontinuities as observed in the above example. b]. 1}. f1 ) < ϵ U (P2 .Integrability and discontinuous functions: We study the effect of discontinuity on integrability of a function f (x).3) (3. for 2 2 2 2 given ϵ > 0 we have U (Pϵ . Theorem 3. f1 + f2 ) ≥ L(P. Therefore. f ) = ϵ.13. f ) = ( − ) + (1 − − ) = 1 − ϵ. x = 1 2 1 2 Clearly U (P. f1 ) − L(P1 . Consider the partition 1 ϵ 1 ϵ Pϵ = {0. 12 + 2ϵ . Then f ∈ R[a. f2 ) < ϵ 8 (3. f1 ) + L(P. 1] → R. x ̸= f (x) = ⎩0. a Easy to show that for any partition P .1. a b f1 (x)dx + a " b f2 (x)dx. f2 ) L(P. f1 ) + U (P. f2 ∈ R[a. " b cf (x)dx = c a Property 2: Let f1 . We can try to isolate the point x = 12 in a subinterval of small length. b] → R be a bounded function which has finitely many discontinuities. f ) = 1 for any partition P . 12 − 2ϵ . We notice that L(P.

using (3. f1 + f2 is integrable. b]. f1 + f2 ) = lim n→∞ a n→∞ = lim n→∞ = " b n ! k=1 n ! k=1 (f1 + f2 )(ξk )(xk − xk−1 ) f1 (ξk )(xk − xk−1 ) + lim f1 (x)dx + a n→∞ " b n ! k=1 f2 (ξk )(xk − xk−1 ) f2 (x)dx a Property 3: If f (x) ≤ g(x) on [a. f2 ) < ϵ + ϵ = 2ϵ. xi ]. " b (f1 + f2 )(x)dx = lim S(Pn . f2 ) − L(P. to conclude the claim. U (P. Then a " b " b " b Property 1 and f (x) ≤ g(x) imply (g − f ) ≥ 0 or g(x)dx ≥ f (x)dx. a a" a " b b Property 4: If f ∈ R[a. f1 + f2 ) ≤ U (P. b] and | f (x)dx| ≤ |f |(x)dx.3)-(3.5) Therefore. |f |(x) − |f |(y) ≤ |f (x) − f (y)| ≤ Mi (f ) − mi (f ).Now taking P = P1 ∪ P2 . f1 ) − L(P. f2 ) − L(P. Let ′ mk = inf [xk−1 . f1 ) + U (P.5) we get U (P. f1 ) − L(P. f1 ) < ϵ.xk ] a ′ |f |(x) and Mk = ′ sup |f |(x). 9 a .xk ] ′ Claim: Mk − mk ≥ Mk − mk Proof of Claim: Note that for x. b] then |f | ∈ R[a. f2 ) < ϵ (3. Then we claim [xk−1 . f1 + f2 ) − L(P. if necessary. a " b First we note that m ≤ f (x) ≤ M implies m(b − a) ≤ f (x) ≤ M (b − a). we assume U (P. Hence. Then " b a f (x)dx ≤ " b g(x)dx. Now take supremum over x and infimum over y. y ∈ [xi−1 .

6). c] and [c. Also by (3. For ϵ > 0. b]. This implies f is integrable on [a. there exists partitions {Pn } such that lim U (Pn . Conversely. b] such that U (P1 . b). Thus by Property 3 we get − " b a |f |(x)dx ≤ " b f (x)dx ≤ a " b a |f |(x)dx =⇒ | " b a f (x)dx| ≤ " b a |f |(x)dx. Property 5: Let f be bounded on [a. f ) < ϵ and U (P2 . f ) − L(P2 . b] if and only if f is integrable on [a. there exists {Pn } such that " b f (x)dx = lim S(Pn . f ) < 2ϵ . In this cases " b f (x)dx = a " c f (x)dx + a " b f (x)dx. suppose f is integrable on [a. So by Remark 3. c] and P2 of [c. Note that −|f | ≤ f ≤ |f |. f ) − L(P1 . b]. f ) < ϵ. f ) < ϵ. Then U (P.6) With out loss of generality we can assume that P contain c.e.c] → " n→∞ Pn f (ξk )(xk−1 − xk ) f (ξk )(xk − xk−1 ) + c f (x)dx + a ! " b f (x)dx c 10 ! Pn ∩[c. c] and [c. n→∞ This implies lim n→∞ k=1 n ! ′ ′ (Mk − mk )(xk − xk−1 ) = 0. f ) = n→∞ 0. b] respectively. there exists partitions P1 of [a. i. n ! lim (Mk − mk )(xk − xk−1 ) = 0. Then f is integrable on [a.b] f (ξk )(xk − xk−1 ) . U (P1 . (3. c] and [c. c] and [c. Now take P = P1 ∪ P2 . c] and P2 = P ∩ [c. f )−L(Pn . f ) − L(P1 . b]. b].3. Then for ϵ > 0. f ) = lim n→∞ a = ! Pn ∩[a. f ) − L(P. k=1 Hence |f | is integrable. there exists partition P such that U (P. b] and let c ∈ (a.. f ) − L(P2 . f ) < ϵ. (otherwise we can refine P by adding c and the difference will be closer than before) Let P1 = P ∩ [a. c Let f be integrable on [a. f ) < 2ϵ and U (P2 .Now since f is integrable. Then P1 and P2 are partitions on [a. f ) − L(P. b].

f ) = n ! k=1 f (ξk )(xk − xk−1 ) > (1 − 11 2 ) sin 1. 1 ϵ ϵ ϵ ϵ . using the approach of isolating the discontinuous points. Define the partition Pϵ as Solution: Let ϵ > 0. Therefore.. + + 0 · (1 − ξr − ) N 2r 2r 2r 4r 1 ϵ = + < ϵ. 1]. 1]. Consider the f on the subinterval I1 = [ π2 . ξ2 .. 1 ϵ < . Choose N such that Pϵ = {0. ξ1 − . N 4r 4r 4r 4r Since ξr is the last discontinuity. 2k Example: Consider the following function f : [0... f ) = 1 · Alternatively. f = 0 in [ξr + ϵ .. Then using + 1 the fact that converges.. n ≥ 2 Then f is Riemann integrable. f (x) = Then f is not Riemann integrable..Example: Consider the following function f : [0. . 4r Now L(Pϵ . U (P. π . 2. ξr + . 1] → R. Also the minimum of Mk′ s is sin 1.. 4. ξ1 + . f ) = 0 and 1 ϵ ϵ ϵ ϵ + + + . xk ] of [ π2 .. N 2 U (Pϵ . Let Mk be the Supremum of f on subintervals [xk−1 . ξr − . 1].. 3. Clearly L(P. ⎧ ⎨0 ⎩sin 1 x x∈Q x ̸∈ Q Solution: We will show that f is not integrable on a sub interval of [0. 1] say ξ1 . k = 1. f ) = 0 for any partition P of I1 because f (x) ≥ 0 in the sub interval [ π2 . 1] → R.. . 1}... ⎧ ⎨1 x = f (x) = ⎩0 x ̸= 1 n 1 n for some n ∈ N. .. ξr . Note that f (x) has only finitely many N 2 discontinuities in [ N1 . 1]. 1]. we may take the Partition with length of 2ϵk at each discontinuous points xk . one can prove that f is integrable.

a 1 m≤ (b − a) " b a f ≤ M.b] m(b − a) ≤ i. /// Mean Value Theorem Theorem 3.2. For example. a Proof. Then there exists ξ ∈ [a. there exists ∆x ∆x x ξ ∈ [x. f ) − L(P. Therefore f ′ is not 12 . Therefore there exists ξ ∈ [a. Now since f (x) is continuous. Here the derivatives at the end points are the left/right derivatives. " x+∆x φ(x + ∆x) − φ(x) 1 Proof. Then f is differentiable on [0. lim f (ξ) = ∆x→0 Remark 3. f ) can not be made less than ϵ for any ϵ < (1 − π2 ) sin 1. b] such that " b f (x)dx = f (ξ)(b − a). Let f (x) be a continuous function on [a. By Mean value theorem. As = f (s)ds. a Then φ is differentiable and φ (x) = f (x). b]. x + ∆x] such that " x+∆x f (s)ds = ∆xf (ξ). Thus φ (x) = f (x). b] such that f (ξ) = f. we have x∈[a. Let m = min f (x) and M = max f (x). (b − a) a Fundamental Theorem Theorem 3. Then by Property 3.2. " b f ≤ M (b − a).e.b] x∈[a. b] and let φ(x) = ′ " x f (s)ds. 1) and f ′ (0) = 0. 1]. Therefore lim Since f is continuous. ∆x→0 ∆x→0 ∆x′ f ( lim ξ) = f (x). It is always not true that #b a ∆x→0 /// f ′ (x)dx = f (b) − f (a).2.Hence U (P.5. take f (x) = x2 sin x1 for x ̸= 0 and f (0) = 0.1. x φ(x + ∆x) − φ(x) = lim f (ξ). Let f (x) be a continuous function on [a. It is easy to check that f ′ (x) = 2x sin x12 − x2 cos x12 for x ∈ (0. it attains all values between it’s maximum and minimum " b 1 values.

Then by chain rule of differentiation.derivative of continuous function f (x).5. Then " b ′ f (u(x))u (x)dx = a " u(b) f (y)dy.. u′ (t) be continuous on [a. i. Taking x = a..2. b]) is a closed and bounded interval. if F ′ (x) = f (x). b]).e.3. Note that f ([a. we get " b a f (u(t))u′ (t)dt = F (u(b)) − F (u(a)). Hence B = u(b) and A = u(a). Suppose F (x) is an anti. a #x Also F ′ (x) = f (x). A function F (x) is called anti-derivative of f (x). F (x) = a f (t)dt. b]). for any two points in u([a.4. By First fundamental theorem. /// Change of Variable formula Theorem 3. we have (by Newton-Leibnitz formula) " B A f (y)dy = F (B) − F (A). dtd F (u(t)) = F ′ (u(t))u′ (t).bounded and so not integrable. u(a) Proof. we have d dx " x f (s)ds = f (x). Second Fundamental Theorem: Theorem 3. i. Now taking x = b we get a f (x)dx = F (b) − F (a). Hence a f (s)ds = F (x) + c for some constant c ∈ R. Then #b f (x)dx = F (b) − F (a). Definition 3. #1 √ Example: Evaluate 0 x 1 + x2 dx. Since f is continuous. a Proof.2. Let u(t). F (u(t)) is the primitive of f (u(t))u′ (t) and by Newton-Leibnitz formula.e. #b we get c = −F (a). On the other hand. 13 .2. it has #x primitive F . b] and f is a continuous function on the interval u([a.

2. then we say that the improper integral diverges. Then " 3.1. ∞) is defined as " ∞ a f (x)dx := lim b→∞ " b f (x)dx. u(1) = 2. 3 3 Improper Integrals In the previous section. x→∞ Examples: 14 . The improper integral of f on [a. #∞ #∞ 2. a If the limit exists and is finite. # ∞ dx # b dx π b 2. b]. a f (x)dx converges if a φ(x)dx converges. ∞) and f ∈ R[a. ∞) and f ∈ R[a. Then by properties of Riemann integral. we get u′ = 2x and u(0) = 1. we defined Riemann integral for functions defined on closed and bounded interval [a. 0 ≤ F (x) ≤ G(x) and we are given that lim G(x) exists. (i) 1 x12 dx = limb→∞ 1 x12 dx = limb→∞ 1 − 1b = 1. If the limit goes to infinity or does not exist.3.Taking u = 1 + x2 . Define F (x) = a f (t)dt and G(x) = a g(t)dt. Examples: #∞ #b 1. Theorem 3. The function is not defined at some points on the interval [a. x→∞ F is monotonically increasing and bounded above. a φ(x)dx diverges if a f (x)dx diverges. The function f (x) defined on unbounded interval [a. Definition 3. In this section our aim is to extend the concept of integration to the the following cases: 1. then #∞ #∞ 1. b] for all b > a. We first consider Improper integral of first kind: Suppose f is a bounded function defined on [a.3 1 √ x 1+ x2 dx 0 1 = 2 " 2 1 √ 1 2 1 2 udu = u 3 2u=1 = (2 3 − 1). Therefore. Comparison test: Suppose 0 ≤ f (x) ≤ φ(x) for all x ≥ a. #x #x Proof. we say that the improper integral converges. b] for all b > a. (ii) 0 1+x 2 = limb→∞ 0 1+x2 = limb→∞ arctan x 0 = 2 . lim F (x) exists. b]. So G(x) is bounded.3. 2.

Note that 0 ≤ f (x) + |f (x)| ≤ 2|f (x)|.3. " ∞ π ∞ ! | sin x| dx = x n=1 " (n+1)π nπ | sin x| dx x " (n+1)π ∞ ! 1 ≥ | sin x| nπ nπ n=1 " π ∞ ∞ ! 1 2!1 = sin x = . ∞) and 1 In the following we show that absolutely convergence implies convergence of improper integral. #∞ #∞ Theorem 3. 1 sin dx. x . Then we say a f (x)dx converges #∞ absolutely if a |f (x)|dx converges. nπ 0 π n=1 n n=0 On the other hand. 1 > on [1. #∞ #∞ #∞ f (x)dx = a f (x) + |f (x)|dx − a |f (x)|dx also converges. Note that x3 dx.3. If the integral a |f (x)|dx converges.1. Examples: #∞ x #∞ x 1. #∞ 1 #∞ dx x2 (1+ex ) . For example take the integral This integral does not converge absolutely. #∞ π sin x dx. Easy to see that | sin | ≤ | x13 | and 1 x3 x3 15 dx x3 converges. x+1 Note that 1 x2 (1+ex ) x3 x+1 x2 2 < 1 x2 and #∞ 1 dx x2 converges. lim b→∞ " b 1 sin x dx = lim b→∞ x " b 1 d(1 − cos x) 1 x $ % " b (1 − cos b 1 − cos x = lim + dx b→∞ b x2 1 It is not difficult to show that the limits on the right exist. by integration by parts. then the integral a f (x)dx converges. #∞ Definition 3. #∞ Proof. Let f ∈ R[a. Indeed. /// a The converse of the above theorem is not true. So the improper integral a f (x) + #∞ |f (x)|dx converges by comparison theorem above. Therefore.3. b] for all b > a.4. 2. #∞ x2 dx diverges. Also a |f (x)| converges.

If L = ∞.e. Now in case (1). Take f (x) = 1+x2 and g(x) = x2 . then a f (x)dx diverges if a g(x)dx diverges. Then limx→∞ g(x) = 1 and 1 #∞ converges. From the definition of limits. say x ≥ M .2. If L ∈ (0.5. If L = 0. #∞ 2 e−x sin x . 1 √dx . Using the property 3. then a f (x)dx converges if a g(x)dx converges. i. then the improper integrals a f (x)dx and a g(x)dx are either both #∞ #∞ convergent or both divergent. it is enough to prove the convergence/divergence for x large. since L > 0. Then limx→∞ fg(x) = 1 and 1 g(x)dx x+1 #∞ diverges. a g(x)dx diverges #∞ =⇒ a f (x)dx diverges.e. Proof. we have the comparison (L − ϵ)g(x) < f (x) < (L + ϵ)g(x).3. 16 . So by above theorem. Examples: #∞ #∞ (x) 1 1. integrate on both sides. for every M > 0. we have (L − ϵ)g(x) < f (x) < (L + ϵ)g(x). we have f (x) < (L + ϵ)g(x).e. ∞). In this interval. g(x) Thus for x ≥ M . Take f (x) = √x+1 and g(x) = √1x . #∞ #∞ #∞ 3. x→∞ g(x) #∞ #∞ 1.. i. 1 1+x g(x)dx 2 . Now integrating this. a f (x)dx converges ⇐⇒ a g(x) converges. there exists. we can find ϵ > 0 such that L − ϵ > 0. R such that f (x) > M g(x) for all x > R. #∞ #∞ #∞ 2. a g(x)dx con#∞ verges =⇒ a f (x)dx converges. # ∞ dx #∞ f (x) 1 1 2. So by above theorem. there exists M > 0 such that x ≥ M =⇒ L − ϵ < f (x) < L + ϵ. Limit comparison test: Let f (x). In case (2). In case (3) by the definition. Now the result follows similar to (1) and (2). log(1+x) Here first note that limx→0 at x = 0. For x > 10(say): 0 2 e−x sin x log(1+x) = 1. we get the result. g(x) are defined and positive for f (x) all x ≥ a and lim = L. 1 f (x)dx diverges. Therefore the integral is proper 2 e−x 2 |f (x)| ≤ < e−x ≤ e−x log(1 + x) Hence the integral #∞ 2 e−x sin x 10 log(1+x) converges by comparison theorem. i. Theorem 3.. for any ϵ > 0. 1 f (x)dx converges. Again.

Then #c #c 1.an are finitely many discontinuities of f (x) in [a. + a2 " b f (x)dx an If all the improper integrals on the right hand side converge.. Otherwise. So choose g(x) = xe−x .7. b].3. If L ∈ (0.. If L = 0 and a g(x)dx converges then a f (x)dx converges. Then we define " c " c−ϵ f (x)dx = lim f (x)dx. 17 .6. If L = ∞ and a g(x)dx diverges then a f (x)dx diverges. ∞).. c − ϵ] for all ϵ > 0. we say it diverges. g(x) be continuous in (x) [a. b] converges.3. then we say the improper integral of f over [a.8. cosh x f (x) limx→∞ g(x) 0 x x −x Let f (x) = cosh = e2xe . ϵ→0 a #b a Then a f (x)dx is said to converge if the limit exists and is finite. Then 2x +1 ∼ xe x #∞ = 2 and 0 g(x) converges. Then a f (x)dx and a g(x)dx both converge or diverge together.. #c #c 1. . Example: x ϵ→0 ϵ x ϵ→0 0 Suppose a1 .3. c) and limx→c fg(x) = L. Let f (x) be defined on [a. c) and f ∈ R[a. we say #b improper integral a f (x)dx diverges. c) and are discontinuous at c. Otherwise. Then " b f (x)dx = a " a1 f (x)dx + a " a2 f (x)dx + a1 " a3 f (x)dx + . If a f (x)dx converges then a φ(x)dx converges.. #c #c 2. (Comparison Theorem:) Suppose 0 ≤ φ(x) ≤ f (x) for all x ∈ [a.. (Limit comparison theorem:) Suppose 0 < f (x). Theorem 3. a2 . #c #c 2. Improper integrals of second kind Definition 3. #∞ x dx. If a φ(x)dx diverges then a f (x)dx diverges. " 1 " 1 √ dx dx √ = lim √ = lim 2(1 − ϵ) = 2. #c #c 3.3. The following comparison and Limit comparison tests can be proved following similar arguments: Theorem 3.

Since the domain of integration is (0. But if one takes ϵ1 = (n+1) 2 . For example.7) where ϵ1 . " 1 −1 dx = x3 " 0 −1 dx + x3 " −ϵ1 " 1 0 dx x3 dx = lim + lim ϵ1 →0 −1 x3 ϵ2 →0 1 1 1 = lim ( 2 − 2 ). This is an improper integral of first kind. there exists δ > 0 such that x ∈ (c − δ. u 3 − u2 0 Remark 3. then the above limit in (3. for each ϵ > 0. Instead. 2 ϵ1 .7) does not exist. From the definition of limit. by choosing ϵ < L. Transforming improper integrals: Sometimes improper integrals may" be transformed into proper integrals. ∞). we say integral diverges. It is important to note that the ”symmetric” limit could be convergent but the limit may not exist.ϵ2 →0 ϵ1 ϵ2 " 1 ϵ2 dx x3 (3. then the limit exits 1 1 and is equal to 0.6. for example 3 dx 1 consider the improper integral I = . Taking the transformation y = . which is a proper integral. Γ(p) = " ∞ xp−1 e−x dx 0 This integral is improper of second kind in the neighbourhood of 0 as xp−1 goes to infinity as x → 0 (when p < 1). ϵ2 = n2 . By now. c) =⇒ (L − ϵ)g(x) < f (x) < (L + ϵ)g(x) Rest of the proof follows in the similar lines theorems on first kind. we are getting different limits. the integral is improper 18 .Proof. It is easy to see that if one takes ϵ1 = ϵ2 . if we choose 1/2 y 3y − 1 " √2 2udu √ the transformation 3 − x = u2 then I = . So through different sequences. by our familiarity with existence of limits. ϵ2 → 0 as n → ∞. √ √ 3−x x 3−x 1 " ∞ dy √ we get I = . Gamma and Beta functions: Consider the Gamma function defined as improper integral for p > 0.

we take f (x) = xp−1 (1 − x)q−1 and g(x) = (1 − x)q−1 . then lim =1 x→0 g(x) " 1 and xp−1 dx converges. g(x) = 1 . β(p. Then " 1/2 f (x) q−1 lim = lim (1 − x) = 1 and xp−1 dx converges. 2. q > 0. the integral converges. q) = " 1 0 xp−1 (1 − x)q−1 dx If p > 1 and q > 1. Γ(α + 1) = αΓ(α). for convergence x→0 g(x) x→0 0 of I2 . take f (x) = xp−1 e−x and 0 #∞ f (x) = lim x2+p−1 e−x = 0 and 1 x→∞ g(x) x→∞ (2) of limit comparison theorem. x2 Then lim 1 dx x2 converges. . To see the convergence of I2 . Integration by parts formula implies. Hence by Next we consider the Beta function defined as improper integral for p > 0.of first kind. take f (x) = xp−1 (1 − x)q−1 and g(x) = xp−1 . Γ(1) = 0 e−x dx = 1. To see the convergence of I1 . we divide as before " 1 x 0 p−1 (1 − x) q−1 dx = " 1/2 x p−1 0 (1 − x) q−1 dx + " 1 1/2 xp−1 (1 − x)q−1 dx = I1 + I2 . we divide the integral into Γ(p) = " 1 x p−1 −x e dx + 0 =I1 + I2 " ∞ xp−1 e−x dx 1 f (x) To see the convergence of I1 we take f (x) = xp−1 e−x and g(x) = xp−1 . then the integral is definite integral. To prove the convergence. Some identities of beta and gamma functions: #∞ 1. Γ(α + 1) = " ∞ 0 α −x x e α −x = −(x e 19 )|∞ 0 +α " ∞ 0 xα−1 e−x dx = αΓ(α). To prove the convergence. Similarly. this integral is improper of second kind at 0 and/or 1. When p < 1 and/or q < 1.

3 27 x. Γ( 12 ) = π. 0 π/2 2 e−r rdrdθ = π 0 4. n) = 6. $ 1 Γ( ) 2 %2 " =4 " =4 ∞ 0 ∞ 0 " " ∞ 2 2 e−u e−v dudv. n) = 2 " " 1 tn−1 (1 − t)m−1 dt = β(n. −∞ sin xdx does not exist.Similarily. take u = r cos θ. m) 0 π/2 sin2m−1 θ cos2n−1 θdθ 0 Taking x = sin2 θ in β(m. we get β(m. n) = β(n. √ 3. then the integral becomes 1 3 " " tdt = 2 " t4 (1 − t)1/2 dt = 2β(5. Γ(m+n) " ∞ " √ 2/3 − x 1 3 Problem: Evaluate (i) x e dx (ii) x 2 (1 − 0 0 √ For (i). But lim c→∞ " c sin xdx −c 20 . n) = " π cos 2m−2 θ sin 2n−2 θ cos θ sin θdθ = 2 0 Γ(m)Γ(n) . then the given integral becomes " ∞ 4/3 −t t e 2tdt = 2 0 For (ii). β(m. again take t = 2 " √ 0 t (1 − t) 1/2 ∞ e−t t7/3 dt = 2Γ( 0 π/2 cos2m−1 θ sin2n−1 θdθ. v = r sin θ. n). take t = x.Therefore. Γ(m + 1) = m! ∀m ∈ IN . 0 √ 1 x) 2 dx 10 56 ) = Γ(1/3). β(m. 3/2) = 2 Γ(5)Γ(3/2) 512 = Γ(13/2) 3465 Cauchy Principal Value: #∞ Consider the improper integral I = 0 sin xdx. n). we get β(m. β(m. m). n) = 5. It is easy to see from the definition that #0 I = lima→∞ (1 − cos a) which does not exist. Substituting t = 1 − x in the definition of β(m.

. which explains under which conditions we can do the differentiation under integral sign.3. 3. . 2. It is easy to notice with change #∞ of variable formula..3. with c ∈ (a. Here we have a theorem. At times we can differentiate under the integral sign to evaluate the integral. It is sometimes not possible and leads to wrong #∞ assertions. this symmetric limit exists. 21 . Suppose. This is called Cauchy Principal value of improper integral Definition 3. Second kind: #1 −1 x−(2n+1) dx.. Integrals dependent on a Parameter Cosider an integral I(α) = " b f (x.9. 3. taking derivative inside integral.10. b) as point of discontinuity of f (x) as " b " c−δ " b CPV f (x)dx = lim f (x)dx + f (x)dx δ→0 a a c+δ Examples: #∞ First kind: −∞ x2n+1 dx for all n = 1. taking tx = y.. Though the improper integral does not exist. for n = 1. which doesn’t make sense. that I = I(t) = 0 sin(tx) = π2 .exists and is equal to 0.. Now differentiating x # ∞ this. we know that I = 0 sinx x = π2 . α)dx a where the integrand is depend on the parameter α. But the the improper integrals 0 x2n+1 and −∞ x2n+1 does not a→∞ −a converge... we get I ′ (t) = 0 cos(tx)dx = 0. The Cauchy Principal value of improper integral of first kind is defined as " " ∞ CPV R f (x)dx = lim R→∞ −∞ f (x)dx −R For the improper integral of second kind. 2. Theorem 3. For example. Simply evaluate " −ϵ x −(2n+1) + −1 " 1 x−(2n+1) ϵ to see that the the limit is 0. In this case it is easy to check that " a #∞ #0 lim x2n+1 = 0.

Hence C = 0. α + ∆α) − f (x. t)dt+f (x. α)dx. b(x))b′ (x)−f (x. d I(α + ∆α) − I(α) I(α) = lim ∆α→0 dα ∆α ." b 1 = lim (f (x. . α))dx ∆α a d d Now by Taylor’s theorem. b are integrable on [a. 2 2 . Then I is differentiable. where 0 < θ < 1 and ϵ → 0 as ∆α → 0. Also I(0) = 0 e−x sin 0x = 0. α + ∆α) − f (x. α) are continuous functions for x ∈ [a. dα f (x. Suppose f. dα Proof. a(x))a′ (x) dx sin αx dx. Newton-Leibnitz Formula: Let h(x) = " b(x) ′ f (x. α) = ∆α dα f (x. I(α) = arctan α+ 2 −x2 ) cos(tx)dx. α)| ≤ a(x). I ′ (α) = 0 e−x cos αxdx = #∞ C. f (x. 0 ∞ 0 |e −x2 cos(tx)|dx ≤ C 22 " ∞ 0 1 1 2 e−x dx = Γ( ).d 1. Thus " b " b d d d I(α) = lim f (x. b]. Evaluate I(α) = |I| ≤ e e−x t2 /2 " 1 . α) + ϵ. α) d d is continuous. t)dt. | dα f (x. 1+α2 ∞ 1 e 2 (t Therefore. " 2. x # 0 ∞ By the above formula. Then h (x) = a(x) Examples: " ∞ " b(x) a(x) df (x. Since dα f (x. α) + ϵ = f (x. b] and α in an interval of containing α0 . we have dα f (x. and ′ I (α) = " b a d f (x. Test the convergence and evaluate the integral 1. α + θ∆α). α)| ≤ b(x) such that a. α + θ∆α) = dα f (x. d 2. |f (x. α)dx ∆α→0 a dα dα a dα /// In fact the following holds.

then the approximation is with error 10k−1 . Then we know from the termby-term integration theorem. 3. b]. Ia′ (t) = = " " =e a 1 e 2 (t 0 a 0 2 −x2 ) (t cos tx − x sin tx)dx ∂ 1 (t2 −x2 ) e2 sin txdx ∂x 1 2 (t −a2 ) 2 sin at Therefore.Hence the integral converges. 23 . Let f (x) = k=0 an t for |t| < R. I ′ (t) = lima→∞ Ia′ (t) = 0. b] and has its Taylor series in an interval containing [a.4 #∞ 0 2 /2 e−x dx = √1 Γ(1/2). Now note that I(0) = . 2 Approximation of definite integrals Suppose we are given a function f : [a. b] → IR that is integrable on [a. " 1 2 2 x sin(x )dx = 0 = = " 0 ∞ 1! ∞ ! n=0 ∞ ! n=0 Hence " 1 x2 sin(x2 ) = 0 n=0 (−1)n x4n+4 (2n + 1)! (−1)n x4n+5 1 (4n + 5)(2n + 1)! 0 (−1)n (4n + 5)(2n + 1)! 1 1 1 1 − + − 5 54 13 × 5! 17 × 7! Since the 4th term has 4 zeros in the first 4 decimal places. Then we can approximate the definite integral using +∞ n the Taylor series. Hence I(t) = π2 . So the approximation has error less than 10−4 . " t f (x)dx = 0 ∞ " ! k=0 t n an x dx = 0 ∞ ! an k=0 tn+1 |t| < R n+1 #1 Example: Find the approximate value of the definite integral 0 x2 sin(x2 )dx with error less than 10−4 . By Newton Leibnitz formula. We note that if the nt h term has k zeros in the first k decimals.

Recall from section 3.yn = f (xn ). + yn ) 24 b−a n b−a . We denote y0 = f (x0 ). n #b a f (x)dx when . Then we can still approximate the definite integral using Riemann sums. this integral is transformed 1 (1 − k 2 sin2 φ)− 2 dφ.. sin(α/2) dθ. xk ] and ∆xk = xk − xk−1 ... Let θ be the angular coordinate. We can use Taylor series to find approximate value as described in the previous example.... When we take ξk = xk−1 n and ξk = xk we get the sums ((y0 + y1 + . This integral is an improper integral which is difficult to evaluate.Application: A pendulum of mass m suspended by a inextensible string of length L is released from initial position of angle α (from equilibrium position)... y1 = f (x1 ). + yn−1 ) ∆x (y1 + y2 + . Now suppose the function is not continuous but only integrable. that if the function is integrable then definite integral can be computed as " b f (x)dx = lim a n→∞ n ! f (ξk )∆xk k=1 where ξk ∈ [xk−1 ... Then the quarter-period time τ /4 is given by τ = 4 / L 4g " α 0 $ α θ sin2 ( ) − sin2 ( ) 2 2 By taking the transformation θ 2→ φ defined as sin φ = to " π/2 0 %− 12 sin(θ/2) . So we write Rectangular formula " b a " f (x)dx ≈ (y0 + y1 + . k = sin2 (α/2). we get ∆xk = b−a ..1.. When we take equal partitions. + yn ) ∆x Each of these sums is a Riemann sum and converges to definite integral n → ∞... + yn−1 ) b a f (x)dx ≈ (y1 + y2 + .. .

These approximations involve the area of rectangles with sides xk−1 xk and height yk−1 or yk ... (Explain Geometrically)! We can also take quadratic approximation or with exact values at three points.. + ∆x 2 2 2 $ % b − a y0 + yn ≈ + y1 + y2 + .. the first two formulas involve the sum of areas of rectangles and trapezoidal rule consists of areas of trapezoids. 25 . + yn−1 n 2 % As the name suggests. we could take mid-points of the interval for ”better approximation” to obtain Trapezoidal Rule: " b a $ y0 + y1 y1 + y2 yn−1 + yn f (x)dx ≈ ∆x + ∆x + .. Instead of taking the end points. Approximations like this and estimation of errors is part of Numerical integration theory which is beyond the scope of this course. This is also seen as piecewise linear approximation of the function y = f (x).

5π ) and (−2. and θ = tan−1 ( xy ) 26 . i. b] is " b A= (f (x) − g(x))dx.3. a Example: Find the area bounded by y = x2 and y 2 = x The curves interest at x = 0. Example: The point (2. we can write the cartesian coordinates using x = r cos θ. Arc length. x2 + y 2 . 2. 7π ) 6 6 Relation with cartesian coordinates: We often use the following relations: 1. π). 1. Each point (r. θ) = (1. The upper curve is y 2 = x and lower curve is y 2 = x. we can write polar coordinates using r = . Each point on the plane has infinitely many representations in polar form. b]. the area bounded by the curves y = f (x) and y = g(x) where f (x) ≥ g(x) on [a. We allow r negative with convention: (−r.5 Applications to Area. 0). n ∈ N and (−1. Also it is same as (1. y) on the xy-plane is assigned polar coordinates (r. θ) is same as (r. Given the cartesian coordinates (x. Given the polar coordinates (rθ). tance r = x2 + y 2 from the origin on the ray at an angle θ with positive x-axis. θ) if the point is at a dis. for example (1. and y = r sin θ.e. Volume and Surface area Suppose f (x) ≥ 0 on [a. π/6) can also be represented by (−2. 0) is at a distance of 1 units from the origin on the x-axis. Then it is clear from the definition of Definite integral that the area under the curve y = f (x) can be approximated by Riemann sums.. y). 3 0 Polar coordinates A point (x. θ + π). θ +2nπ) for all n ∈ N. θ) = (r. So it can be represented in polar form also as (r. So by the above formula " 1 √ 2 1 1 A= ( x − x2 )dx = − = 3 3 3 0 " 1 1 √ One can also find by integrating along y: A = ( y − y 2 )dy = . A∼ = n ! k=1 f (ξi )(xi − xi−1 ) → " b a f (x)dx as n → ∞. 2nπ). Similarly.

The straight line y = mx is θ = tan−1 m 5. 2. again by (1) above we get r2 − 2ar cos θ = 0 =⇒ r = 2a cos θ. Then the graph is symmetric about y. The straight line x = a is r = a sec θ and y = b is r = b csc θ. 1. For (r. graph is symmetric about y-axis. r2 = cos 2(π − θ) = cos(2π − 2θ) = cos 2θ implies (r. The circle x2 + (y − a)2 = a2 =⇒ x2 + y 2 − 2ay = 0. suppose (r. −θ) is also on the graph. again by (1) above we get r2 − 2ar sin θ = 0 =⇒ r = 2a sin θ. 3. then r2 = cos 2(−θ) = cos 2θ implies (r. Again. (leminiscate): Consider the function r2 = cos 2θ. θ) is on the graph. Therefore. So the graph is also symmetric about the origin. So the graph is symmetric about x− axis.axis. θ) on the graph. π + θ) is also on the graph. θ) on the graph. π + θ) is also on the graph. Examples: 1. Then the graph is symmetric about the origin. Hence it is enough to trace the curve in the first quadrant. r2 cos2 θ+r2 sin2 θ = a2 which is r = a. π4 ]. The circle (x − a)2 + y 2 = a2 =⇒ x2 + y 2 − 2ax = 0. The circle x2 +y 2 = a2 in cartesian coordinates. There are three types of symmetry principles. For (r. We can also see that (r. suppose (r. π + θ) is also on the graph. −θ) is also on the graph. the domain of θ in the first quadrant is [− π4 . using (1) above. If (r. Now since r2 ≥ 0. 27 . 4. suppose (r. 2. For (r. Then the graph is symmetric about x− axis.Circles and Straight lines: 1. θ) on the graph. Also one can see by the derivative test that θ = 0 is a point of local maxima(see figure 1). Symmetry in polar coordinates: The symmetry of the graph of the function in polar coordinates helps one to plot/trace the graph. 3. π − θ) is also on the graph.

e. The typical sector has radius rk = f (θk ) and k central angle of radian measure ∆θk . Its area is ∆θ times the area of a circle rk . Area in polar coordinates: Let a region be bounded by the rays θ = α and θ = β and the curve r = f (θ). i. So the graph is symmetric with respect to x− axis. β]. So it is enough to trace the curve for 0 ≤ θ ≤ π. θ) ∈ graph =⇒ (r. −θ) ∈ graph. Taking n → ∞ so that ∥P ∥ → 0. Again by derivative test we see that θ = 0 is a point of minimum and θ = π is point of maximum(see figure 2). 2π 1 1 Ak = rk2 ∆θk = f (θk )2 ∆θk 2 2 + The area of the region is approximately nk=1 Ak . we 28 .r2 = cos 2θ 0≤θ≤ π 2 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π Figure 1: leminiscate r = 1 − cos θ 0≤θ≤π 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π Figure 2: Cardioid 2. (Cardioid): Consider the function r = 1−cos θ.. Then if (r. We approximate the region with n non-overlapping circular sectors based on the partition P of angle θ ∈ [α.

Then the length of this curve may be approximated by the formula n ! . . For example y = sin x between x = 0 and π. For a given curve defined by function y = f (x) between x = a.. 0) → (π/4. b. x2 . $ f (xi ) − f (xi−1 ) xi − xi−1 %2 (xi − xi−1 ) 1 + (f ′ (x))2 dx as n → ∞ The following two formulas are used for finding the Arc length or length of curve: 1.get A= " β 1 1 f (θ)2 dθ = 2 2 α " β r2 dθ. x1 . . The length of this curve can be approximated by sum of lengths of straight lines connecting (0. π}. Therefore. 2 This approximation becomes better and better as we refine the partition P = {0..xn = b}.. s∼ (xi − xi−1 )2 + (f (xi ) + f (xi−1 ))2 i=1 = → n ! i=1 " b a / 1+ . Solution: From the graph discussed above. α Example: Find the area of the region enclosed by the cardioid r = 2(1 − cos θ). The arc length s is approximately / π 1 ( ) 2 + ( √ )2 + 4 2 / π 2 1 ) + (1 − √ )2 + 4 2 0 π ( )2 + 1.xk−1 . sin(π/4)) → (π/2. . π/2. 0).. the area is " " 2π 1 2π 2 A= r dθ = (3 + cos 2θ − 4 cos θ)dθ = 6π. sin(π/2)) → (π.. the range of θ is from 0 to 2π. xk . we consider the partition P = {a = x0 . 2 0 0 Arc length Consider a curve defined by y = f (x) between x = a and x = b. For a function y = f (x) between x = a and x = b s= " b a / 1+ 29 $ df dx %2 dx. π/4.

Then $ dx dt %2 + Hence the arc length is l=3 " $ dy dt π 2 %2 = 9 cos2 t sin2 t. So the answer should be 2π.2. (x′ (t))2 + (y ′ (t))2 dt as n → ∞. 0 ≤ t ≤ π2 . 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π when a = 1.. 0 ≤ θ ≤ π. Solution: This curve is a circle with radius 1 at (1. t1 . y = y(t) between t = T1 and t = T2 . y = 2 cos θ sin θ . . cos t sin t dt = 0 3 2 Problem: Find the approximate value of the length of ellipse x = a cos t. For a function x = f (y) between y = c and y = d " s= d / 1+ c $ df dy %2 dy. Example: Find the arc length of the curve defined by x = 2 cos2 θ. Applying formula s= " =2 π 0 " . y = sin3 t. cos4 θ + 2 cos2 θ sin2 θ + sin4 θ dθ = 2π 2 2 Example 2: Find the arc length of an arc of x 3 + y 3 = 1. l = 4a " π/2 0 √ 1 − e2 cos2 tdt 30 . π 0 x′ (θ)2 + y ′ (θ)2 " dθ = 2 π 0 1 (2 cos θ sin θ)2 + (cos2 θ − sin2 θ)2 dθ ... that s may be approximated by taking the partition P = {T1 = t0 . solution: By the arc length formula. y = b sin t.. Parametric form: Suppose if an arc is defined in the parametric form x = x(t). Solution: Take the parametrization: x = cos3 t. 0). e = 1/2. tn = T2 } and s∼ → n ! /$ i=1 " T2 T1 xi − xi−1 ti − ti−1 %2 + $ yi − yi−1 ti − ti−1 %2 (ti − ti−1 ) . Then we note from above approximation.

From the above formula. To compress the spring from 0 to 0. n. Solution: Hooks law ways that the force it takes to stretch or compress a spring x length nits from its natural length is proportional to x.870. b] of the x-axis. For each x let A(x) be the area of the cross section (of the solid) obtained by cutting it with a plane perpendicular 31 .F = kx. xk ]. the force required to compress the spring from 0 to x with the formula F = 16x.25 W = 0 16xdx = 0.75 foot if the force constant is k = 16 kg/foot. We can use Trapezoidal rule to evaluate the value when a = 1 and e = 1/2. It is fixed at x = 1 and movable end at the origin. α Application to Work done Suppose the force f (x) depends on position x is along a straight line from x = a to x = b. Suppose the given springs is placed on the x− axis. α ≤ θ ≤ β. The total + work done (in moving from a to b) approximately is W ∼ ni=1 f (x∗k )∆x.25) = 16 × 0. we get dx dy = f ′ (θ) cos θ − f (θ) sin θ. ∆x = b−a and xi = a + i∆x for i = 1.e.5 f t − kg. x∗k ∈ [xk−1 . l= f 2 (θ) + (f ′ )2 (θ)dθ. the force must increase from F (0) = 0 to F (0. i. Example: Find the work required to compress a spring from its natural length of 1 foot to a length of 0. Let n ∈ N. . Volume of ”symmetrical” objects Method of Slicing: Consider a solid lying alongside some interval [a.. Then the work done in moving a n particle under the force f (x) from xk−1 to xk is approximately Wk = f (xk )∆x. 2. Suppose the curve is given in polar form r = f (θ). the work done by F over this interval is " 0. dθ dθ Hence the arc length is " β.25 ft. k is constant measured in force units per unit length. Then by taking the parametrization x = r cos θ = f (θ) cos θ and y = r sin θ = f (θ) sin θ with θ ∈ [α. = f ′ (θ) sin θ + f (θ) cos θ.25 = 4 foot-kg. The answer with n = 10 is l = 5. This integral is non-elementary except when e = 0 or 1.where e is ellipse’s eccentricity. The integrals in this form are called elliptic integrals. β].. #b Taking n → ∞ we get the total work done as W = a f (x)dx. Therefore...

a a If the revolution is performed about y axis. x1 . h2 3 Suppose the area revolved is bounded by two curves y = f (x) ≥ 0 and y = g(x) ≥ 0. Then each cross section looks like washer with outer radius r1 (x) = f (x) and inner radius r2 (x) = g(x). h. xi ] changes ”little bit” along the that subinterval. b] and x-axis. Now this can be done along any axis. then it can be approximated by a cylinder of height xi − xi−1 with base A(x∗i ).to the x-axis at x. It is easy to see that for this solid. The area of the cross section is π(f 2 (x) − g 2 (x)). xi ]. a Solid of Revolution: Consider the area between the function y = f (x). we obtain a solid which is called ”solid of revolution”. xi ]. So the volume of the slice is Vi = A(x∗i )(xi − xi−1 ). say y-axis. with f (x) ≥ g(x). In this case we get the formula: " b V = A(y)dy. xn divide the solid into n slices.. x ∈ [a. . x∗i ∈ [xi−1 . Then the volume is h V =π " h 0 r 2 x2 πr2 h dx = .. Hence the volume is V = " b A(x)dx = π a " b f 2 (x)dx. The volume of the solid is " b " b 2 2 V =π (r1 − r2 )(x)dx = π (f 2 (x) − g 2 (x))dx. If the cross section between [xi−1 . Then V =π " b a (f 2 (y) − g 2 (y))dy 32 . We divide the interval into n subintervals [xi−1 . x2 . a For example. take a cone of radius r and height h. Then the volume of the solid can be approximated as V ≈ n ! Vi = i=1 n ! A(x∗i )(xi i=1 − xi−1 ) → " b A(x)dx a as n → ∞. Then this cone can be obtained by revolving y = rx about x− axis between x = 0. By revolving this area along x− axis. the cross section is disc of radius f (x) and the area of cross section A(x) is equal to π[f (x)]2 . The planes that are perpendicular to the x-axis at the points x0 ..

Hence the volume will be given by V = 2π " b a x(f (x) − g(x))dx. 10 Volume by cylindrical shells: A cylindrical shell is the region between two concentric cylinders of same height h. Hence its volume is V ≈ n ! i=1 Vi = n ! 2πx∗i f (x∗i )(xi i=1 − xi−1 ) → 2π " b a xf (x)dx as n → ∞. then V = " b 2πyf (y)dy. where ra is the average radius (r1 + r2 )/2 and t is thickness of shell. y = x is x = 0. the required Volume is V =π " 1 (x − x4 )dx = 0 3π . Its height is f (x∗i ). Hence by above formula. a Suppose the solid is obtained by revolving(about y axis) the area between two curves y = f (x) and y = g(x) with f (x) ≥ g(x). b] into n subintervals [xi−1 . Its average radius is x∗i . Example: Find the volume obtained by revolving the area bounded by y = 2x2 − x3 and 33 . We divide the interval [a.Example: The volume of the solid obtained by revolving the area bounded by y = x2 √ and y = x about the x− axis. the mid point. 1. Let r1 be the radius of outer cylinder and r2 be that of inner cylinder. Next we can see that y = x is above y = x2 in this interval. Easy to √ √ see that (real) solution of y = x2 . Then the volume of this shell is V = π(r12 − r22 )h = 2πra th. Its thickness is (xi − xi−1 )/2. Consider the solid generated by revolving y = f (x). Each shell is approximately cylindrical. If the region is revolved about the x axis. a ≤ x ≤ b around the y-axis. The volume V of the solid may be approximated by the sum of the volumes Vi of the shells between [xi−1 . xi ]. xi ]. Then the shell height will be f (x∗i ) − g(xi )∗ ). Solution: First we solve these two equation to find the interval of integration. It is something like top portion of ”Well” above earth surface. where x∗i = (xi−1 + xi )/2.

2 Now we divided the interval into sub-intervals [xi−1 . |L| is 34 . 5 If we revolve the area about Arbitrary line parallel to axis . Consider the small cylinders with radii r1 = f (xi ) and r2 = f (xi−1 ). Height of the shell is f (x) = 2x2 − x3 . Solution: The points of intersection are 0 and 1. So the volume is V = " 2 2πxf (x) = 2π 0 " 2 0 (2x3 − x4 ) = 16π . We note as in arc length. where |L| is the length of line segment touching f (xi−1 ) and f (xi ) . We assume that f is differentiable and f ′ is integrable. So the radius is 2 − x and height is x − x2 . So the volume in this case is " b 2π(x − c)(f (x) − g(x))dx.y = 0 about y axis. V = a Similarly. Then the surface area of this cylinder is Si = 2π f (xi )+f2 (xi−1 ) |L|. The surface area of such cylinder is 2π r1 +r l. Hence the volume is V = " 1 2 0 2π(2 − x)(x − x )dx = 2π " 1 0 (x3 − 3x2 + 2x)dx = π . a ≤ x ≤ b about x-axis. if the region is revolved about x = d. Let L be the line segment connecting f (xi−1 ) and f (xi ). then V = " b a 2π(y − d)(f (y) − g(y))dy. say x = c. Example: Find the volume of the solid obtained by rotating the region bounded by y = 0 and y = x − x2 about x = 2. 2 Surface area of solids of revolution Consider an object obtained by revolving a curve y = f (x). 2. Then the radius of the shell be x − c (or c − x whichever is positive) instead of x. Solution: The points of intersection of y = 0 and y = 2x − x3 are x = 0. xi ]. We find the surface area of this by approximating the surface by cylinders having the radius r1 on one end and r2 2 at the other end with lateral height l.

the formula becomes. 35 √ 3 x.0 1+ & f (xi−1 )−f (xi ) xi −xi−1 n ! '2 (xi − xi−1 ). 1 + (f ′ (x))2 dx. 1 + g ′ (y)2 dy Also. " . S = 2π " b y a . xi ] . 1 + (f ′ (x))2 dx a 0 " 1√ x2 = 2π 4 − x2 1 + dx 4 − x2 −1 " 1 = 2π dx = 4π S = 2π b f (x) −1 If the curve is described as x = g(y). i=1 → 2π 2 " b f (x) a 1 + [f ′ (x∗i )]2 (xi − xi−1 ). if the rotation is about the y-axis. 1 + g ′ (y)2 dy. 1 ≤ y ≤ 2 . x∗i ∈ [xi−1 . −1 ≤ x ≤ 1 about x-axis. Problem: Find the surface area of the solid obtained by rotating y = about y-axis. f (xi ) + f (xi−1 ) |L| 2 i=1 / $ %2 n ! f (xi ) + f (xi−1 ) f (xi−1 ) − f (xi ) = 2π 1+ (xi − xi−1 ) 2 x − x i i−1 i=1 S≈ = 2π 2π n ! f (xi ) + f (xi−1 ) . then we have: S = 2π " b y a . 1]. Example: Find the surface area of the solid obtained by revolving the curve y = √ 4 − x2 . Hence applying mean value theorem. Solution: This is the portion of the circle x2 + y 2 = 4 between [−1.

the integral for V converges. (c) f (x) = ⎧ ⎨sin x x = n1 . This is sometimes described as a can that does not hold enough paint to cover its own interior. Using the definition of definite integral. x V =π " ∞ 1 1 dx x2 It is easy to see that the integral in S diverges. Interpret the result. " b 1 1 x 0 1 1 + 4 dx > x " b 1 1 dx. This is known as Painter’s paradox.Solution: Given curve is x = y 3 . determine which of the following functions defined on [0. a finite amount of paint cannot cover infinite surface. 2. dx 2 S = 2π y 1 + ( ) dy = 2π y 3 1 + 9y 4 dy dy y=1 1 " 2 . Of course. 36 . 3. 1] are integrable ⎧ ⎨1 x < 1 (a) f (x) = ⎩2 x = 1 (d) f (x) = ⎧ ⎨1 + x x ∈ Q (b) f (x) = ⎩1 − x x ̸∈ Q ⎧ ⎨cos π x ⎩0 x∈Q x ̸∈ Q where [y] is integral value of y. Solution: The surface area and volume are given by S = 2π " ∞ 1 1 x 0 1 1 + 4 dx. Indeed.6 Problems 1. By the given formula. 2π π π = 36y 3 1 + 9y 4 dy = (1 + 9y 4 )3/2 2y=1 = (1453/2 − 103/2 ) 36 1 27 27 2 3 Problem: Find the surface area and volume of the solid generated by infinite curve y = x1 . n ∈ N ⎩cos x otherwise ⎧ ⎨x[ 1 ] 0 < x ≤ 1 x (e) f (x) = ⎩0 x = 0. 1 ≤ y ≤ 2. Determine if the following statements are True/false? Give a proof if it is true and give an example if it is false. " / " 2 . x ≥ 1. But if we fill the can with finite amount of paint we will have covered an infinite surface. x However.

+sin ] = n→∞ n n+1 n+2 2n n n n π 6. g are integrable then f og is integrable. b] such that f (x) = g(x). (b) 0 " ∞ 1 dx 2 x (1 + ex ) (c) " ∞ 1 " x+1 √ dx (d) x3 ∞ x2 1 dx √ + x 7. dx |2 − x| dx dx. 3. Show that if f (x) = 0. g. Using Beta and Gamma functions. p > 0 + x2 ) |x|p (1 9. x 2 0 (b) " 1 0 xt − 1 dx = log(1 + t) log x 10. (c) If |f | is integrable then f is integrable. . . . q > −1 (c) (1 + x2 )2 " ∞ −∞ log x .+ ) = loge 2 (b) lim [sin +sin +. #b a #b f= a 4. (d) If f. Then show that #b a f (x)dx = 0. Discuss the convergence/divergence of improper integrals of first kind (a) " ∞ −x e cosx dx. g are integrable then so is f g and fg . b] and there exists x ∈ [a. . Show the following: (a) " ∞ e −tx sin x π dx = − arctan t.(a) If f is integrable then f 2 and |f | are also integrable. (g ̸= 0). Prove that (a) lim ( n→∞ 1 1 1 1 π 2π nπ 2 + +. Suppose f and g are continuous functions on [a. Discuss the convergence/divergence of improper integrals of second kind (a) " 2 1 √ x dx ln x (b) " 1 0 " sin(x2 ) √ dx (c) x π/2 1 tan x dx x3/2 (d) " 3 0 8. p. then 5. evaluate the following: (a) " ∞ 0 e −x2 dx (b) " π/2 √ tan xdx (c) 0 37 " 1 1 x (log( ))n dx (d) x m 0 " π/2 sin4 θ cos6 θdθ 0 . Suppose f is continuous on [a. b] and f (x) ≥ 0. Discuss the convergence/divergence of improper integrals (a) " ∞ x −1 2 x2 e dx (b) 0 " ∞ 0 xp | ln x|q dx. (b) If f.

and effectively 0 ft are out when the car is at the top floor. 1}. lim(U (Pϵ . x = 0. f ) = 1(1 − ϵ) + 2ϵ = 1 + ϵ and L(Pϵ . √ (b) The region inside the lemniscate r2 = 6 cos 2θ and outside the circle r = 3. f ) = 1(1 − ϵ) + 1ϵ = 1. (b > a) about y = 0 is 4π 2 ab. Find the force constant using Hook’s law and the work done in stretching the spring from 10 inches to 12 inches. y = b sin3 t 13. (a) Consider the partition Pϵ = {0. x2 + (y − b)2 = a2 . (c) one arc of the cycloid. (b) y = x3 . x = a(t − sint). Compute the area: (a) the region the lies inside the circle r = 1 and outside the cardioid r = 1 − cos θ. A spring with natural length of 10 inches. The upper and lower sum with this partition is U (Pϵ . from 0 to 1 (b) x = 1+y 2 .11. 14. 17. y 2 = 4ax between x = 0 and x = 3a. An 800 gram force stretches the spring to 14 in. and y = x (c) y = x(1 − x)2 (b) Rotating the area bounded by the following about x− axis (a) y = √ x. 3 (b) the circle. Prove the surface area of the solid obtained by revolving: (a) the parabola. Find the volume of solid of revolution by slicing method (a) y = sin x about x-axis. y = a(1 − cost) about x-axis is 64 πa2 . about y = 0 is 56 πa2 . When the car is at the first floor. Therefore. y = 1. f )) = 0. x = 0 15. ϵ→0 38 . y = 2 (c) x = 4y 2 −y 3 . x ≥ 0. Hence f is integrable. 180ft of cable are paid out. Compute the arc length of (a) x = α cos t. Using the method of cylindrical shells find the Volume of the solids obtained by (a) Rotating the area bounded by the following about y-axis (a) y = 2x2 − x3 . 2π) (b) x = a cos3 t. y = α sin t. 12.7 Hints 1. 1 − ϵ. How much work does the motor do just lifting the cable when it takes the car from the first floor to top? 3. y = x. y ≥ 0 about y-axis. and y = 0 (b) y = x2 .5kg/ft. An electric elevator with a motor at the top has a multistrand cable weighing 4. 3 16. t ∈ (0. f ) − L(Pϵ .

f ) ≤ (Mi − mi )∆xi ≤ ∆xi = 1/N < ϵ.. f ) < ϵ. f ) − L(P. ξ1 . f ) − L(P. f ) = ≤ ∞ ! 2 . Now for other half... 1/N ].. (f) Note that f is continuous on [0. f ) = 2 +n i 1 1 n−1 lim (U (Pn . nn }. Consider a partition ϵ P = {a = x0 . f )) = 1. So n→0 Theorem f is not integrable (c) Let ϵ > 0.(b) Consider the sequence of partitions {Pn }. 1]. U (P. ξ1 .. ξr − N +1 U (Pϵ .. f ) < 2M . be the infinitely many discontinuities of f in [0. x2 . there exists P such that U (P. b]. 1]. . ξr + N +r 3 . 1]. 1]. Consider the partitions Pϵ = 2π 4 . x1 . · · · . Alternatively..xi ] is strictly positive... f ) − L(P. Note that f has only finite discontinuities in [ N1 . For the proof of the claim. Hence integrable in [ N1 . One has to choose a sub-interval [a.. Then + ∥Pn ∥ → 0 as n → 0 and U (Pn . Hence integrable in [ π4 . ξ2 . n1 . i 2 i=1 for some C > 0.. 2. f )−L(Pn . f ) − L(P. . 0 .. n2 . for some N . ξ1 + N +1 ϵ 2 .. xn = b} such that U (P.let Mi and mi be the supremum and infimum of f and Mi′ and m′i 39 . f ) − L(Pϵ . (a) Let M > 0 be such that |f (x)| ≤ M for all x ∈ [a. f ) = ni=1 (1 + ni ) n1 = n1 (n + n+1 ). (d) A similar problem is done in the class. . Now for any partition + + of [0. 1]. Now we 2 2 claim that for this partition P we have U (P. Then observe that min max f (x) i [xi−1 . Thus f is integrable on [0. 1]. Note that f has finitely many discontinuities in [ π4 . Hence f is integrable. f ) < ϵ. 1/N ] also. (e) f is continuous on [0. Then ξi = N1+i . Choose N such that 1/N < ϵ and 1/N < π/4. π4 ]. 1].. b] where cos πx > 0 on that sub-interval [0. Hence by Darboux i=1 (1− n ) n = n (n− 2 ). where Pn = {0.. L(Pn . Use Uniform continuity of f to show that: for any ϵ > 0. ξ1 − ϵ 2 ... . Then N +r ϵ 2 (Mi − mi )△xi i=1 ∞ ! i=1 ϵ Mi △xi ≤ ∞ ! ϵ ≤ ϵC.

|g(x)| ≤ K for some K > 0. y ∈ [0. f ) < ϵK 2 ϵK 2 . i. f ) − L(P. f ) < . let ϵ > 0 be given. b]. Integrability of |f | is done in lectures. 1] we have f (x) f (y) f (x)g(y) − f (y)g(x) − = g(x) g(y) g(x)g(y) 1 ≤ 2 [|f (x)||g(y) − g(x)| + |g(x)||f (x) − f (y)|] K (3.be the supremum and infimum of f 2 in [xi−1 . f ) − L(P.. (b) To check the Riemann integrability we need the function to be bounded. Therefore. (c) No. For any x. Also. ∃P1 . f ) − L(P2 . Mi − mi ≤ 2M (Mi − mi ). 1] ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩1 x = 0. f ) − L(P1 . xi ] respectively. ⎧ ⎧ ⎪ c ⎪ ⎪ ⎨0 x = 0 ⎨0 x ∈ Q (d) No. Take a counter example as f (x) = 1 for x ∈ Q and f (x) = −1 for x ̸∈ Q. f ) = (Mi′ − m′i ).(xi+1 − xi ) 2 2 i=0 ≤ n ! i=0 2M (Mi − mi )(xi+1 − x1 ) = 2M (U (P. then f 2 (x) − f 2 (y) = (f (x) + f (y))(f (x) − f (y)) ≤ 2M (Mi − mi ).e. U (P2 . 2 max |g| 2 max |f | Now the integrability of fg follows from (3.8) by taking P = P1 ∪ P2 . xi+1 ]. Take N ∈ N such that 40 1 N < 2ϵ . Then U (P. f )) ≤ ϵ. Counter example is f (x) = and g(x) = 1q x = pq ⎩1 x ∈ (0. ⎧ ⎨1 x ∈ Q Then f og(x) = ⎩0 x ̸∈ Q To show the integrability of g. So assume that fg is bounded on [a.8) Now as f and g are integrable. This implies f 2 (x) ≤ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ 2M (Mi − mi ) + mi and Mi ≤ 2M (Mi − mi ) + mi . P2 such that U (P1 . Now the integrability of f 2 follows from n ! U (P. . 1. f 2 (x) ≤ 2M (Mi − mi ) + f 2 (y) for all y ∈ [xi . fg ) < K12 (ϵK 2 ) = ϵ. fg ) − L(P.

. we get a f (x)dx ≥ x00−δ f (x2 0 ) dx = f (xo )δ > 0. x0 + δ]. nn }. · · · . b] #b #b #b #b such that a h(x)dx = h(ξ)(b − a). for i ̸= j. Now consider Pϵ = {0.. Hence lim S(Pn .. Suppose ∃ x0 ∈ [a. Hence f ≡ 0. n→∞ #1 (b) Take f (x) = sin(πx) then f is integrable on [0. ξk + .Now note that there are only finite number of rational numbers say ξ1 . f ) = i=1 f ( n ) n = i=1 i+n . b] such that f (x0 ) ̸= 0.1] and 0 f (x)dx = π2 . (a) 0 e cos xdx = lim e−x cos xdx b→∞ #b 0 1 Now take I = 0 e cos xdx = 12 (1 − cos be−b + sin be−b ).. nn }. ξk − . So if we take ϵ = f (x2 0 ) then f (x) ≥ f (x2 0 ) ∀x ∈ [x0 − δ. 1 ϵ1 ϵ1 ϵ1 ϵ1 . 3 −x x2 41 .ξk ∈ [ N1 . Let ϵ1 be chosen such that ϵ1 < ϵ and ϵ1 ϵ1 ξi ̸∈ (ξj − 4K . 1] such that ξi = pqii and qi ≤ N . Then as f ≥ 0 we have f (x0 ) > 0. j = 1. #2 1 5. So lim I = ⇒ b→∞ 2 # ∞ −x e cos xdx is convergent. Hence h(ξ) = 0 ⇒ f (ξ) = g(ξ) 4. Then by Mean Value theorem. . n2 . x0 + δ]. n2 . Now U (Pϵ . f (x0 ) + ϵ] for x ∈ [x0 − δ.. Take +n +n 1 i 1 Pn = {0. 2. ξ2 . But as a f (x)dx = a g(x)dx. g) = ! Pϵ k ! ϵ1 1 Mi ∆xi ≤ + = ϵ. ξ1 − ... Take h = f − g Then h is also continuous. The second integral on the right side diverges.k.. Then S(Pn . So by domain decomposition property of #b # x +δ Riemann integral. 1] and 1 f (x)dx = ln 2. Also f is continuous so for a given ϵ > 0 ∃δ > 0 such that f (x) ∈ [f (x0 ) − ϵ. f ) = ni=1 f ( ni ) n1 = ni=1 sin( iπ ) 1 . n1 . f ) = i=1 sin( iπ ) 1 = π2 n n " b # ∞ −x 6. #∞ #1 #1 (c) 1 (x+1)dx = 0 √1x + 0 x−3/2 dx. Hence n n +∞ limn→∞ S(Pn . So a h(x)dx = 0.Hence by comparison test given imx2 proper integral is convergent. i. . Contradiction. N 2k i=1 3.. f ) = ln 2. ξj + 4K ). We will prove it by contradiction. g) = 0. ξ1 + . · · · . Then S(Pn . . Take + + Pn = {0. ∃ξ ∈ [a. (a) Take f (x) = x+1 then f is integrable on [0. n1 . 1} N 4k 4k 4k 4k Then clearly L(Pϵ . 0 # ∞ dx #∞ (b) 1 x2 (1+ex ) ≤ 1 dx which is convergent .

#∞ (x) Also as limx→∞ fg(x) = 0. #1 2) f (x) √ (b) f (x) = sin(x and Take g(x) = √1x . #∞ (x) Also as limx→∞ fg(x) = 0. Both the integral on the right side are convergent 0 0 1 x2 x hence the given integral is convergent. q > 0. x3 2 1 1 # 1 ex2 dx √ Now is convergent Since if we 0 1 0 x # # ∞ x2 f (x) 1 take g(x) = √1x then lim = 1 and 0 √dxx is convergent But 1 e √xdx is x→0 g(x) #∞ f (x) divergent. Then limπ ∈ (0. (a) Take ln x = t then x = et and the integral becomes 0 e t . x 42 . Take g(x) = xp−4−ϵ where ϵ > 0. 1 f (x) converges. Also 0 √dxx is converx x→0 g(x) # 1 sin(x2 )dx gent so 0 √x is convergent. Take g(x) = (1+x1 2 )2 . q ≤ 0. # ∞ p (| log x|)q # ∞ p (log x)q # 1 xp (| log x|)q (b) I = 0 x (1+x = 1 x(1+x = I1 + I2 . 1 f (x) is convergent. Also as x3 2 x→ 2 g(x) #π # π tan(x)dx 2 2 tan(x)dx is divergent so is divergent. ∞). Also as limx→∞ fg(x) = 0. First consider I1 = 2 )2 2 )2 + 0 (1+x2 )2 # ∞ xp (log x)q . Take g(x) = xp−4 . # ln 2 t/2 7. Then #∞ #∞ (x) g(x) is convergent. # ∞ (log x)q # #∞ q t 1 ∞ q Case 6: p = 3. It is easy to see # ln 2 that integrand is ≥ 1t and the integral 0 1t diverges. 1 f (x) is convergent. take g(t) = tq . #∞ Case 2: p > 3. Also as limx→∞ fg(x) = ∞. Then we have the following cases. Then 1 g(x) is convergent. Then 1 g(x) is divergent. 1 f (x) diverges. Then 1 g(x) is #∞ (x) divergent. Take g(x) = xp−4 . Then lim = 0. #∞ q t #1 q t e is divergent.# 1 dx # ∞ dx √ + ≤ . Case 4: 0 ≤ p < 3. 1 #∞ Case 5: 0 ≤ p < 3. Also as #∞ (x) limx→∞ fg(x) = ∞. q ≥ 0. Then 1 g(x) is convergent. take g(x) = t . Putting log x = −y one can see that I2 = # ∞ e−(p+1)y yq dy. The I1 = 1 (1+ = t e dt. Since if we take g(x) = √1x then lim = ∞ and 1 √dxx is x→∞ g(x) divergent. 0 tq et is divergent. (1+x2 )2 1 #∞ Case 1: p < 0 and q ∈ R. Also as limt→∞ tg(t) = ∞. # 1 p (| log x|)q Now consider I2 = 0 x (1+x 2 )2 . q < 0. Hence the given integral is divergent. Thus 1 x(1+x 2 )2 is divergent for p = 4 and q ∈ R. #∞ Case 3: p > 3. The following cases arise. 0 (1+e−2y )2 8. Then 0 tq is divergent. Then as 0 g(x) is divergent. (d) #∞ dx√ x x2 + f (x) (c) Take f (x) = tan(x) and g(x) = tan x. (a) #∞ x −1 2 2 ex dx = #1 2 ex√ dx 0 x + #∞ 2 ex√ dx dx. 1 f (x) is divergent. Now if 1 2 ≥ 4 1 (log x) 0 ) x2 # q et ∞ q > −1. For q ≤ −1. 0 #1 # ∞ p (log x)q q et and limt→0 tg(t) = 1. Take g(x) = xp−4+ϵ where p − 4 − ϵ < 0.

Then ∂f = − 0 e−tx sin xdx = 1+t 2 ⇒ f (t) = ∂t #a ′ − arctan t + c. Now 2) = 2) + −∞ |x|p (1+x2 ) 1 xp (1+x2 ) 1 take g(x) = 1+x2 . #∞ #∞ −1 9. #1 e−(p+1)y Case 2: p ∈ R. 2 #1 t #1 1 Let f (t) = 0 xln−1 dx. taking a → ∞. I2 diverges. 0 1+t2 |f (a)| = | (b) 10. Now x ∂t # 1 xt −1 f (0) = 0 ⇒ c = 0 ⇒ 0 ln x dx = ln(t + 1) #∞ #∞ 1 2 I = 0 e−x dx Put x2 = t ⇒ 2xdx = dt I = 0 12 e−t t− 2 dt I = 12 Γ( 12 ) #π√ #π 1 1 I = 02 tan xdx = 02 sin 2 x cos− 2 xdx = 12 β( 34 . (a) Let f (t) = 0 e−tx sinxxdx . #∞ # −1 #1 # ∞ dx dx dx dx (c) Note that −∞ |x|p (1+x + −1 |x|p (1+x . lima→∞ f (a) − f (0) = −π/2. Then as 0 tq is divergent and limt→0 (1+e −2y )2 = 1. lima→∞ f (a) = 0. Using this we get c = π2 and hence f (t) = π − arctan t. f (a) − f (0) = 0 f (t)dt = # a −1 dt. I2 diverges. Then lim × |x| = 1 And is p 2 p |x| −1 |x| (1+x ) −1 xp x→0 |x|p (1 + x2 ) convergent for 0 < p < 1 Thus given integral is convergent for p < 1. Now put (m + 1)t = y we get I = (m+1)1(n+1) Γ(n + 1) #π Let I = 02 sin4 θ cos6 θdθ = 12 β( 52 . Now for 2 ) and 1 (1+x2 ) # −1 # −1 dx 1 p dx 1 . 14 ) #1 #∞ Let I = 0 xm [ln x1 ]n dx. (a) (b) " ∞ 0 e −ax sinx x | ≤ C1 " ∞ 0 e−ax as a → ∞. q < −1. q > −1. then ∂f = 0 xt dx = t+1 ⇒ f (t) = ln(t + 1) + c. Also. By the second fundamental theorem. take g(x) = . Then as 1 tq is divergent and limt→0 (1+e −2y )2 = ∞. q > −1. Thus I is convergent iff −1 ≤ p < 3 and q > −1. 72 ) # π/2 # π/2 A = 2 × 12 0 ((r12 − r22 )dθ = 0 (1 − (1 − cos θ)2 )dθ # π/2 = 0 (− cos2 θ + 2 cos θ)dθ = 2 − π/4 √ r2 = 6 cos 2θ and r = 3 then 6 cos 2θ = 3 ⇒ θ = π6 √ #π #π A = 4 × 12 06 (r12 − r22 )dθ = 2 06 (6 cos 2θ − 3)dθ = [3 3 − π] 43 . In this case one can that I2 ≤ (p+1) e z dz q+1 0 and hence converges. #∞ e−(p+1)y Case 3: p < −1. Therefore. (a) (b) (c) (d) 11. Put ln x1 = t ⇒ I = 0 e−(m+1)t tn dt.# ∞ −z q 1 Case 1: p > −1. Then by limit comparison test we have 1st and 3rd inte# −1 dx # ∞ dx gral on RHS convergent as −∞ (1+x are convergent.

y = 0. dy = a cos t dt dt . # 2π 2 Then S = 2π 0 (b + a sin t) (a2 sin t + a2 cos2 t)dt = 4π 2 ab 16. x ≥ 0. we have dx = −a sin t.3 In lifting the car x distance upward force needed is F = 150(180 − x)N # 180 Now W = 0 150(180 − x)dx = 2.1 2.5 △x = (14 − 10) × 100 = 0. # 2π # 2π . y = 2 Then V = 2π 1 y(1 + y 2 )dy = 21π 2 #4 (3)x = 4y 2 − y 3 . F = K= 800×10 = 8N and 1000 8 = 80N/m Now 0. y = x ⇒ x = 0. y = x. x = 0. (a) (1)y = 2x2 − x3 .5Kg/f t = 4.Then using F = K △ x # 0.y 2 dy = π2 #2 (2)x = 1 + y 2 . x = 0 ⇒ y = 0. (a) x = α cos1t.12. y(x) = sin x and 0 ≤ x ≤ π then #π V = π 0 sin2 xdx = π 2 /2 (b) Given y = x3 . y = 0 ⇒ x = 0. K = 4.1m . dy 2 dy 15. dx = xa . y = 0 ⇒ x = 0. z = αβt then by . y = α sin t. (a) S = 2π 0 2πy (1 + ( dx ) )dy.1J 17. L= 0 (( dx )2 + ( dy )2 + ( dz )2 ) = 0 (α2 + α2 β 2 ) = 2πα (1 + β 2 ) dt dt dt 3 (b) x = a cos1 t.5×10 = 150N/m 0. 2 So V = 2π 0 (x(2x2 − x3 ))dx = 16π 5 #1 (2)y = x2 . y = b + a sin t. 1 #1 V = π 0 ((x3 )2 − x2 )dx = 4π 21 #2 14. As y = 4ax. 4 Now V = 2π 0 y(4y 2 − y 3 )dy = 512π 5 1 √ # 3a . y ≥ 0 Then x3 = x ⇒ x = 0. (a) Using V = π 0 y 2 dx. y = b sin3 t then by # 2π 4 L= 0 (( dx )2 + ( dy )2 = a+b (a2 + ab + b2 ) dt dt #π 13.05 W = 0 Kxdx = 1. On integrating we 2 get S = 56πa 3 # 3a 1 dy 2 (b) S = 2π 0 y (1 + ( dx ) )dy Changing into parametric form by taking x = a cos t. 1 Then V = 2π 0 (x. y = 1. 1 Then V = 2π 0 (x(x2 − x))dx = π6 #1 π (3)y = x(1 − x)2 .x(1 − x)2 dx = 15 #1 √ (b) (1)y = x.43 × 106 J 44 . 1 Then V = 2π 0 y.