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THEORIES OF HUMAN EVOLUTION

Creationism
Creationism is the religious belief that the Universe and life originated "from specific
acts of divine creation." For young Earth creationists, this includes a biblical
literalist interpretation of the Genesis creation narrative and the rejection of
the scientific theory of evolution. As the history of evolutionary thought developed from
the 18th century on, various views aimed at reconciling the Abrahamic and Genesis
with biology and other sciences developed in Western culture. Those holding
that species had been created separately (such as Philip Gosse in 1857) were generally
called "advocates of creation" but were also called "creationists," as in private
correspondence between Charles Darwin and his friends. As the controversy developed
over time, the term "anti-evolutionists" became common. In 1929 in the United States,
the term "creationism" first became associated with Christian fundamentalists,
specifically with their rejection of human evolution and belief in a young Earth—
although this usage was contested by other groups, such as old Earth
creationists and evolutionary creationists, who hold different concepts of creation, such
as the acceptance of the age of the Earth and biological evolution as understood by
the scientific community.

Catastrophism
Catastrophism is the theory that the Earth has been affected in the past by
sudden, short-lived, violent events, possibly worldwide in scope. This was in
contrast to uniformitarianism (sometimes described as gradualism), in which slow
incremental changes, such as erosion, created all the Earth's geological features.
Uniformitarianism held that the present is the key to the past, and that all things
continued as they were from the indefinite past. Since the early disputes, a more
inclusive and integrated view of geologic events has developed, in which
the scientific consensus accepts that there were some catastrophic events in the
geologic past, but these were explicable as extreme examples of natural processes
which can occur.
Catastrophism held that geological epochs had ended with violent and sudden
natural catastrophes such as great floods and the rapid formation of major
mountain chains. Plants and animals living in the parts of the world where such
events occurred were killed off, being replaced abruptly by the new forms whose
fossils defined the geological strata. Some catastrophists attempted to relate at
least one such change to the Biblical account of Noah's flood.
The concept was first popularized by the early 19th-century French scientist Georges
Cuvier, who proposed that new life forms had moved in from other areas after local
floods, and avoided religious or metaphysical speculation in his scientific writings.

TRANSFORMISM

There is variation in traits. and genetic drift. which offspring. 2. migration. 3. because this tra allows the beet this process co . Darwin's grand idea of evolution by natural selection is relatively simple but often misunderstood. brown coloration.Transformism is a mechanistic doctrine which explains the appearance of living beings by the sole action of natural causes. and without any end in view. working without any kind of direction. If individuals in the population will be brown. To find out how it works. imagine a population of beetles: 1. Since the environment can't support unlimited population growth. There is differential reproduction. End result: The more advantageous trait. Natural selection Natural selection is one of the basic mechanisms of evolution. becomes more common in the population. some beetles are green and some are brown. along with mutation. In this example. not all individuals get to their full potential. For example. green beetles tend to get eaten by bi to reproduce less often than brown beetles do. The surviving brown beetles have brown baby beetles 4. There is heredity.

1859). a change in some part of the genetic code for a trait. Individuals possessing traits well suited for the struggle for local resources will contribute more offspring to the next generation. “…as natural selection acts by competition for resources. It is as simple as that. Most populations have more offspring each year than local resources can support leading to a struggle for resources. facial markings. you will have evolution by natural selection as an outcome. Such variations arise by mutation. genetics was integrated with Darwin’s mechanism. whereas other traits are strongly influenced by environmental conditions and show weak heritability. From one generation to the next. Organisms (within populations) exhibit individual variation in appearance and behavior. If one of these requirements does not occur. then the trait does not experience natural selection. not an absolute standard of design. During the twentieth century. it adapts the inhabitants of each country only in relation to the degree of perfection of their associates” (Charles Darwin. allowing us to evaluate natural selection as the differential survival and reproduction of genotypes. variations do not arise because they are needed. Inheritance. In order for natural selection to operate on a trait. Each generation experiences substantial mortality. or number of offspring. 2. On the other hand. The Process of Natural Selection Darwin’s process of natural selection has four components. Such traits are heritable. some traits show little to no variation among individuals—for example. and heredity. the trait must possess heritable variation and must confer an advantage in the competition for resources. This process is natural selection. number of eyes in vertebrates. Mutations arise by chance and without foresight for the potential advantage or disadvantage of the mutation. These variations may involve body size.If you have variation. Natural selection can only work on existing variation within a population. 3. Differential survival and reproduction. voice properties. differential reproduction. (We now know that such traits may change by other evolutionary mechanisms that have been discovered since Darwin’s time. 1. On the Origin of Species. 4.) Natural selection operates by comparative advantage. High rate of population growth. . hair color. Some traits are consistently passed on from parent to offspring. In other words. Variation. corresponding to particular phenotypes. the struggle for resources (what Darwin called the “struggle for existence”) will favor individuals with some variations over others and thereby change the frequency of traits within the population. The traits that confer an advantage to those individuals who leave more offspring are called adaptations.