You are on page 1of 30

MᾹṆḌŪKYA UPANIṢAD

Word-for-Word Translation with Transliteration and
Grammatical Notes

Stephanie Simoes
Please email me if you have questions or corrections: steph.simoes@gmail.com.

2
Introduction

Sanskrit is an inherently vague language: not only are there various possible renderings for individual words,
but the word order is quite loose. Because of this, many translations are often possible for a given passage.
This translation allows readers with no knowledge of Sanskrit to explore the different possible meanings of
the text with the help of the Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary, which can be accessed online.

The format of this translation closely follows that of Winthrop Sargeant’s translation of the Bhagavad-Gītā.
At the top of the left-hand column is the transliterated text, and beneath this is a suggested translation. In
the right-hand column, each Sanskrit word is listed without sandhi1, followed by bracketed grammatical
notes and a few possible renderings.

The grammatical notes are structured as follows: After nouns, I have listed the gender, case, and number,
followed by the stem (or, for pronouns, the base). It is generally the noun stem (with or without prefixes)
that must be entered into the online Monier-Williams Dictionary in order to obtain results. In many cases, I
have listed the verbal root from which the stem is derived, and have written any prefixes or suffixes
separately. After verbs, I have listed the person, number, mood, voice, and, when applicable, secondary
conjugations. This is followed by the root (again separated from prefixes and suffixes).

Often, more than one case, gender, etc. is possible for a word. To list all of these possibilities in every case
would have been cumbersome, but I did make note of different possibilities at times. It is important to note
that Sanskrit texts often omit derivatives of “to be”, so the reader must usually add these at their discretion.
For example, the line in Kena III.1 which I have translated as “Ours, indeed, is this victory” is, if translated
exactly, “Ours indeed this victory”.

I chose to transliterate using the IAST (International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration) because I find this to
be the most readable of the Romanized Sanskrit alphabets. One downside is that this alphabet cannot be
typed into the search box of the online Monier-Williams Dictionary: text must be inputted using ITRANS
(Indian Languages Transliteration), HK (Harvard-Kyoto), or SLP1 (Sanskrit Library Phonetic Basic). IAST can be
easily converted into HK according to the chart on the following page.

1
A Sanskrit term meaning “holding together”, sandhi (or saṃdhi) is the alteration of sounds—both across word
boundaries (external sandhi) and within words (internal sandhi)—that simplifies pronunciation. English uses sandhi,
too: for example,the changing of a to an before vowels. The Sanskrit sandhi rules have not been included here
because they can be be found in many books. For a basic outline of the rules, see McComas Taylor’s The Little Red
Book of Sanskrit Paradigms. For an understanding of why these changes occur, I recommend Robert P. Goldman’s
Devavāṇīpraveśikā.

3
Conversion of the International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration to Harvard-Kyoto

IAST HK
ā A
ḍ D
ḍh Dh
ḥ H
ī I
ḷ lR
l ̣̣̄ lRR
ṃ M
ṇ N
ñ J
ṅ G
ṛ R
ṝ̣ RR
ṣ S
ś z
ṭ T
ṭh Th
ụ̄ U

4
Abbreviations

Ᾱ. ātmanepada voice inj. injunctive mood
AB. avyayībhāva compound instr. instrumental case
abl. ablative case KD. karmadhāraya
acc. accusative case lit. literally
act. active loc. locative case
adj. adjective m. masculine gender
adv. adverb n. neuter gender
aor. aorist tense nom. nominative case
ben. benedictive mood opt. optative mood
BV. bahuvrīhī P. parasmaipada voice
comp. compound p. participle
cond. conditional mood pass. passive
dat. dative case peri. periphrastic future tense
DV. dvandva pf. perfect tense
f. feminine pl. plural
fut. future pres. present
gen. genitive case prob. probably
ger. gerund pron. pronoun
impf. imperfect tense sing. singular
impv. imperative mood TP. tatpuruṣa (vyadhikaraṇa)
ind. indeclinable voc. vocative case
inf. infinitive mood

5
Explanation of Grammatical Terms

NOUN CASES / VIBHAKTI-S (“separations, divisions”)

English Term Sanskrit Term Usage
Ablative pan͂camī (“5th”) or apādāna “From” (and occasionally “than”) the
(“taking away, giving away”) noun.

Accusative dvitīya (“2nd”) or karman Identifies the object.
(“action; object”)

Dative caturthī (“4th”) or sampradāna “For”, “to” (the indirect object).
(“giving over completely,
bestowing”)

Genitive ṣaṣṭhi (“6th”) or sambandha “Of” the noun.
(“binding together”)

Instrumental tṛtīya (“3rd”) or karaṇa (“doing, “By” or “with” the noun (in either the
making, acting”) instrumental sense or in the sense of
accompaniment).

Locative saptamī (“7th”) or adhikaraṇa Expresses location: “in”, “on”, “at”, etc.
(“location”; lit. “over-making”) the noun.

Nominative prathamā (“1st”) or kartā Identifies the subject.
(“doer, maker, agent”)

Vocative saṃbodhana (“awaking, Identifies the addressee.
arousing; calling to”)

6
PARTICIPLES / KṚDANTA-S (“ending in kṛt-s”)2

English Term Sanskrit Term Usage
Future active bhaviṣyatkāle kṛdanta E.g., “The about-to-remember man
participle (“participle in future time”) asked a question.”

Future passive kṛtya (“to-be-done”) This implies ought.
participle (a.k.a. E.g., “The words are to-be-
gerdundive) remembered” (i.e., “The words ought to
be remembered”).

Gerund (a.k.a. ktvānta (“ending in tvā”) / This signals an action that was
indeclinable lyabanta (“ending in ya”) completed before some other event.
participle or Gerunds are always used with a verb.
absolutive) E.g., “Having remembered, Rama went
to the forest” or, “After remembering,
Rama went to the forest.”

Past active Past active participle (a.k.a. These are adjectives:
participle and perfect active participle): E.g., “The arisen demon walked”,
and perfect ktavatu (“ending in tavat”) “Having-remembered Rama arrived.”
active participle Some authors suggest these be used as
Perfect active-P participle: simple past tense verbs when there is
kvasu (“ending in vas”) no verb present in the sentence:
E.g., “The demon arose”; “Rama
Perfect active-Ᾱ participle: remembered.”
kānac (“ending in āna”) However, this is not necessary if a
verbal form of “to be” is taken as
implied:
E.g., “The demon (is) arisen”; “Rama (is)
having-remembered”.3

Past passive bhūte kṛdanta (“participle in The usage is the same as above, except
participle the past”) in a passive sense:
E.g., The arisen demon walked”;
“Remembered Rama arrived”.

Present active vartamāne kṛdanta kartari Like the gerund, this is always used with
participle prayoga (“participle in the a verb. It differs in that it is more
present, active construction”) imperfective—i.e., it refers to an action
that is in progress at the time of the
verb.
E.g., “Remembering Rama went to the
forest.”

2
Participles can be used adjectivially without nouns, as nouns can be implied. E.g., “The remembered [one] arrived.”
3
The more eloquent “Rama (is) remembered” would not be acceptable here, as this would imply a passive sense
(i.e. that Rama is being remembered). Perhaps the English present perfect tense (“Rama has remembered”) is a
suitable translation in these cases.

7
Present passive vartmāne kṛdanta karmaṇi Like the present active participle, this
participle prayoga (“participle in the expresses simultaneous activity, but in a
present, passive construction”) passive sense:
E.g., “Being-remembered Rama went to
the forest”; or simply, “Remembered
Rama went to the forest.”

8
VERB TENSES / KᾹLA-S (“times”)

English Term Sanskrit Term Usage
Aorist adyatana-bhūta (“of today Indicates an action that has recently
past”) been completed.4
Pāṇini’s term: luṅ E.g., “The horse spoke this morning.”

Imperfect anadyatana-bhūta (“not of Indicates an action that was not
today past”) performed today and was witnessed by
Pāṇini’s term: laṅ the speaker.4
E.g., “The horse spoke a year ago.”

Perfect (a.k.a. parokṣa-bhūta (“beyond the Indicates an action that was not
distant past eye past”) performed today and was not witnessed
tense) Pāṇini’s term: liṭ by the speaker.4
E.g., “He says that the horse spoke a
year ago;” or “He said that the horse
had spoken a year ago.”

Periphrastic anadyatana-bhaviṣyat (“not of Refers to an event in the distant future.
future (a.k.a. today future”) It has a sense of certainty.
distant future) Pāṇini’s term: luṭ E.g., “When I journey beneath the earth,
the horse will (certainly) speak.”

Present vartamāna (“present”) Used like the English present tense.
indicative Pāṇini’s term: laṭ E.g., “The horse speaks.”

Simple future sāmānya-bhaviṣyat (“general Refers to a future event that is
future”) contiguous with present time. It has a
Pāṇini’s term: lṛṭ sense of likelihood.
E.g., “The horse will (likely) speak any
minute now.”

4
In actual usage, the disctinction between the aorist, imperfect, and perfect is not generally maintained.

9
VERB VOICES / PADA-S (“words”; lit. “steps”)

English Term Sanskrit Term Usage
Active voice parasmaipada (“word for Describes verbs of activity and verbs used
another” with an object.

Middle voice ātmanepada (“word for the Generally describes reflexive verbs, but
self”) this distinction is not strict—ātmanepada
verbs can take external objects, too.

Note: Some verbs always take the parasmaipada endings, some always take the ātmanepada endings, and
some—called ubhayapada verbs—can occur in both forms. In the case of ubhayapada verbs, I simply
indicated which ending was taken in each particular occurrence.

10
VERB MOODS (a.k.a. MODES) / ARTHA-S (“purposes”, “aims”)

English Term Sanskrit Term Usage
Benedictive āśīr (“blessing, benediction; Used for uttering blessings or prayers.
prayer”) E.g., “May she slay the demon.”
Pāṇini’s term: liṅ

Conditional atipatti (“going Used for hypotheses or situations
beyond”)/saṃketa contrary to fact. It expresses a desire to
(“condition”) have done things differently in the past.
Pāṇini’s term: lṛṅ E.g., “If she had slain the demon, it
would not have arisen.”

Imperative ājn͂ā (“order, command”) Indicates that the verb is a command.
Pāṇini’s term: loṭ E.g., “Slay the demon!”

Injunctive This is a usage made of the In Vedic, the injunctive expresses
aorist (luṅ). intentions (“I will slay the demon”),
imperatives (“Slay the demon!”), and
wishes (“Let her slay the demon”). In
Classical Sanskrit, it functions as a
negative imperative, being used with
the prohibitive particle mā.
E.g., “Do not slay the demon!”

Optative (a.k.a. vidhi (“rule, injunction”) The optative can be used for
potential) prescription (“should, ought”) or
(includes Pāṇini’s term: liṅ5 possibilities (“might, may”).
benedictive) E.g., “She ought to slay the demon”;
“She might slay the demon.”

The benedictive (āśīr liṅ) is used for
uttering blessings or prayers.
E.g., “May she slay the demon.”

Subjunctive āśīḥ (“prayer, wish, blessing”) Used in older Sanskrit, the subjunctive
has a variety of functions including the
Pāṇini’s term: leṭ requisition and the expression of
wishes.
E.g., “I wish that she would slay the
demon”; “I request that she slay the
demon.”

5
The benedictive and optative are both called liṅ by Pāṇini because they generally function in the same way.

11
SECONDARY CONJUGATIONS / DHᾹTU VṚTTI-S (“root modes”)

English Term Sanskrit Term Usage
Causative ṇijanta (“ending in ṇic”) Indicates that someone is being caused to
do the action.

Denominative nāmadhātu (“noun-root”) Derives verbs from nouns. Generally
means “becomes X”, “acts like X”, “turns
(something else) into X”, or “treats as X”.

Desiderative sannanta (“ending in san”) Indicates that someone desires to do the
action.

Intensive yaṅanta (“ending in yaṅ”) Indicates that the action is repeated or
performed with intensity.

12
COMPOUNDS / SAMᾹSA-S (“throwing togethers”)

Term Usage
avyayībhāva (“indeclinable This functions as an adverb, with an indeclinable as the prior
state”) member and a nominal stem as the latter.
E.g., “every-day”, “with-anger”, “as-long-as-a-year”.

bahuvrīhi (“much-rice”)6 This is an application of other compounds: The last member
loses its independence and the compound as a whole
qualifies some noun outside the compound, which is often
implicit.
E.g., “I approached Much-Rice” (i.e., “I approached the man
who has much rice”).

dvandva (“pair”) A list of nouns that would ordinarily be connected by “and”
or “or”.
E.g., “mother-father” (i.e., “mother and father”).

tatpuruṣa (“his person”)6: A compound in which the last member is qualified by the
vyadhikaraṇa (“different prior members while remaining independent of them.
case”) and karmadhāraya In a vyadhikaraṇa tatpuruṣa compound, the prior member is
(“action bearing”) in a different case than the last when the compound is
dissolved: e.g., “god-son” (i.e., “son of the god”).
In the karmadhāraya tatpuruṣa compound, the members
are in the same case. Often, the former member(s)
describes the last (e.g., “small-man”), but it can also be
equated to it (e.g., “king-man” – i.e., “the man is the king”).

6
The name of the compound is an example of it.

13
1

omityetadakṣaramidaṃsarvaṃ om (ind.): Om; the sacred syllable, an auspicious
tasyopavyākhyānaṃ bhutaṃ salutation.
bhavadbhaviṣyaditi sarvamoṃkāra eva, iti (ind.): thus; an indication that the previous
yaccānyat trikālātītaṃ tadapyoṃkāra eva words were said or thought.
etat (n. nom. sing. pron. etad): this.
“Om”—this sound is this all. The explanation akṣaram (n. nom. sing. a kṣara): sound, vowel,
of this: The been, the being, and the about-to- word; lit. “imperishable”.
be, all are Om-making, indeed; and another, idam (n. nom. sing. pron. idam): this.
which is beyond the three times, that is also sarvam (n. nom. sing. pronominal adj. sarva):
Om-making, indeed! whole, entire, all, every, everything.
tasya (mn. gen. sing. pron. tad): of him, of that,
of it, its, of one.
upavyākhyānam (n. nom. sing. upavyākhyāna;
from upa vi ā √khyā): a supplementary
explanation.
bhūtam (n. nom. sing. bhūta; past pass. p.
√bhū): beings; lit. “been/become
(ones)”; the past tense.
bhavat (n. nom. sing. bhavat; pres. act. p.
√bhū): being, present; the present tense.
bhaviṣyat (n. nom. sing. bhaviṣyat; fut. act. p.
√bhū): about-to-be; the future tense.
iti (ind.): thus; an indication that the previous
words were said or thought.
sarvam (n. nom. sing. pronominal adj. sarva):
whole, entire, all, every, everything.
oṃ-kāraḥ (mn. nom. sing. om-kāra): Om-
making.
om (ind.): Om; the sacred syllable, an
auspicious salutation.
kāraḥ (m. nom. sing. kāra; from √kṛ):
making, doing.
eva (ind.): so, indeed, truly, only.
yat (mn. nom. sing. relative pron. yad): who,
which, what, that.
ca (ind.): and.
anyat (n. nom. sing. pronominal adj. anya):
other than, different from; another.
trikālātītam (n. nom. sing. trikāla-atīta, TP.
comp.): gone beyond the three times.
trikāla (grammar not specified): the three
times.
atītam (n. nom. sing. atīta): gone by, past,
passed away, dead; (one that has)
gone over or beyond.
tat (n. nom. sing. pron. tad): it, that.
api (ind.): and, also, moreover; even.
oṃkāraḥ (mn. nom. sing. om-kāra): Om-making.

14
om (ind.): Om; the sacred syllable, an
auspicious salutation.
kāraḥ (m. nom. sing. kāra; from √kṛ):
making, doing.
eva (ind.): so, indeed, truly, only.

15
2

sarvaṃ hyetad brahmāyamātmā brahma sarvam (n. nom. sing. pronominal adj. sarva):
so’yamātmā catuṣyāt whole, entire, all, every, everything.
hi (ind.): for, because; indeed.
For all this is Brahman. This self is Brahman. It etat (n. acc. sing. pron. etad): this, it.
is this self, four-going. brahma (n. nom. sing. brahman; from √bṛh):
Brahman.
ayam (m. nom. sing. pron. idam): this.
ātmā (m. nom. sing. ātman; from √an, √at, or
√vā): self.
brahma (n. nom. sing. brahman; from √bṛh):
Brahman.
saḥ (m. nom. sing. pron. tad): he, it.
ayam (m. nom. sing. pron. idam): this.
ātmā (m. nom. sing. ātman; from √an, √at, or
√vā): the self.
catusyāt (m. nom. sing. catur-yāt, TP. comp.):
four-going.
catur (grammar nor specified): four.
yāt (m. nom. sing. yāt): going, moving.

16
3

jāgaritasthāno bahiṣprajn͂aḥ saptāṅga jāgaritasthānaḥ (m. nom. sing. jāgarita-sthāna,
ekonavimśatimukhaḥ sthūlabhugvaiśvānaraḥ KD. comp.): waking state.
prathamaḥ pādaḥ jāgarita (grammar not specified): waking.
sthānaḥ (m. nom. sing. sthāna; from
The waking state, outward knowing, seven- √sthā): (the act of) standing, standing
limbed, nineteen-faced, enjoying the large, firmly, being fixed or stationary;
the universal man—the first foot. staying, abiding, being in or on; state.
bahiṣprajn͂aḥ (m. nom. sing. bahis-prajn͂a, AB.
comp.): outward-knowing.
bahis (ind.): out, forth, outwards, outside.
prajn͂aḥ (m. nom. sing. prajn͂a; from pra
√jn͂ā): knowing.
saptāṅgaḥ (m. nom. sing. saptāṅga; from sapta
aṅga): seven-limbed.
ekonavimśatimukhaḥ (m. nom. sing.
ekonavimśati-mukha, KD. comp.):
nineteen-faced.
ekonavimśati (grammar not specified;
from eka ūna viṃśati): nineteen; lit.
“one less than twenty”.
mukhaḥ (m. nom. sing. mukha): mouth,
face; direction, quarter.
sthūlabhuk (mn. nom. sing. sthūla-bhuk, TP.
comp.): enjoying the large, enjoyer of the
large.
sthūla (grammar not specified; from
√sthū): large, thick, massive; gross,
tangible, material.
bhuk (mf. nom. sing bhuj): enjoying,
eating; enjoyer, eater; enjoyment,
profit.
vaiśvānaraḥ (m. nom. sing. vaiśvānara; from
viśva nara): belonging to all men,
everywhere, general, common; the
Supreme Spirit; lit. the “universal man”.
prathamaḥ (m. nom. sing. prvaizvathama;
superlative pra): foremost, first (in time or
rank); earliest, original; preceding.
pādaḥ (m. nom. sing. pāda): a foot; a quarter.

17
4

svapnasthāno ‘ntaḥprajn͂aḥ saptāṅga svapnasthānaḥ (m. nom. sing. svapna-sthāna,
ekonaviṃśatimukhaḥ praviviktabhuk taijaso KD. comp.): the sleeping state.
dvitīyaḥ pādaḥ svapna (grammar not specified): sleep,
sleeping, sleepiness; dreaming, a
The sleeping state, inside-knowing, seven- dream.
limbed, nineteen-faced, enjoying the fine, sthānaḥ (m. nom. sing. sthāna; from
bright—the second foot. √sthā): (the act of) standing, standing
firmly, being fixed or stationary;
staying, abiding, being in or on; state.
antaḥprajn͂am (n. nom. sing. antar-prajn͂a, AB.
comp.): inward-knowing.
antar (ind.): within, between, amongst;
internal.
prajn͂aḥ (m. nom. sing. prajn͂a; from pra
√jn͂ā): knowing.
saptāṅgaḥ (m. nom. sing. saptāṅga; from sapta
aṅga): seven-limbed.
ekonavimśatimukhaḥ (m. nom. sing.
ekonavimśati-mukha, KD. comp.):
nineteen-faced.
ekonavimśati (grammar not specified;
from eka ūna viṃśati): nineteen; lit.
“one less than twenty”.
mukhaḥ (m. nom. sing. mukha): mouth,
face; direction, quarter.
pravivikta-bhuk (mf. nom. sing. pravivikta-bhuj,
TP. comp.): enjoying the fine, enjoyer of
the fine.
pravivikta (grammar not specified):
separate, solitary, lonely; fine, delicate.
bhuk (mf. nom. sing. √bhuj): enjoying,
eating; enjoyer, eater; enjoyment,
profit.
taijasaḥ (m. nom. sing. taijasa): bright, brilliant.
dvitīyaḥ (m. nom. sing. dvitīya): second.
pādaḥ (m. nom. sing. pada): a foot; a quarter.

18
5

yatra supto na kan͂cana kāmaṃ kāmayate na yatra (ind.): where, wherever; if, when, as, in
kan͂cana svapnaṃ paśyati tatsuṣuptam which case.
suptaḥ (m. nom. sing. supta): sleeping.
If a sleeping one desires no desires na (ind.): not.
whatsoever, sees no dream whatsoever, that kam cana: whatsoever.
one is fast asleep. kam (m. acc. sing. kim): what?
cana (ind.): makes preceding interrogative
indefinite.
kāmam (mn. acc. kāma): wish, desire, longing;
pleasure, enjoyment.
kāmayate (3rd sing. pre. Ā . √kam): desires, longs
for, wishes for.
na (ind.): not.
kam cana: whatsoever.
kam (m. acc. sing. kim): what?
cana (ind.): makes preceding interrogative
indefinite.
svapnam (m. acc. sing. svapna): sleep, sleeping;
sleepiness, drowsiness; dreaming, a
dream; sloth, indolence.
paśyati (3rd sing. pres. indic. P. √dṛś): sees.
tat (n. nom. sing. pron. tad): it, that.
suṣuptam (n. nom. sing. suṣupta): fast asleep.

suṣuptasthāna ekībhūtaḥ prajn͂ānaghana suṣuptasthānaḥ (m. nom. sing. suṣupta-sthāna,
evānandamayo hyānandabhuk cetomukhaḥ KD. comp.): deep sleep state.
prājn͂astṛtīyaḥ pādaḥ suṣupta (grammar not specified): fast
asleep, deep sleep.
The deep sleep state, one-being, is the sthānaḥ (m. nom. sing. sthāna; from
knowledge-striker, indeed. It is the delight of √sthā): (the act of) standing, standing
bliss, for it is the bliss-enjoyer, splendour- firmly, being fixed or stationary;
faced and intelligent—the third foot. staying, abiding, being in or on; state.
ekībhūtaḥ (m. nom. sing. ekī-bhūta, KD. comp.):
one-being.
ekī (in compounds for eka): one, alone,
solitary.
bhūtaḥ (m. nom. sing. bhūta; past pass. p.
√bhū): being.
prajn͂ānaghanaḥ (m. nom. sing. prajn͂āna-
ghana; TP. or KD. comp.): knowledge-
mass; knowledge-striker.
prajn͂āna (grammar not specified; from pra
√jn͂ā): prudent, wise; knowledge,
wisdom, intelligence.
ghanaḥ (m. nom. sing. ghana; from √han):
striker, killer, destroyer; coarse,
gross; solid, material; mass.
eva (ind.): so, indeed, truly, only.

19
ānadamayaḥ (m. nom. sing. ānanda-maya):
blissful, consisting of happiness; the
supreme spirit, Brahman; the delight of
bliss.
ānanda (grammar not specified):
happiness, joy, enjoyment, pleasure,
bliss.
mayaḥ (n. nom. sing. mayas; prob. from
√mā): refreshment, enjoyment,
pleasure, delight.
hi (ind.): for, because; indeed.
ānandabhuk (mf. nom. sing. ānanda-bhuj, TP.
comp.): bliss-enjoyer; bliss-enjoyment;
bliss-enjoying.
ānanda (grammar not specified):
happiness, joy, enjoyment, pleasure,
bliss.
bhuk (mf. nom. sing. bhuj): enjoying,
eating; enjoyer, eater; enjoyment,
profit.
cetomukhaḥ (m. nom. sing. ceto-mukha, KD.
comp.): splendour-faced.
ceto (grammar not specified; see cetas):
splendour; consciousness,
intelligence, mind.
mukhaḥ (m. nom. sing. mukha): mouth,
face; direction, quarter.
prājn͂aḥ (m. nom. sing. prājn͂a; from prā √jn͂a):
intelligent, wise, clever (one).
tṛtīyaḥ (m. nom. sing. tṛtīya): third.
pādaḥ (m. nom. sing. pada): a foot; a quarter.

20
6

eṣa sarvaśvara eṣa sarvajn͂a eṣo ‘ntaryāmyeṣa eṣaḥ (m. nom. sing. pron. etad): this.
yoniḥ sarvasya prabhavāpyayau hi bhūtānām sarveśvara (m. nom. sing. sarva-īśvara, TP.
comp.): all-lord, lord of all, lord in all, etc.
This is the all-lord, this is the all-knowing, this sarva (grammar not specified; pronominal
is the night within, this is the womb of all; for adj.): whole, entire, all, very,
it is the origin-and-vanishing of beings. everything.
īśvaraḥ (m. nom. sing. īśvara): master,
lord.
eṣaḥ (m. nom. sing. pron. etad): this.
sarvajn͂aḥ (m. nom. sing. sarva-jn͂ā, TP. comp.):
all-knowing.
sarva (grammar not specified; pronominal
adj.): whole, entire, all, very,
everything.
jn͂aḥ (m. nom. sing. or acc. pl. jn͂ā):
knowing, intelligent
eṣaḥ (m. nom. sing. pron. etad): this.
antaryāmī (m. nom. sing. antar-yāmin): the
night within; the regulator of the internal
feelings; the soul.
eṣaḥ (m. nom. sing. pron. etad): this.
yoniḥ (mf. nom. sing. yoni; from √yu): the
womb, vagina; place of birth, origin.
sarvasya (mn. gen. sing. pronominal adj.
sarva): of all.
prabhavāpyayau (m. nom. du. prabhava-
apyantu, DV. comp.): origin-and-vanishing.
prabhava (grammar not specified): source,
origin, cause of existence, “in front of
being/becoming/birth/arising”.
apyayau (m. nom. du. apyaya; from api
aya): joint; entering into; vanishing.
hi (ind.): for, because; indeed.
bhūtānām (mfn. gen. pl. bhūta; past pass. p.
√bhū): of beings; lit. “of the been/become
ones”.

21
7

nāntaḥprajn͂aṃ na bahiṣprajn͂aṃ na (ind.): not.
nobhayataḥprajn͂aṃ na prajn͂ānaghanaṃ na antaḥprajn͂am (n. nom. sing. antar-prajn͂a, AB. comp.):
prajn͂aṃ nāprajn͂am inward-knowing.
antar (ind.): within, between, amongst; internal.
Not inward-knowing, not outward-knowing, prajn͂am (n. nom. sing. prajn͂a; from pra √jn͂ā):
not, in both cases, knowing, not a knowledge- knowing.
striker, not knowing, not unknowing, na (ind.): not.
bahiṣprajn͂am (n. nom. sing. bahis-prajn͂a, AB. comp.):
outward-knowing.
bahis (ind.): out, forth, outwards, outside.
prajn͂am (n. nom. sing. prajn͂a; from pra √jn͂ā):
knowing.
na (ind.): not.
ubhayataḥprajn͂am (n. nom. sing. ubhayatas-prajn͂a, AB.
comp.): in-both-cases-knowing.
ubhayatas (ind.): in both cases.
prajn͂am (n. nom. sing. prajn͂a; from pra √jn͂ā):
knowing.
na (ind.): not.
prajn͂ānaghanam (n. nom. sing. prajn͂āna-ghana; KD. or
TP. comp.): knowledge-striker, knowledge-mass.
prajn͂āna (grammar not specified; from pra √jn͂ā):
prudent, wise; knowledge, wisdom,
intelligence.
ghanam (n. nom. sing. ghana; from √han): striker,
killer, destroyer; coarse, gross; solid, material;
mass.
na (ind.): not.
prajn͂am (n. nom. sing. prajn͂a; from pra √jn͂ā): knowing.
na (ind.): not.
aprajn͂am (n. nom. sing. aprajn͂a; from a pra √jn͂ā):
unknowing.

adṛṣṭamavyavahārvamagrāhyamalakṣaṇamaci adṛṣṭam (n. nom. sing. adṛṣṭa; past pass. p. a √dṛś): not
ntyamavyapadeśyamekātmapratyayasāraṃ seen, unseen.
prapan͂copaśāmaṃ śāntaṃ śivamadvaitaṃ avyavahāryam (n. nom. sing. avyavahārya; fut. pass. p. a
caturthaṃ manyante sa ātmā sa vijn͂eyaḥ vyavah): not to-be-practiced.
agrāhyam (n. nom. sing. agrāhya; fut. pass. p. a grāha):
unseen, not to-be-practiced, not to-be- not to-be-conceived/perceived/grasped.
grasped, without characteristics, not to-be- alakṣaṇam (mn. nom. sing. alakṣaṇa; from √lakṣ): having
thought-of, not to-be-pointed-out, the core of no signs, without marks, without characteristics.
the one-self belief, relief from manifestation, acintyam (n. nom. sing. acintya; fut. pass. p. a √cint):
tranquil, Shiva, non-dual is the fourth, they inconceivable; lit. “not to-be-thought”.
believe. It is believed to be that self. It is to- avyapadeśyam (n. nom. sing. avyapadeśya; fut. pass. p. a
be-discerned. vi apa √diś): not to-be-defined, not-to-be-indicated,
not-to-be-pointed-out.
ekātmapratyayasāraṃ (n. nom. sing. ekātma-pratyaya-
sāraṃ, KD. comp.): one-self-belief-core.

22
eka (grammar not specified; pronominal adj.):
one, solitary, single.
ātma (grammar not specified; from √an, √at, or
√vā): of the self, in the self, for the self, etc.
pratyaya (grammar not specified): belief, firm
conviction, faith, certainty; proof,
ascertainment; conception, assumption,
notion, idea; consciousness, understanding,
intellect; ground, basis, cause.
sāram (n. nom. sing. sāra): driving away,
destroying; core; firmness, strength, power,
energy; epitome; chief-ingredient or
constituent part of the body.
prapan͂copaśāmaṃ (m. acc. sing. prapan͂ca-upaśama, TP.
comp.): relief from
expansion/manifestation/appearance; tranquility
of expansion/manifestation/appearance.
prapan͂ca (grammar not specified; from √pac or
√pan͂c): expansion, development,
manifestation; manifoldness, diversity;
appearance, phenomenon.
upaśāmam (m. acc. sing. upa śāma): relief,
alleviation; calmness, tranquility.
śāntam (n. nom. sing. śānta; from √śām): appeased,
pacified, tranquil, calm.
śivam (n. nom. sing. śiva): Shiva.
advaitam (n. nom. sing. a dvaita): non-dual; sole,
unique; having no duplicate.
caturthaṃ (n. nom. sing. adj. caturtha): fourth.
manyante (3rd pl. pres. indic. Ᾱ. √man): they think,
believe, imagine; they regard as.
manute (3rd sing. pres. pass. Ᾱ. √man): is thought of, is
believed, is imagined, is conceived.
saḥ (m. nom. sing. pron. tad): he, it.
ātmā (m. nom. sing. ātman; from √an, √at, or √vā):
the self.
saḥ (m. nom. sing. pron. tad): he, it.
vijn͂eyaḥ (m. nom. sing. vijn͂eya; fut. pass. p. vi √jn͂ā):
to-be-distinguished, to-be-discerned.

23
8

so ’yamātmādhyakṣaramoṃkāro ’dhimātraṃ saḥ (m. nom. sing. pron. tad): he, it.
pādā mātrā mātrāśca pādā akāra ukāro ayam (m. nom. sing. pron. idam): this.
makāra iti ātmā (m. nom. sing. ātman; from √an, √at, or
√vā): the self.
It is this self, the over-syllable, Om, the over- adhyakṣaram (ind.): above all syllables; the
measure. The feet are the measures, and the over-syllable.
measures are the feet a, u, m. oṃ-kāraḥ (mn. nom. sing. om-kāra): the sound
Om; lit. “Om-making”.
om (ind.): Om; the sacred syllable, an
auspicious salutation.
kāraḥ (m. nom. sing. kāra; from √kṛ):
making, doing.
adhimātraṃ (n. nom. sing. adhi mātra): above
measure, “over-measure”.
pādāḥ (m. nom. pl. pāda): feet; quarters.
mātrāḥ (n. nomacc. pl. mātra): measures.
mātrāḥ (n. nomacc. pl. mātra): measures.
ca (ind.): and.
pādāḥ (m. nom. pl. pāda): feet; quarters.
akāraḥ (m. nom. sing. a-kāra): the letter or
sound a; lit. “a-making”.
ukāraḥ (m. nom. sing. u-kāra): the letter or
sound u; lit. “u-making”.
makāra (m. nom. sing. ma-kāra): the letter or
sound ma; lit. “ma-making”.
iti (ind.): thus; an indication that the previous
words were said or thought.

24
9

jāgaritasthāno vaiśvānaro ’kāraḥ prathamā jāgaritasthānaḥ (m. nom. sing. jāgarita-sthāna,
mātrāpterādimattvādvāpnoti ha vai KD. comp.): waking state.
sarvānkāmānādiśca bhavati ya evam veda jāgarita (grammar not specified): waking.
sthānaḥ (m. nom. sing. sthāna; from
The waking state, the Universal Man, is the √sthā): (the act of) standing, standing
letter a, the foremost measure, from firmly, being fixed or stationary;
obtaining, or from the state of having a staying, abiding, being in or on; state.
beginning. One obtains, indeed, all desires vaiśvānaraḥ (m. nom. sing. vaiśvānara; from
and becomes a firstling, who thus perceives. viśva nara): belonging to all men,
everywhere, general, common; the
Supreme Spirit; lit. the “Universal Man”.
akāraḥ (m. nom. sing. a-kāra): the letter or
sound a; lit. “a-making”.
prathamāḥ (mf. nom. pl. prathama): foremost,
first; earliest, primary, original.
mātrā (f. nom. sing. mātrā): measure.
āpteḥ (f. gen./abl. sing. āpti): of/from reaching;
obtaining.
ādimattvāt (n. gen./abl. sing. ādimattva):
of/from the state of having a beginning.
vā (ind.): or; sometimes used as an expletive.
āpnoti (3rd sing. pres. indic. PA. √āp): reaches,
overtakes, meets with; obtains, gains.
ha (ind.): emphasizes previous word.
vai (ind.): indeed, truly, certainly, verily.
sarvān (m. acc. pl. sarva): all.
kāmān (m. acc. pl. kāma): wishes, desires,
longings.
ādiḥ (m. nom. sing. ādi): beginning,
commencement; a firstling.
ca (ind.): and.
bhavati (3rd sing. pres. indic. P. √bhū):
(he/she/it) is, becomes, arises.
yaḥ (m. nom. sing. relative pron. yad): who.
evam (ind.): thus, in this way, in such a manner,
such.
veda (3rd sing. pres. indic. P. √vid): knows,
perceives.

25
10

svapnasthānastaijasa ukāro dvitīyā svapnasthānaḥ (m. nom. sing. svapna-sthāna,
mātrotkarṣādubhayatvādvotkarṣati ha vai KD. comp.): the sleeping state.
jn͂ānasaṃtatiṃ samānaśca bhavati, svapna (grammar not specified): sleep,
nāsyābrahmavitkule bhavati ya evaṃ veda sleeping, sleepiness; dreaming, a
dream.
The sleeping state is the letter u, the second sthānaḥ (m. nom. sing. sthāna; from
measure, from excellence, or from bothness. √sthā): (the act of) standing, standing
It pulls up, indeed, a knowledge-expanse. One firmly, being fixed or stationary;
becomes the same, and no non-Brahma- staying, abiding, being in or on;
knowers arise in the family of one who thus state.taijasaḥ
knows. ukāraḥ (m. nom. sing. u-kāra): the letter or
sound u; lit. “u-making”.
dvitīyāḥ (f. nom. pl. dvitīya): second.
mātrā (f. nom. sing. mātrā): measure.
utkarṣāt (mn. abl. sing. ut karṣa): from the
superior, from the eminent; from pulling
upwards; from elevation, increase; from
excellence, eminence.
ubhayatvād (mfn. abl. sing. ubhaya -tva): from
bothness.
va (ind.): or.
utkarṣati (3rd sing. pres. indic. P. ut √kṛṣ):
(he/she/it) draws up, pulls up.
ha (ind.): emphasizes previous word.
vai (ind.): indeed, truly, certainly, verily.
jn͂ānasaṃtatim (m. acc. sing. jn͂āna-saṃtati, KD.
comp.): knowledge-expanse.
jn͂āna (grammar not specified):
knowledge.
saṃtatim (mf. acc. sing. saṃtati):
stretching, expanse, continuity; a
continuous line or series or flow,
heap, mass, multitude; lineage,
race, progeny.
samānaḥ (m. nom. sing. samāna): the digestive
breath; same, identical, one; alike, similar,
equal; common, general, universal;
moderate.
ca (ind.): and.
bhavati (3rd sing. pres. indic. P. √bhū): is,
becomes, arises.
na (ind.): not.
asya (mn. gen. sing. pron. idam): of this, of one.
abrahmavit (mfn. loc. sing. a brahma vid): non-
Brahma-knowing; non-Brahma-knower.
kule (mn. loc. sing. kula): in the herd, troop,
flock, assemblage, multitude; race, family,
community, tribe.

26
bhavati (3rd sing. pres. indic. P. √bhū): is,
becomes, arises.
yaḥ (m. nom. sing. relative pron. yad): who.
evam (ind.): thus, in this way, in such a manner,
such.
veda (3rd sing. pres. indic. P. √vid): knows,
perceives.

27
11

suṣupta-sthānaḥ prājn͂o makārastṛtīyā mātrā suṣuptasthānaḥ (m. nom. sing. suṣupta-sthāna,
miterapītervā minoti ha vā idaṃ KD. comp.): deep sleep state.
sarvamapītiśca bhavati ya evam veda suṣupta (grammar not specified): fast
asleep, deep sleep.
The deep sleep state, the wise one, is the sthānaḥ (m. nom. sing. sthāna; from
sound ma, the third measure, from erecting √sthā): (the act of) standing, standing
or from dissolving. It builds, indeed, this all. firmly, being fixed or stationary;
One becomes dissolution who thus perceives. staying, abiding, being in or on; state.
prājn͂aḥ (m. nom. sing. prājn͂a; from prā √jn͂a):
intelligent, wise, clever (one).
makāraḥ (m. nom. sing. ma-kāra): the letter or
sound ma.
tṛtīyāḥ (f. nom. pl. tṛtīya): third.
mātrā (f. nom. sing. mātra): measure.
miteḥ (f. abl./gen. sing. miti): from/of fixing,
erecting, establishing; measuring,
measure, weight.
apīteḥ (f. abl./gen. sing. apīti): from/of entering
into, dissolving, dissolution.
vā (ind.): or; sometimes used as an expletive.
minoti (3rd sing. pres. √mi): (he/she/it) fixes to
the earth, sets up, founds, builds,
constructs; measures; judges, perceives,
observes, knows; casts, throws, scatters.
ha (ind.): emphasizes previous word.
vā (ind.): or; sometimes used as an expletive.
idam (n. nom. sing. pron. idam): this.
sarvam (n. nom. sing. pronominal adj. sarva):
whole, entire, all, every, everything.
apītiḥ (f. nom. sing. apīti): entering into,
dissolving, dissolution.
ca (ind.): and.
bhavati (3rd sing. pres. indic. P. √bhū): is,
becomes, arises.
yaḥ (m. nom. sing. relative pron. yad): who.
evam (ind.): thus, in this way, in such a manner,
such.
veda (3rd sing. pres. indic. P. √vid): knows,
perceives.

28
12

amātraścaturtho’vyavahāryaḥ amātraḥ (m. nom. sing. a mātra): without
prapan͂copaśāmaḥ śivo’dvaita evamoṃkāra measure, boundless.
ātmaiva, saṃviśatyātmanātmānam ya evaṃ caturthaḥ (m. nom. sing. caturtha): fourth.
veda ya evaṃ veda avyavahāryaḥ (m. nom. sing. a vyavahārya; the
fut. pass. p. a vi ava √kṛ): not-to-be-
Without measure is the fourth, not-to-be- practiced; not-to-be-transposed, not-to-
practiced, relief from manifestation, Shiva, be-exchanged.
non-dual. Thus, Om-making, the self indeed prapan͂copaśāmaḥ (m. nom. sing. prapan͂ca-
enters into the self by the self. One who thus upaśāma, TP. comp.): relief from
perceives, thus perceives. expansion/manifestation/appearance;
tranquility of
expansion/manifestation/appearance.
prapan͂ca (grammar not specified; from
√pac or √pan͂c): expansion,
development, manifestation;
manifoldness, diversity; appearance,
phenomenon.
upaśāmaḥ (m. nom. sing. upa śāma):
relief, alleviation; calmness,
tranquility.
śivaḥ (m. nom. sing. śiva): Shiva; auspicious,
favourable, benevolent; happiness,
welfare.
advaitaḥ (m. nom. sing. a dvaita): non-dual;
sole, unique, having no duplicate.
evam (ind.): thus, in this way, in such a manner,
such.
oṃkāraḥ (mn. nom. sing. om-kāra): Om-making.
om (ind.): Om; the sacred syllable, an
auspicious salutation.
kāraḥ (m. nom. sing. kāra; from √kṛ):
making, doing.
ātmā (m. nom. sing. ātman; from √an, √at, or
√vā): the self.
eva (ind.): so, indeed, truly, only.
saṃviśati (3rd sing. pres. indic. sam √viś):
(he/she/it) enters into.
ātmanā (m. inst. sing. ātman; from √an, √at, or
√vā): by/with the Self.
ātmānam (m. acc. sing ātman; from √an, √at,
or √vā): the self.
yaḥ (m. nom. sing. relative pron. yad): who.
evam (ind.): thus, in this way, in such a manner,
such.
veda (3rd sing. pres. indic. P. √vid): knows,
perceives.
yaḥ (m. nom. sing. relative pron. yad): who.

29
evam (ind.): thus, in this way, in such a manner,
such.
veda (3rd sing. pres. indic. P. √vid): knows,
perceives.

30